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Patha – Cissampelos pareira

Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Introduction of Patha Cissampelos pareira – 

  • Botanical name of Patha is Cissampelos pareira.
  • Family of Patha is Menispermaceae.

Dravya Guna is an important limb of padachatushtaya.  From the ancient period onwards the human beings are using the plants even for health protection.  In all medical branch the majority of drugs used are of plant origin. In Vedic period itself the importance of Patha was mentioned. Coming to other literatures of Ayurveda upto modern era shows the importance of Patha as a medicinal drug in various Ayurvedic preparations.

The drug Patha (Common source- Cissampelos pareira) is a fairly common plant of the warm dry mesophytic regions of tropical and sub-tropical India, up to an altitude of about 1500 M. It belongs to the family Menispermaceae.

Derived from the Latin name

Cissempelus = Ciss = Ivy

Ampeloc = Vine (Resembling Ivy in rambling habit and Vine)

Pareira = Chondrodenron tomentosum (hairy)

It  is known by different names like Patha, Ambashtha, Pracheena, Shreyasi, Ekastheela, Deepani, Varatiktata etc. The plant appears to have been long in use as a bitter tonic and diuretic in North and South India. It has actions like – Stanyashodana, Krimighna, Bhagna sandhanakrit, Raktashodhaka, Vishaghna, Deepana, Mutrala, Balya etc.

 

LITERARY VIEW ON Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • In Vedic literature ‘Patha’ is described as ‘Pata’.
  • Various synonyms are also mentioned like: – Uttanaparna, Devajuta, Sahamana, Sahiyas  and Sahasvat.
  • In Vedic texts it is quoted as – Viryavati, Vishaghna, Medhya, Kamya and Garbhasthapana.
  • Rig-Veda delineates it as Vajikarana.
  • In Atharvaveda- it is utilized for improving the I.Q and for conquering the opponents during debates.
  • Sayana considered it as Uttanaparna.
  • Chakradatta recommends it in Jwara with Atisara and in internal inflammations.
  • Patha Dvaya (two types) has been mentioned in Charaka Samhita. Susruta and Vagbhata has not mentioned two types of Patha, they have mentioned only Patha. Charaka has mentioned it in Tikta Skandha dravyas.
  • Raja Nighantu mentions it to be useful in setting fractures. i.e “Bhagna Sandhanakrit”.
  • Astangahridayam includes piles as a condition in which Patha is useful.

TYPES AND VARIETIES OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Usually two kinds of the drug has been mentioned namely-

  1. Patha- Cissampelos Pareira
  2. Raja Patha- Cyclea Peltata.

In Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana (18/39), two varieties of Patha is mentioned as “Patha Dvaya” in Trayooshanadi ghitam, both belonging to the family menispermaceae.

The leaves of Rajapatha are considered to be big in size than Patha.

In some texts some species of another genus Sephania are claimed as Rajapatha namely – Stephania glabra Miers and Stephania Japonica Miers. Some others consider stephania hernandifolia as ‘Patha’. Of all these Stephania hernandifolia is fairly common in Western Ghats. In Kerala Cyclea Peltata is considered as PATHA where as in Karnataka, usually Cissampelos Pareira is considered as Patha.

SYNONYMS OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Patha, Ambashtha, Varatikta, Abiddhakarni, Piluphala, Papachelika, Prachina, Kuchelika, Ekashthila, Shreyasi, Deepani, Tiktapushpa, Devi, Sthapini, Patika, Vriddhikarnika, Vraki, Brihatikta, Trishira, Malavi, Yutha, Malati, Ekaishika, Vrischikali, Vara, Rasa, Trivrita, Vidhakarni, Susthira, Pratanini, Atisaranashini.

INTERPRETATION OF SYNONYMS OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • Patha – Many people praise its qualities.
  • Ambastha – It provides protection to health like mother.
  • Papachelika – It acts as Vatashamaka.
  • Viddhakarni – It have peltate leaves.
  • Shreyashi – It is a much praised herb.
  • Sthapani – It is useful in Vasti Karma.
  • Prachinya – Mentioned in ancient literature or it is used long back.
  • Varatikta –   Has strong bitter taste.
  • Tikta pushpa – Flowers also bitter in taste.
  • Piluphata – Fruits are yellow in color.
  • Atisaranashini – Used in Atisara (dysentery).

