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Musali – Asparagus adscendens

Musali Asparagus adscendens is a medicinal plant. It is known by different names in Ayurveda, such as – Talamuli, Musali, Chamara Musali etc. Musali Asparagus adscendens is known for its aphrodisiac property which enhances sexual power. The Ayurvedic classics mention two varieties of Musali viz. Shweta (white) and Krishna (black). The word Musali alone denotes the white variety, which is commonly used. The white variety is commonly known as Safed Musali and the black variety as Kali Musali. Though the black varieties are supposed to the superior in properties, both the varieties have, more or less, similar properties and uses. In this article both are described together.

Literary Review

  • In the Vedas, the descriptions regarding the plant Musali Asparagus adscendens is not available.
  • Description of Musali Asparagus adscendens is not available in Charaka Samhita and Ashtanga Hridayam.
  • In Sushruta Samhita, Musali Asparagus adscendens is mentioned in Chikitsa sthana 7th chapter and Uttara Sthana 51st chapter. Sushruta has mentioned the therapeutic efficiency of Musali.
  • Raja Nighantu, Bhavaprakash Nighantu, Priya Nighantu and Kaiyadev Nighantu has given synonyms, guna (properties) and karma (actions) of Musali Asparagus adscendens.
  • In Danwantari Nighantu the plant Musali is not mentioned.

Types & Varieties

Musali is classified into two types:

  1. Kali Musali – Curculigo Orchioides Gaerttu (Amaryllidaceae)
  1. Safed Musali – Asparagus Adscendens Roxb (Liliaceae)

Also, following varieties of Safed Musali is found –

  1. Chlorophytum Laxum Br.
  2. Chlorophytum Tuberosum Baker
  3. Ampelocissus Araneosa Planch (Vitaceae)

Tala muli is a Sanskrit synonym of Kali Musali.

Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Musali Asparagus adscendens plant has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Shveta
  • Talapatrika – Resembles roots like that of tala (Taal)
  • Dholi
  • Hiranya Pushpee
  • Godhapadi
  • Karjuri
  • Bhutali – Ground Palm
  • Kalini
  • Samaraja – Its stem is deep reddish colour
  • Talapatri – Leaves resemble tender leaves of tala
  • Tejaraja – Its mucilaginous taste
  • Vrushakanda
  • Bhoraja – stem of plant flat and divided by grooves into 3 columns
  • Mousali – Cut the doshas and cure diseases
  • Musali – It destroys Guda (rectum) and vata roga
  • Madavruksha
  • Talamuli – Resembles root like Tala
  • Vrukshakanda
  • Suvaha
  • Talamulika – Resembles root like tala
  • Godhapadi
  • Soukari
  • Hemapushpee – Rootstock long, tuberous and flower bright yellow
  • Mahapushpa
  • Kanchana Puspika
  • Varahi – Tuberous underground portion of plant is dug up by boar of eating
  • Kamaraja – A reddish brown tuberous root, strongly astringent
  • Deergha Kandika – Resembles roots like that of tala
  • Uchchata

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorised under Varga and Gana. Like wise Musali Asparagus adscendens comes under –

According to Priya Nighantu – Saradi varga

According to Prof P.V. Sharma – Vrushyadi varga, Sukrajanana gana

Vernacular Names

Musali Asparagus adscendens is known by different names in different languages. Have a look below –

  • Sanskrit – Musali
  • English – Musali
  • Hindi – Musali, Hazar Muli, Shatavari, Shatmuli
  • Marathi – Safed Musali
  • Gujarati – Dholi Musali, Ujali Musali
  • Malayalam – Tannir Vettang, Shedeveli
  • Punjabi – Syahoo Musali
  • Bengali – Dholi Musali, Talamuli
  • Kannada – Bili Musali
  • Tamil – Nilapana, Nilappanaikkilanku
  • Oriya – Talamuli, Talamulika

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Phenerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Monocotyledons
  • Subclass – Liliforae
  • Nature order/ Family – Liliaceae
  • Genus – Asparagus
  • Species – Adscendens

Useful Parts

The useful part of Musali Asparagus adscendens for medicinal purpose Mula (roots).

Dosage

Churnas (root powder) – 3 – 6 gm

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug are described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Musali Asparagus adscendens –

  • Rasa – Madura
  • Guna – Guru, Snigdha
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Madhura
  • Doshaghnata – Vata Pitta Shamaka, Kapha Vardhaka

Indications of Musali Asparagus adscendens

Musali Asparagus adscendens is indicated in following diseases –

  • Arsha (piles), Dourbalya (debility or weakness), Asthi Bhanga (bone fracture), Kamala (jaundice), Shula (Abdominal colic and pain), Mutrakrichchha (dysuria), Pravahika (diarrhoea) Atisara (dysentery) etc.

External Uses

  • Musali prepared as a paste with goats milk or honey and applied locally increases complexion of face or skin.

Internal Uses

  • 1 Tola (12 gm) Musali Churna mixed with equal quantity of sugar if taken with milk helps to cure the Napusmakata (impotency), Pradara (menstrual disorders), Svapnasrava (nocturnal emission/ nightfall), Atisara (dysentery), Pravahika (diarrhoea) etc.
  • Badhiryam (Deafness) – Churna of Musali and bakuchi to be taken with Ghee or honey.
  • For Mukhakanti (face glow), as a cosmetic to brighten the complexion of the face, Musali prepared as a paste with goats milk or honey and applied locally over the face.
  • Vrushyam (aphrodisiac) – Musali powder to be taken with Ghee followed by milk.
  • Aphrodisiac – Powder of Musali root, Guduchi satva, Kapikachchhu, Gokshura, Shalmali and Amalaki are milxed together in the proper ratio. It is mixed with milk added with Ghee and taken orally. This formula helps to arouse sexual urge.
  • Tubers boiled in milk and sugar are used in Spermatorrhoea, Chronic Leucorrhea, also in Diarrhoea, Dysentery and general debility.

Pharmaceutical Preparations

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Musali Asparagus adscendens. A few are listed below –

  • Musali Paka

Photographs of Musali

(Click on image to zoom)

Curculigo orchioides
Curculigo orchioides

image – Ravi Vaidyanathan

Chlorophytum borivilianum
Chlorophytum borivilianum

image by Dinesh Valke

Chlorophytum tuberosum
Chlorophytum tuberosum

image by Dinesh Valke

Chlorophytum borivilianum
Chlorophytum borivilianum

image by Dinesh Valke

Chlorophytum tuberosum
Chlorophytum tuberosum

image by Shubhada Nikharge

chlorophytum borivilianum
chlorophytum borivilianum

image source – merinews.com

Musali Asparagus adscendens

image source – slideshare.net

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Patranga – Caesalpinia sappan

Introduction of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 3Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is a medicinal plant. It is used in various diseases related to mouth, menorrhagia and other menstrual problems, burning sensantion and skin diseases. The recent researches found that Patranga Caesalpinia sappan shows analgesic, anti-diabetic and antibacterial effects.

  • Botanical Name of Patranga is Patranga Caesalpinia sappan Linn.
  • Family Name of Patranga is Caesalpinaceae.

Literary Review

The drug Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is not mentioned in Vedas. Brihatrayi and almost all the Nighantu mentioned clear picture of this drug.

  • Acharya Charaka mentioned it under Shuka dhanya Varga and considered it as a Shali bheda (type) by the name “Patranga”. Charaka mentioned that Patranga Caesalpinia sappan has Sheeta veerya and Madhura Vipaka and indicated in diseases of mother and shukra dushya (related to semen and menses).
  • Acharya Sushruta and Acharya Vagbhatta categorized Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under the name ‘Patranga’ in Shuka dhanya Varga.
  • Acharya Vagbhatta described it with Madhura rasa and Madhura vipaka. It is useful in diseases like mutrakrichha (dysuria), vibandha (constipation) etc.
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu mentioned Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Chandanadi varga and quoted synonyms like Kuchandana, patanga, patranga etc. It is having kashaya, tikta and madhura rasa with katu vipaka.
  • Raja Nighantu mentioned Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Chandanadi varga with synonyms as Patranga, Raktakashta, Suranga. It subsides vata pittaj jvara, visphota, Unmada.
  • Bhavaprakasha nighantu categorized Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Karpuradi varga. It subsides pitta-kapha and vrana and daha.
  • Priya Nighantu explained it under saradi varga and having kashaya rasa and sheeta veerya with synonyms as Patanga, Rudhira, suranga etc.
  • Kaiyadeva nighantu mentions it under chandanadi varga and is useful in diseases like vrana (wound) and daha (burning sensation).
  • Madanapala nighantu explains it under karpuradi varga. He mentions synonyms as kuchandana, pattara, suranga etc. with shita veerya, pitta kapha hara and vranaghna.

Sanskrit Synonyms

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan has many Sanskrit synonyms. Have a look below –

  • Patanga – The plant which grows well.
  • Kuchandana – The plant which is characterized by its heart wood looking like Sandal.
  • Patranga – The plant which is covered with rich foliage.
  • Patradya – The plant which has rich foliage.
  • Pattaranjaka – The plant is used for dyeing cloths.
  • Raktasara – Heart wood yields red dye.
  • Ranjana – It is used in dyeing purpose.
  • Suranjam – It yields red dye.

Classical Categorization 

In Ayurveda, Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is categorized as follows –

  • Charaka Samhita – Shuka dhanya varga
  • Ashtanga hridayam – Shuka dhanya varga
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Karpuradi varga
  • Madanapala Nighantu – Karpuradi varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Shodhala Nighantu – Sukadhanya varga
  • Priya Nighantu – Saradi varga

Names in Different Languages

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is known by various names in different languages.

  • English – Sappan wood, Brazil wood
  • Hindi – Patanga, Bakam
  • Kannada – sappange
  • Malayalam – Cappannam, Sappannam
  • Sanskrit – Patrangah, Patangah
  • Tamil – Sapamga, Patamgam
  • Telugu – Bakarucakka, Vakamu
  • Marathi – Patang
  • Persian – Bakam
  • Arabic – Baggam
  • Gujarati – Patanga
  • Bengali – Bakam
  • Urdu – Bakam
  • Malayalam – Davan setjang, Sepang
  • Odiya – Bakomo

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub kingdom – Tracheobionata
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Sub division – Spermatophyta
  • Class – Magndiopsida
  • Sub class – Rosidae
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabeaceae
  • Genus – Caesalpinia
  • Species – Sappan

Useful Parts

Heart wood

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan.

  • Rasa – Kashaya, Tikta, Madhura
  • Guna – Ruksha
  • Virya – Shita
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Dosha karma – Kapha pitta shamaka

 

Actions (Karma)

Many Ayurvedic classics described actions of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan. Below are a few collection –

  • Artava Sangrahaniya (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 118/222)
  • Shonit asthapana (Susrutha samhita sutra 14/36)
  • Pramehaghna (Charaka chikista sthana 6/10)
  • Kushthaghna (Raja Marthanda 5/20)
  • Daha prashamana (Bhavaprakasha Nighantu)
  • Mastishka samaka (Ashtanga Hridaya Uttara 17/28)
  • Stambhana (Charaka chikistasthana 4/14)
  • Vrana ropana (Priya Nighantu)
  • Rakta stambhana (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 118/200)
  • Sugandhi (Sushruta samhita sutrastana 14/36)

Indications

Likewise, Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is indicated as follows in various classics –

  • Raktapradara (menorrhea)
  • Sveta pradara (leucorrhea)
  • Prameha (diabetes and other urine related problems)
  • Kushtha (skin ailments)
  • Daha (burning sensation)
  • Unmada (insanity)
  • Raktapitta (bleeding disorder)
  • Vrana (wound)
  • Pittaja jvara (fever where Pitta is dominated)
  • Rohini (diphtheria)
  • Mukha roga (oral diseases)

Pharmaco-therapeutic uses

  • Heart wood of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is used for blood purifying, anti-thirst, anti-diabetic and for improvement of complexion.
  • Patranga Caesalpinia sappan cures Jaundice and cough.
  • It is good for respiratory ailments and cures wound.
  • It has the capacity to cure Blood Pressure and Heart diseases.
  • The seeds of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan plant are used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.
  • It cures amenorrhea, dysmenorrheal, blood stasis after delivery, pricking pain in chest and abdomen, traumatic swelling and pain.
  • Decoction of wood and bark is used for Tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, tonic and for skin.