GANAS OR VARGAS OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • Charaka Samhita – Stanya shodhana, Jwarahara, Sandhaniya.
  • Susruta Samhita – Ambashthadi, Aragvadhadi, Pippalyadi, Brihatyadi, Mustadi, Patoladi.
  • Vagbhata (Ashtangahridayam)- Mustadi, Aragvadhadi, Ambashthadi, Patoladi, Vatsakadi.
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Ausadhi varga.
  • Dhanwantari Nighantu – Guduchyadi varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Pippalyadi varga
  • Bhava Prakasha Nighantu – Guduchyadi varga
  • Priya Nighantu – Pippalyadi varga

VERNACUALR  NAMES OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • English – False pareira brava, Velvet – leaf
  • Hindi – Akauadi, Dakhnirbissi, Harjeuri, Pari, Parh, Padh
  • Kannada – Hade balli
  • Malayalam – Kattuvalli, Pattuvalli
  • Bengali – Akanadi, Ekleja, Nemuka, Tejomalla.
  • Tamil – Appatta, Punaittitta, Sina, Tavan, Vattattituppi.
  • Telugu – Adivihankatige, Pata, Visaboddi.
  • Bombay – Pahadmul, Pahadvel, Venivel.
  • Gujarati – Venivel, Kari Path, Karadhiya, Fangiyun, Bong.
  • Marathi – Padavali, Padavel, Pahadvel, Paharmul, Paharvel.
  • Punjab – Bat, Batidupath, Bel, Kahri, Parbik, Pataki, Tikri.
  • Goa – Parayet.
  • Madagascar – Ravinbury, Vahenusy.
  • Nepal – Butul Poti.
  • East Africa – Kinukadjio.
  • French – Faux Pareira brava, Liane a glacer, Liane a serpents.
  • Mexico – Oreja de raton.
  • Portugeese – Abutua, Pareira brava.
  • Spanish – Buttua, Pareira brave.
  • Brazil – Abutua.
  • Peru – Abuta, burbasco, Sanago.

SYSTEMIC CLASSIFICATION OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • KINGDOM – Plantae
  • SUB KINGDOM – Spermatophyta.
  • DIVISION – Angiospermia.
  • CLASS – Dicotyledonae.
  • SUB-CLASS – Thalamiflorae.
  • NATURAL ORDER – Menispermaceae.
  • GENUS- Cissampelos.
  • SPECIES – Pareira.
  • FAMILY- Menispermaceae

The family menispermaceae is commonly known as the moon seed family. It includes about 70 genera and 400 species.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

The root, stem and leaf contains various alkaloids.

Root- Root bark has 11 quaternary alkaloids, menismine, cossamine, Pareirine, 1- bebeerine, hyatinin, hayatin,isochondrodendrine; 5 tertiary alkaloids, alkaloid (+ + )- 4”-0- methylcurine, ½ % Cissampelline.

Leaves- Cycleanine, 1-bebeerine, hayalidine, hayatinine, hayatine, Laudanosine, nuciferine, bulbocarpine, corytoberine, masnoflorine, Quercitol.

Stem- Hayatin, L-curine, d-isochondro dendrine, laudanosine, nuciferine, bulbocarpine, corytoberine, magnoflorine.

Whole plant- Cissampareine.

Plant extract- Saponin.

Roots also yield an essential oil (0.2 %) containing thymol a fixed oil, a sterol.

PHYTO CHEMICAL STUDIES OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Isolation of laudanosine, nuciferine, bulbocapnine, corytuberine and magnoflorine; a new antileukaenic tropoloisoauinoline alkaloid- parierubrine isolated and its structure established by x-ray analysis; isolation and structure elucidation of two azafluoranthene alkaloids norimeluteine and norruffscine; pareirubrines. A (earlier designated as pareirubrine) and B isolated as antileukaemic compounds and their structures determined by x-ray analysis; grandirubrine and isomerubrine also isolated.

Biological Activity of Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Norimeluteine (3.6 Mg / ml) and Norruffscine (5.8 Mg / ml) showed Cytotoxic activity against P- 388 cells.

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • Rasa- Tikta
  • Guna- Laghu, Teekshna
  • Veerya- Ushna
  • Vipaka- Katu
  • Doshaghnata- Tridosha Shamana, Kapha Pitta Shamaka

ACTIONS OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • Stanya Shodhana
  • Rakta Shodhaka
  • Vrana ropana
  • Deepana
  • Pachana
  • Bhagna Sandhanakrita
  • Grahi
  • Krimighna
  • Galagraha
  • Mutrala
  • Jwaraghna
  • Dahaprashamana
  • Balya
  • Kandughna
  • Chhardi nigrahana
  • Hridya
  • Shoolahara
  • Artavajanana
  • Vastishodhaka
  • Sandhanakari
  • Atisara-shoolaghna
  • Prajasthapana
  • Kushtaghna
  • Sothahara
  • Arshoghna
  • Sukha Prasavakara

USES OR INDICATIONS OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

  • Kushtha
  • Atisara, Pravahika
  • Udarashoola
  • Jwara
  • Chhardi
  • Hridroga
  • Daha
  • Kandoo
  • Shwasa
  • Mudhagarbha
  • Rajayakshma
  • Shiroroga
  • Ardhavabhedaka
  • Antarvidradhi
  • Kasa
  • Gulma
  • Vrana
  • Mutra Vikara
  • Aruchi
  • Ajirna
  • Rakta Vikara
  • Hridaya Vikara
  • Sheeta jwara – Jwaratisara
  • Shoola roga
  • Stanya dusti
  • Visha
  • Krimi
  • Gara Varna
  • Prameha, lavana meha
  • Arsha
  • Mala vikara
  • Vrikka Roga
  • Nadi vrana
  • Dusta vrana
  • Agnimandya
  • Shotha
  • Basti Sotha, Mutrakrichchha
  • Plihodara
  • Dourbalya
  • Kashta prasava

PRAYOGA (USES) OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

External Uses

Being wound healer, antidote an kushthaghna, paste of leaves and root is used in fistula, pruritis, skin disorders and snake poison. Juice or powdered roots are used as a Nasya in ardhavabhedaka.