Dosage

  • Decoction – 50 – 100 ml
  • Oil – 5 – 15 drops
  • Powder – 1-2 gm

 

Ayurvedic Medicines

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Patranga Caesalpinia sappan. A few are listed below –

  • Patrangasava
  • Patrangadi Lepa

Photographs of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan

(Click on image to zoom)

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 2

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 3

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 4

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 1

(Image source – theferns.info)

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Kasamarda – Cassia occidentalis

Introduction of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis 

kasamarda7Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is a medicinal plant mainly used in respiratory problems like cough, asthma, bronchitis etc. As the word Kasa refers to cough, and marda to end or to cure in Ayurveda, Kasamarda Cassia occidentalisis hence a drug of choice for all types of cough.

  • Botanical Name of Kasamarda is Cassia occidentalis.
  • Family Name of Kasamarda is Caeselpiniaceae.

Literary Review of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis  

  • Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is mentioned in various Ayurvedc classics where its properties and uses has been described.
  • Maharshi Charaka mentioned it under Surasadi gana, also denoted as best drug for kasa (cough), Shwasa (asthma), Hikka (hiccup) etc.
  • Kaiyadeva nighantu mentions that Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is useful in diseases like kasa (cough) and  swarabheda (hoarseness of voice).
  • Bhava Prakasha nighantu mentioned Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis as Rochaka (increases taste), vrishyakara (aphrodisiac), grahi (astringent), pitta hara (pacify Pitta dosha) and Kasa hara (cures cough).
  • Raja nighantu describes Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis as best remedy for ajeerna (indigestion) and kantha shodhana (clears voice).
  • Chakradutta mentioned that Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is useful in dadru (a skin disease), kushtha (skin disease), sidhma (a skin disease).

Ayurvedic (Classical) Categorization of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis 

  • Sushruta – Surasadi gana
  • Vagbhatta – Surasadi gana

Names in different languages 

  • Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is known by different names in different languages.
  • English – Fetid Cassia, Negro Coffee, Rubbish Cassia.
  • Hindi – Chakunda, Kasonda, Kasondi, Kasunda.
  • Malyalam – Karintakara, Mattantakara, Peyaviram, Ponnaviram.
  • Telugu – Peddakasinda
  • Tamil – Nattandagarai, Peyavirai, Ponnavirai
  • Gujarati and Marathi – Kasuvayee.
  • Bengali – Kalakasunda.

Systemic Classification 

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis may be classified as below –

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Rosopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Sub-Family – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Genus – Cassia
  • Species – Occidentalis

Useful Parts 

Following parts of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis are useful in Ayurvedic medicines –

  • Mula (Root)
  • Beeja (Seed)
  • Patra (Leaves)

Ayurvedic Properties

  • Rasa – Tikta, Madhura
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Tridosha hara

Therapeutic Uses

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis can be used externally or internally according to the proplems.

  • The paste of root of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis drug is mixed with cow’s urine or cows ghee is suggested to be used in filaria.
  • The kasamarda leaves, shobhanjana and brihati are added with honey is given for alleviation of cough where Kapha dosha is predominated.
  • The soup made up of Kasamarda leaves, shigru, bringaraja and dried radish (moolaka) is taken to alleviate hiccough & asthma.
  • Roots of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis are pounded with sour gruel and the same is applied as paste. It is useful for eradicating ring worm, kitibha and other skin disease.
  • The seeds of  Kasamarda and radish mixed with Gandhaka is an excellent remedy for sidhma kushtha (a skin disease).
  • The paste of kasamarda root pounded with jambira swarasa (lime juice) is an effective medicine for all types of vicharchika (a skin disease).
  • In Shlipada (filaria), root paste of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is mixed with ghee and taken internally.
  • In Vicharcika (a skin disease), root paste of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is mixed with lime juice and applied externally.

Karma (Actions)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is found to perform following actions –

  • Kasaghna (relieves cough)
  • Kaphaghna (pacifies Kapha dosha)
  • Mutrala (diuretic)
  • Kushthaghna (beneficial in skin diseases)
  • Jwaraghna (antipyretic)
  • Vishaghna (good for poison)
  • Akshepa samana (anticonvulsant)
  • Dipana (appetizer)
  • Vatanulomana (pacifies Vata dosha)
  • Pitta saraka (purgative)

Indications 

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is indicated in following diseases –

  • Kasa (cough)
  • Shwasa (asthma, bronchitis)
  • Hikka (hiccup)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetite)
  • Udara roga (abdominal diseases)
  • Pitta vikara (Pitta dominated diseases)
  • Vibandha (constipation)
  • Apasmara (epilepsy)
  • Apatantraka (tetanus)
  • Akshepaka (convulsion)
  • Kushtha (skin diseases)
  • Visarpa (erysipelas)
  • Sleepada (filariasis)
  • Vrana (wound)
  • Dadru (a skin disease)
  • Mutra Krichha (dysuria)
  • Ikshu Meha (a urine disease)

Dosage

  • Root Decoction – 40 – 80 ml
  • Seed Powder –  3 – 6 gm
  • Leaf Juice – 10 – 20 ml

Ayurvedic Medicine

Many Ayurvedic medicines are available in market where Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is used as an ingredient. A few are listed below –

  • Guduchyadi Ghritam
  • Kasamardadi Ghritam
  • Vasaharitaki Leha

Photographs of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(click on image to zoom)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image Source – wikimedia.org

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(Image source – theferns.org)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – wikimedia.org

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – westafricanplants.senckenberg.de

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – 101herbs.com

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – jimbotany.com

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(image source – flickr.com)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(Image source – theferns.org)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(Image source – theferns.org

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(Image source – theferns.org)

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Tintidika – Rhus parviflora

Introduction of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Tintidika Rhus parviflora is a medicinal plant used in anorexia, heart diseases, musculo-skeletal diseases etc. It is used externally or internally.

  • Botanical name of Tintidika is Rhus parviflora.
  • Family name of Tintidika is Anacardiaceae.

tintidika rhus parviflora

(Image source – tasteofnepal.blogspot.in)

 

Vernacular Names (Names in different languages) of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Tintidika Rhus parviflora has different names in different regions and languages.

  • Sanskrit – Tintidika
  • Hindi – Samakdan
  • English – Sumac
  • Marathi – Samaka Kadana
  • Nepali – Satibair
  • Punjabi – Khatte Masoor
  • Kashmir – Samak

 

Systemic Classification of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub-kingdom – Tracheobionta-vascular Plants
  • Division – Magnoliophyta-flowering plants
  • Class – Magnoliopsida-Dicotyledons
  • Subclass – Rosidae
  • Order – Sapindales
  • Family – Anacardiaceae
  • Genus – Rhus
  • Species – Parviflora

 

Useful Parts of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Fruits

 

Chemical Constituents of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

It is highly rich in tannin.

 

 

 

Ayurvedic Properties of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

  • Rasa – Amla
  • Guna – Lakhu, Ruksha
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Amla
  • Doshaghnata – Vata hara

 

Actions of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

According to Ayurveda, following actions (Karma) are performed by Tintidika Rhus parviflora in our body –

  • Dipana (appetizer)
  • Grahi (astringent)
  • Hridroga hara (cures heart diseases)
  • Vataroga hara (cures musculo- skeletal diseases)
  • Ama Pachana (digestive)
  • Ruchya

 

Therapeutic Uses of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

  • Fruit juice is credited with vermifuge properties.
  • In toothache the hot infusion used for gargling.
  • In conjunctivitis it is applying in eyes.
  • In case of oedema paste is applied on the affected area.
  • In rhinitis, the paste is applied in forehead.

 

Dosage of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Chrurna – 3 – 6 gm

 

Ayurvedic Medicines –

  • Yavani shadava Churna
  • Pathadi churna
  • Vyoshadi vati

Photographs of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Click on image to enlarge

tintidika rhus parviflora tintidika rhus parviflora tintidika rhus parviflora tintidika rhus parviflora

(Image source – flickr.com 1 2 3 4)

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Eranda – Ricinus communis

Introduction of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Botanical Name of Eranda is Ricinus communis.
  • Family name of Eranda is Euphorbiaceae.

Eranda Ricinus communisEranda is commonly found medicinal with wide use as purgative/ laxative and for Vata disorders (neuro-muscular). The root, leaves, flowers, root bark and seeds, almost whole plant is useful for curing many ailments. Eranda is a ever green glabrous shrub, leaves are palmatly 7-many lobed, oblong to lenear, acute or acuminate.  There are 2 type of Eranda plant, red type (Rakta Eranda) and white type (Shweta Eranda). The oil cake is good manure. Warmed castor oil on being applied relieves joint pains. The non medicinal purpose of oil is used in break fluids in automobile industry.

Literary Review of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Oil obtained from seeds and roots of eranda have been used medicinally by Hindus from a very remote period and is mentioned by Sushruta Samhita. It is Dutt, 1877 who 1st time mentioned in his Materia Medica of the Hindus that the roots of Ricinus communis and the oil obtained from the seeds have been used in medicine by the Hindus from a very remote period. They are mentioned by Sushruta.
  • The two varieties of the plant are referred on the Sushrutha samhitha, under their common names as Rakta eranda and shweta eranda. This plant is also mentioned in Charaka and in Nighantus like Dhanvanthari Nighantu, Madana pala Nighantu, Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Adarsha Nighantu, Bhavaprakasha Nighantu etc.

Types of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  1. Rakta Eranda (Red Variety)
  2. Shweta Eranda (White Variety)

Synonyms of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Eranda
  • Gandharvahastha
  • Panchangula
  • Vyagrapuccha
  • Rubuka
  • Urubuka
  • Chitra
  • Chitrabija
  • Chitraka
  • Vathari
  • Vyadambaka
  • Amanda
  • Vardhamana
  • Vyaghradhala
  • Uttanapathraka
  • Dheergha dhanda
  • Chanchu
  • Hasthikarna
  • Taruna
  • Vyaghra
  • Vyaghra thara
  • Laghu
  • Urabu
  • Vathavairy
  • Chunchula
  • Shukla
  • Rubu
  • Yaksha
  • Hasthaka
  • Gandharva
  • Hasthiparna
  • Lohitha
  • Sheershaka
  • Vyalamba
  • Dindaka
  • Dinda
  • Buka
  • Ribu
  • Vyaghra
  • Pushpa
  • Vyadambaka

Ganas (Ayurvedic Categorisations) of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • According to Charaka – Bhedaniya, Swedopaga, Angamarda Prashamana, Madhura Skandha.
  • According to Sushrua – Vidarigandhadi, Vata Samshamana, Adhobhaga hara.

Vernacular Name of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Eranda is known differently in different language and locale. Followings are various names of Eranda-

  • Sanskrit – Erandah, Rubukah, urubukah, Tribijah, Hastikarnakah, Gaja karnakah, Maha patrab, Gandharva hasta, Panchanguli, Shweteranda, Chitra bija, Vatari, Rubu, Chitraka, Uttana patraka.
  • Assamese – Eri
  • Bengali – Bherenda, Rehri, Bhaerand, Bherenj
  • Bombay – Erendi, Gab
  • Gujarati – Diveligo, Diveli Erandi, Erandah, Divelo.Erandioh, Erandoh, Rendi
  • Hindi – Arand, Arend, Erend, Rendi, Erandah, Andih, Renda Erandih, Jaada
  • Kannada – Haralu, Harlu, Manda, Oudla.
  • Malayalam – Avanakku, Chittamanakku.
  • Marathi – Erandi, Yarandicha, Erandah, Rendi.
  • Nepali – Areta , Alha, Orer.
  • Odia – Gab.
  • Punjabi – Aneru, Arand, Arind.
  • Rajasthani – Edia, Arend.
  • Tamil – Amanakkam, Sittamunuk, Kattai muthu, Chittamant.
  • Telugu – Amadom, Amdi, Eranudapu, Erandama, Amudamu, Erandamu, Amudamuchettu.
  • Arabic – Khriva, khriba.
  • Egyptian – Kiki.
  • English – Castor oil plant, castor.
  • Persian – Ved Anjir.