Internal Uses

  1. Pachana Samsthana (Digestive System)- Being an appetizer, digestive laxative astringent and anthelmintic, it is useful in anorexia, indigestion, abdominal pain, diarrhea & dysentery.
  2. Raktavaha Samsthana (Circulatory System)- It is a blood purifier and has anti-inflammatory property. So it is used in blood disorders, heart disorders and inflammation.
  3. Shasana Samsthana (Respiratory System)- Being an expectorant it is used in cough and dyspnoea.
  4. Prajanana Samsthana (Reproductive System)- Since it purifies breast milk it is used in various disorders of breast milk secretion.
  5. Mutravaha Samthana (Urinary System)- Potent diuretic, hence useful in cystitis, dysuria and haematuria
  6. Twak Samthana (Skin)- Kushthaghna, Useful in skin disorders.
  7. Tapakrama (Temperature)- Being febrifuge and refrigerant, it is used in sheeta jwara, fever related diarrhea and burning disorders.

THERAPEUTIC USES OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Jwara-

  • Kwatha of Patha, Ushira and bala acts as digestive in fever.
  • Patha moola swarasa taken at morning for 3 days.

Atsisara- 

  • Dry lonika and patha cooked with curd and pomegranate and added with profuse fat given in food (CS.Ci.19.33).
  • Ankota mool and patha patra with buffalo’s buttermilk.
  • Patha or Amra bark pounded with cow’s curd also burning sensation of diarrhoea (BP Ci .2/42).

Arshas- 

  • Patha combined with any one of Duralabha, Bilva, Yavani and Shunthi destroys piles (CS.Ci.14/100).
  • Buttermilk added with patha carminates wind and faeces (AH.Ci.8.61).

Odema-

  • Liquid gruel cooked with patha and pancakola.

Prameha- 

  • For lavanameha, patha kwatha and aguru.
  • In sarpimeha, patha churna, kutaia,hingu, katuka and kustha churna with guduyi kvath and citraka kwatha. (V.M.35/12).

Internal abscess- 

  • Patha mula mixed with honey and taken with rice water.

Wound- 

  • In wound caused by kapha, Patha patra, murva, guduci, kakamaci, haridra, and sukanara is used for covering. (SS.Ci.1/115)

Sukhaprasava- 

  • Applying patha, tulasi, vara, apamurga and kutaja kalka separately on umblicur, pelvis and vulva (VM.65/12).
  • Taking patha patra pounded with breast milk and water relieves pain during labour.

Galacto- depurant- Patha is used.

Hemicrania- Relieved by taking patha root snuff.

Spleenomeguly- Intake of sweta punarnava moola or patha or guduchi pounded with rice-water.

Pimples- Patha moola kwatha wash.

Scabies, septic ulcers- Kalka of leaves.

Ajirna- Gutika prepared from patha moola, maricha, hingu and ardraka (Ratio 4:5:3:6) mixed with honey.

Eye disorees- Swarasa is applied.

Minor injuries- Swarasa with jaggery and egg internally.

Kushtha- madhvasava prepared by patha, lodhra, ativisha, chitraka etc.

For improving digestion- 

  • Phalarishta prepared by fruit of patha, amlaki, harithaki, kapittha etc. will increase digestion.
  • Patha along with dhanyaka and bala used to process food.

DOSAGE OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Decoction- 50-100 ml.

Churna- 1/2- 1 gm.

Gangadhara churna- 500 mg- 4 gm.

Kutajashtaka kwatha- 20 ml to 60 ml.

PRAYOJYANGA (PARTS USED) OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

 Moola (root), patra (leaf)

VISISTA YOGA  (PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS) OF Patha Cissampelos Pareira

Gangadhara Churna, Kutajashtaka Kwatha, Shaddharana Yoga, Pushyanuga Churna, Pradarantaka Churna, Saraswata Ghrita, Brihat Gangadhara Churna, Stanyashodhana Kashaya churna, Pathadi Taila, Pathadi Churna, Usirasava, Mahatiktaka Ghrita, Manjishthadi Churna, Ashta vimshaka gana kwatha, Patoladi Kwatha, Jayant Vati, Jeerakadya Churna, Kanakasundara Rasa, Naga mayura Churna

SUBSTITUENTS AND ADULTERANTS

  1. Cyclea Peltata- Usually used in South India.
  1. Stephania heenandifolia- Used in Nepal to Chittagong, Singapore and Ceylon.

Photographs of Patha Cissampelos Pareira

High quality images can be found at theferns.info