Systemic Classification of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Phenerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledonae
  • Sub class – Archichlamydae
  • Family – Euphorbiaceae
  • Genus – Ricinus
  • Species – Communis

Useful Parts of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Root, leaves, fruit, seed, flower and oil.

Ayurvedic Properties of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Rasa – Madhura, Katu, Tikta
  • Guna –  Snigdha, Tikshna, Sukshma, Guru
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Madhura
  • Doshagnatha – Kapha Vata Shamaka, Pitta Vardhaka

Chemical Constituents of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Eranda contains fixed oil, Recin, ricinine, glyseroids, ricinolic acids, having purgative actions, stearic acid, hydroxy stearic acid, lipids, phosphatides, arachidic, chlorogenic, oleic, palmitic, hexa decanoic hydrocyanic and uric acids.

Actions of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Vedana sthapana, shoola hara, Angamarda prashamana, deepana, Bhedana, Rechana, Krimighna, hridya, shotha hara, vrishya, stanya janana, shukra shodhana, garbhashaya shodhana, vishaghna, kustaghna, sweda janana, jwaraghna, vataghna, udara rogaghna, Ama vataghna, Vataraktaghna, Udavartaghna, gulmaghna, Arshagna, Arshaghna, Vata Abhishyanda nashana, naktandhya nashana, sleepadaghna, karna shoolaghna, yanishoolagna, hamalaghna, parshwa shoolaghna, kasta baddata nashana, pleehagna, basti shoolaghna, katishoolaghna, kasaghna, swasaghna, Ashmarighna, Pramehaghna, Anahaghna, sthoulyaghna, vranaghna, mutra krichha har etc.

Indications of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Root bark has emetic and purgative action and cures lumbago skin diseases, dyspnoea, hydrocele, flatulence, piles, cough, head ache, leprosy, arthritis, renal calculus, dysuria, fever, swelling, mental diseases.

Eranda Seeds cure hepatitis. Tender leaves allay pain in the urinary bladder.

The roots of Eranda are sweet, acrid, astrigent, thermogenic, carmative, purgative, anti-helmintic, emollient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, galactagogue, sudorific and expectorant. It also cures gulma, constipation, inflammations, fever, ascitis, strangury, bronchities, cough, leprosy, skin diseases, vitiated conditions of vata, colic, tail bone pain and lumbago.

Leaves are diuretic, anti-helmintic, galactagogue and cures burns, vitiated conditions of Vata like rheumatoid arthritis, urodynia and musculo skeletal pain. Leaves externally applied to boils and sores in the farm of poultis.

Flowers cures urodynia and glandular tumors.

Oil obtained from seeds is slightly bitter, acrid, sweet, antipyretic, thermogenic and purgative.

 

Dosage of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Root powder –  10 – 20 gm

Purified Seed – 2-5 seeds.

Oil –  5 – 20 ml.

 

Purification of Eranda seeds – 

For purification of Eranda Seeds fomentation (in Dola Yantra) is done in coconut water for 3 hours and washed with water and dried under sunshine.

Therapeutic Uses of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • A poultice of the crushed seeds is used to reduce gouty and rheumatic swelling, inflammation of the breasts of women during lactation. Leaves have similar property but in lesser degree.
  • The root bark is used as a purgative.
  • Roots are administered in the form of a decoction (kwatha) for lumbago and allied complaints. It is also applied in the form of a paste for tooth ache. Root bark is reported to be a strong purgative.
  • Leaves are also used in the form of a poultice for fomentation on sores, boils and swellings.
  • Leaves coated with oil and warmed are commonly applied over the abdomen to give relief in flatulence in children.
  • Leaves are considered as galactogogue and are applied as poultice over the breasts or taken internally in the form of juice. An infusion of the leaves is used for stomach ache.
  • Crushed leaves are said to give relief in caries & are applied over guinea warm to extract the warm.
  • Castor oil is often given orally. It is also used as an abortifaciant & ricinolic acid present is used in contraceptive jellies & creams.
  • It is also applied externally as emollient in seborrhic dermatitis and other cutaneous infections.
  • Warmed castor oil is applied and gently massaged over joints to relieve pain.
  • Seeds are antidote for scorpion and fish poisoning.
  • Leaves are applied to the head to get relief from headache.
  • Decoction of the roots with other drugs is given in various conditions of nervine disorders, joints and muscular disorders.
  • Paste of the seeds first boiled in milk and water and then given orally in case of Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis), Gridhrasi (sciatica) and Vatarakta (gout).
  • In fever along with pravahika (diarrhea), Eranda moola (roots) is boiled in milk and reduced to one fourth to make its decoction is used internally.
  • In Shoola (abdominal colic), decoction made up of Eranda mula and shunti is prepared and hingu, souvarchala lavana is added. This decoction is given orally.
  • In Arsha (piles), eranda tail along with triphala kwathais used orally.

Pharmaceutical Preparations of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Eranda paka
  • Eranda Muladi kwatha
  • Eranda Saptaka kwatha
  • Rasna Erandadi kwatha
  • Erandadi kwatha
  • Gandharva hastadi erandam tail
  • Eranda tail

Adulterants of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Castor oil is some times adulterated with rosin oil, blown oils and other oils like ground nut, coconut oil, sesame oil, Cotton seed oil and poppy seed oils. Commercial oils such as ground nut, sesame and linseed seeds are some times adulterated with the comparatively cheaper castor oil, has been occasionally found as an adulterant in essential oils such as those of vetiver, clove, eucalyptus and lemon.

Photographs of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis

(Image Source – Theferns.info)

 

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Bhanga – Cannabis sativa

Introduction to Bhanga (Cannabis sativa)-

  • Botanical Name of Bhanga is Cannabis sativa.
  • Family of Bhanga is cannabinacae.

Ayurveda, science of life needs basically the knowledge of drugs comprehensively for the purpose of therapeutics, Pharmaceutics and the objects of preservation of health, prevention of diseases and curative measures. Works on the particular medical plants are going on for the consolidation, compilation and presentation of material that is related to the particular drugs in the English medicine, by combining the Sanskrit explanation of the drug with the modern pharmacognosy.

bhanga - cannabis sativaHere is an article on medicinal plant Bhanga (cannabis sativa) is presented to you. The drug has been mentioned from the Vedic period itself in the name of “Vijaya” in therapeutics. Recent studies on this drug have proved its role in the therapeutic as antispasmodic, anesthetic, aphrodisiac, appetizer, expectorant etc. Also, the plant carries Ethno-botanical importance, which also included its use in religion purpose like in the worship of lord Shiva.

Cultivation and import and export of the drug and related products are under the license of Govt. of India, as per legislative procedures.

 

Literary Review of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) is the drug famous for its Narcotic resin. In classics this drug is famous by the name Bhanga, Vijaya etc. There is no exact reference told in Samhitas like Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridayam does not include in the therapeutics but the use of the drug beings from the Nighantu period.

  • Bhavaprakasha mentions the therapeutic effect of the drug in Atisaradhikara chapter.
  • Raja nighantu gives the effects and therapeutic uses of Bhanga.
  • In the Shodala nighantu, there is a reference of Bhanga.
  • In Nasadhikara, Bhavaprakasha mentioned the therapeutic use of Bhanga.
  • Chakradatta mentioned in the kushtha chikitsa, it is having the property of removing the external germs.
  • In modern texts of medicinal plants there is a wide explanation of drug (cannabis sativa) for its narcotic utilities.

Systemic Classification of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub kingdom – Phenerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledon
  • Subclass – Monochlamydeae
  • Series – Unisexuales
  • Order – urticales
  • Family – Cannabinaceae
  • Genus – Cannabis
  • Species – Sativa

Vernacular Names of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga (cannabis sativa) has different name in different locale and language, have a look below –

  • Arabic – Hinab, Kanab, Kinnab, Naba tulqunenals
  • Assami – Dai ma
  • Bengal – Bhang, Ganja, Sidhi
  • Burma – Ben, Bin, Sechaub, Sejarbim
  • Kannada – Bhangi, Bhangigida, Bhangisoppu
  • Chinese – Fuma, ma , Tama, Tang ma
  • Deccan – Ganja, Sidhi
  • Dutch – Hennip, Indische hennepkrid , Kennip
  • English – Indian hemp
  • French – Cannibis, Canaban, Candi, Caneba, Cannab, Chambric, Chamust, Canvre indien, chauvetion
  • German – Hanf, Indischer
  • Greek – Kannabis
  • Gujrati – Bhang, Ganja
  • Hindi – Bhang, Charas, Ganja, Ganjaekaper, Gur
  • Hungarian – Indiai Kinder
  • Italian – Canapa, Canape, Canape Indiana
  • Kashmir – Bhangi
  • Konkani – Bhang
  • Madagascar – Jea Sarama
  • Malaya – Foh Mah
  • Malayalam – Cherukam hava, Ginjinachilachi, Kanecharachetto
  • Marathi – Bhang, Bhanga, chajmada
  • Mexican – Maerihuana
  • Morocco – Hutchis
  • Rumanian – Canipa
  • Russian – Konaplya
  • Spanish – Bhangane de la India, Cannamo, Canamo Indiana
  • Swedish – tlamp
  • Tamil – Bhangi, Ganjam , Kalpam, Korkkamuchi
  • Telugu – Bhagiaku, Ganjachettu, kalpa mechettu
  • Turkish – Hint heneviri

Distributions and Habitat of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga is distributed throughout India, wild variety in the west Himalayas and Central Asia. It is cultivated in tropical and temperate regions, in warm valleys of Himalayas, in Himachal Pradesh, and in adjoining plains from Kashmir eastwards to Assam. It is also grown in Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. Some wild variety growth is reported from Tamil Nadu, Rajastan, Bihar and Kerala. Bhanga usually grows almost in all parts of India, Pakistan, Iran and Iraq.

Parts Used of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Tender Leaves
  • Seeds
  • Resin

Tender leaves and seeds in a tender branch is called ‘Bhang’

Female cluster flower containing resin is called ‘Ganja’

A substance resembling resin derived from this plant is called ‘Charas’.

Chemical Composition of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Following chemical constituents are found in Bhanga (cannabis sativa) – Cannabinoids, resinous exudates, cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannatrichomere, cannabicitran, canbicyclol Cannabispiran, iso cannabrispiran, dehydro cannabispiran, tetrahydrocannabinol, 1-dehydro cannabidiol and other phinolic compounds along with eugenol, guacol, amino acids c-glycosy – favamaids.

Ayurvedic Properties of of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Rasa – Tikta
  • Guna – Laghu , Ruksha, Theekshna, Vyavayi
  • Veerya- Ushna
  • Vipaka- Katu
  • Prabhava – Madaka, Nidrajanaka, Mohakara.
  • Doshaghnata – Vata Kapha Shamaka

Purification of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga is purified by giving Swedana in Dola Yantra, using Ksheera as drava dravya for one Prahara (3 hours). After swedana, it is washed, dried and roasted with Ghee on a low flame.

Actions of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Sangyahara (Anesthetic/ sedative)
  • Vrishya (Aphrodisiac)
  • Deepaka (Appetizer)
  • Stambaka
  • Pitta rechaka (Purgative)
  • Pralapaka (Convulsing)
  • Pachaka (Digestive)
  • Mutrala (diuretic)
  • Nadi Uttejaka (nerve stimulant)
  • Kapha Nissaraka (expectorant)
  • Swedya (causes perspiration)
  • Nidra Janaka (sedative)

Indications of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Akshepaka (convulsions)
  • Mootra krichha (dysuria)
  • Nidranasha (Insomnia)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetite)
  • Jwara (fever)
  • Kasa(cough) and shwasa (asthma)
  • Atisaara (diarrhea and dysentery)

Dosage of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Bhanga Patra (leaves) – 2-4 grains
  • Ganja – 1-2 grain
  • Charas – ½ grain

Bhanga is a poisonous herb and used as narcotic. It is not recommended for minors and should not be taken without doctor’s advice.

Bad Effects of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

After oral administration, within ½ an hour, the toxic symptom appears. It occurs in 2 stages –

  1. Primary Stage

In this stage the symptoms are like –

  • Vertigo
  • Excessive laughing
  • Incoherent Speech
  • Delirium
  • Tingling Sensation in skin
  • Numbness in skin
  • Feeling laxity
  • Drowsiness

Also, in this stage the person sometime becomes violent. After drowsiness, patient enters into secondary stage.

  1. Secondary stage

The intoxication becomes more severe and the person passes into a stage of deep sleep. Generally this doesn’t cause death of patient. But if patient dies, it is due to respiratory arrest. Emergency treatment is necessary, so hospitalization is required.

Therapeutic Uses of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga is a poisonous herb. It is not recommended for minors and should not be taken without doctor’s advice.

  1. Bhanga and ganja are used as appetizer, nervous stimulate and in bowel complaints.
  2. Seeds are roasted and eaten along with food to increase taste and appetite.
  3. Leaves are used as snuff and given internally to relieve pain and smelling orchitis, leaf juice destroys worms.
  4. Syrup prepared from cannabis indica is given in small doses during convalescent stage after diarrhoaea.
  5. Seed and seed oil is diuretic, anti diarrhoeal, beneficial in chronic rheumatism and has action like ergot in delivery cases.
  6. Plant is used as tonic, analgesic, anti septic useful in gonorrhoea, meanorrhagia and Cholera.
  7. Decoction of plant is also used in dysentery.

Vishitha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations) of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Jatiphaladi choorna
  • Vijaya vatika
  • Madanananda modaka
  • Indrasara choorna
  • Vedanantaka rasa
  • Kameshwara modaka

Photographs of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa bhanga - cannabis sativa

Image source- Theferns.info 

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Kiratatikta – Swertia chirata

Introduction of Kiratatikta – Swertia chirata – 

  • Botanical Name of Kirata Tikta is Swertia chirata.
  • Family of Kirata Tikta is Gentianaceae.

The Kirata Tikta is one such drug which is not available commonly. It is found at a altitude of 4,000-5000 ft. Kirata Tikta plants grow widely in Himalayan region between 1208- 3046 m elevation from Kashmir to Bhutan. In Folklore medicine and in rural areas the Kalamegha or Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) is considered as Kirata Tikta and it is used in place of Kirata Tikta because of its similar morphology and properties. It is a bitter plant of Kiratas or north India.

Kirata Tikta is mentioned in earlier period by Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhatta and also in Vedas itself.   It is used by Hindu physicians. It is a tonic, stomachic & febrifuge and prescribed in Kashaya or infusion of small tea-cup full twice a day.  On large dose it oppresses the stomach and causes nausea.

Photographs OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

Kiratatikta - Swertia chirata Kiratatikta - Swertia chirata

Kiratatikta - Swertia chirata

(Image Source- 1 2 3 )

LITERARY REVIEWS OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Kirata Tikta has long has been an important article of Hindu materia medica.
  • It is mentioned in Samhita like Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Vagbhatta’s Ashtangahridayam, Bhavaprakasha, Sharangdhar Samhita and others under the name of Kirata Tikta.
  • In Harita Samhita, it is mentioned to be used in the treatment of scorpion bite with other drugs.
  • It is also mentioned in the Nighantu like Yoga Rathnakara, Raja Nighantu, Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Adarsha  Nighantu, Shodhala Nighantu and Dhanwanthari Nighantu. Also there is mention of Kirata Tikta in Bhaishajya Ratnavali and in Chakradatta, Amarkosha, Shabda Kalpa Drooma.
  • It is used as a tea in a quantity of one tea-cup full twice a day. It is a tonic in a dyspepsia and functional inactivity of liver. Chiretta is much praised in India as a powerful tonic. It does not constipate the bowel but causes easy movement of bile (A chemical investigation of the plant was carried out by Janaki Ram).

CONTROVERSIES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

Kirata Tikta has a synonym Bhu-nimba.

It is also a synonym of Kalamegha/ Kalmegh – Andrographis paniculata. In Folklore medicine and in rural areas people consider and call Kalamegha has Vighata Tikta because of its similar morphology and properties and action.

In Kerala in place of Kirata Tikta two drugs are used, they are:

  1. Kalamedha – Androgrophis paniculata Ness.
  2. Bruhathi – Solanum indicum. Linn

TYPES AND VARIETIES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

There are three types of Kirata Tikta-

  1. Swertia Chirata – Kirata Tikta
  2. Swertia angustifolia – Meetha Chirayata
  3. Swertia alata

SYNONYMS OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Bhunimba – It is a small neem herb.
  • Ramasenak
  • Kanda tikta – Stem is bitter in taste.
  • Bhutikta
  • Anaryatikta – It is not found in “Aryan” regions
  • Ardhatikta
  • Chiratikta
  • Haima – It is having golden coloured patches
  • Jwarantak – It destroys Jwara
  • Naipal – Found abundant in Nepal
  • Nidrari
  • Tikta – It is having Tikta rasa
  • Chirayata
  • Kairata – It is present in Kirata Desh (Desha means place, region, country).
  • Kairat tikta – It is tikta plant present in Kirata Desh
  • Kiratak – It destroys all diseases
  • Nepal nimba – It is found abundantly in Nepal.
  • Truna nimba – It is small neem plant
  • Nidiga tikta
  • Sannipatah- useful in sannipat jwara
  • Katu tikta – It is having tikta ras and katu vipak
  • Vikataka
  • Su tiktak – It is having tikta rasa.

GANA OR VARGA (Ayurvedic Categorization) OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

In ancient Ayurvedic treatise drugs have been grouped under either Gana or Varga. This grouping was based on the pharmacological properties as well as dietary use. Etymologically Varga or Gana will provide the forms meaning:

  1. Varga is a group of limited number of herbs having similar pharmacological properties.
  2. Gana is a group of large number of herbs having similar pharmacological properties.
  • According to Charaka Kirata Tikta is included under Tikta skanda, Stanya Shodhana, Trishna Nigrahana.
  • According to Sushruta it is mentioned under Argawadhadi Gana.
  • According to Bhavaprakasha it is included under Harithakyathi Varga.
  • According to Dhanwanthari Nigantu it is included under Guduchyadi Varga.
  • According to Raja Nigantu it is included under Prabhadradi Varga.

VERNACULAR NAMES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Arabic- Qusa Buzzaraioh
  • Assamese- Chireta
  • Bengali – Chireta
  • Bombay – Chiraita/Kirata
  • Burma – Se Khagi
  • Deccan – Charayat
  • English – Chiritta, Brown Chiritta
  • Gujarati – Chirayat
  • Hindi – Chirayata
  • Kannada – Nela Bevu
  • Kashmir – Lose Chiraita
  • Malyalam – Nelaveppu, Kiriyattu
  • Marati – Chirayita
  • Nepal – Cherota
  • Orissa – Chirito
  • Patna – Cherayta
  • Persian – Nemilawandi
  • Sanskrit – Kiratatikta
  • Tamil – Nilavebu
  • Telugu – Nilavemu
  • Urdu – Cheriyota

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

The Swertia chirata plant occurs in eastern temperate Himalaya’s at 1500- 3000 m altitude. It is found in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir. Plants grow wild in Himalayan region between 1208- 3046 m elevation from Kashmir to Bhuthan and it is found in nature in Kosi hills at 1204-1525 m in north eastern Himalayan region. Some other species of Swertia are found frequently than Swertia Chirata.

SYSTEMIC CLASSIFICATION OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Division- Angiosperm
  • Sub Division- Dicotyledon
  • Class- Gamopetallae
  • Sub Class- Bicarpellotai
  • Order- Gentionale
  • Family- Gentianaceae

 

USEFUL PARTS OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

Pachanga (whole plant) of Kirata Tikta is used for medicinal purpose, but most potent part is the moola (roots).

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Kirata Tikta contains cheratin, ophelic acid and true bitter principle. It does not contain tannin.
  • It also contains Swertinin, Swertianin, Swerchinin, decussolin, bellidifoten, friedelin, β sitosterol,  Anginin, lucine, methwmini, threomine, trypliphan aspantic acid and glutamic acid.
  • Chiratin is a chief bitter active constituent which is very bitter and amorphous glycosides.
  • Opholic acid is yellowish brown which is soluble in water and alcohol.

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Rasa – Thikta
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Sheetha
  • Vipak – Katu
  • Doshaghnata- Tridosha shamaka, especially Kapha Pitta shamaka

ACTIONS (KARMA) OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Jwaraghna
  • Katu paushtika
  • Daha prashamana
  • Rakta Shodhak
  • Kandughna
  • Kushthaghna
  • Sweda janana
  • Stanya Shodhana
  • Kaphaghna
  • Shwasa hara
  • Hridya
  • Sheetahara
  • Trishna Nigrahana
  • Deepana
  • Pachana, Amapachana
  • Pitta saraka
  • Anulomana
  • Krimighna
  • Vrana ropana
  • Vrana Shodhana

THERAPEUTIC USES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Jwara, Jeernajwara, Vishamajwara
  • Kushtha, Kandu, Charma Roga, Rakta shudhikarnartha, Visarpa, Visphota.
  • Kamala, Yakrithvikara, Agnimandya, Ajeerna, Vibandha, Trushna / Trishna, Atisara, Grahani
  • Dhaha
  • Krimi
  • Kasa, Shwasa
  • Hrit Daurbalya
  • Vrana, Shotha,
  • Upadansha
  • Stanya Dusthi
  • Chhardi
  • Prameha

VISHISHTHA YOGA (Pharmaceutical Preparations) OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Sudarshan Choorna
  • Kiratadi Kwatha
  • Bhunimbadi Kwatha
  • Tikta Panchaka Kwatha
  • Kiratadi Taila
  • Chandraprabha Vati
  • Shathyadi Kwatha
  • Pachabhadra Kwatha
  • Sarva Jwarahara Taila
  • Phalatrikadi Kwatha
  • Madhwasaava
  • Tikta shadpalaka Ghrita
  • Chandanadi Ghrita
  • Mahatikta Ghrita
  • Chandraprabha Vati
  • Maha Manjishthadi Kwatha
  • Sudharshan Kwatha
  • Chandanasava
  • Ushirasava
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Lodhra – Symplocos racemosa

Lodhra Symplocos racemosa

Introduction of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Botanical Name of Lodhra is- Symplocos racemosa.
  • The family of Lodhra is- Symplocaceae.

Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa) is a medium tree which grows up to 6 meters. It’s bark is dark grey in colour and rough. It evolved with Kasaya and Tikta Rasa, Laghu and Ruksha Guna, Shita Virya, Katu Vipaka, and Kapha Pittaghana in action. Here we will discuss valuable information regarding the drug, its identification, distribution, morphology, various synonyms, characters and properties.

 

Literary View of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Vedic period- In Rigveda, Lodhra is described as Lodra.

Samhita-

  • Charaka described this tree with name Rodhra only twice (C.S.Su ¾ and 9).  But he extensively quoted Lodhra for chhardi effect and sandhana effects.
  • Sushrutha and Vagbhatta have quoted the two varieties of Rodra (Rodra Yuggma and Rodradveya). Red variety termed as Rodhraka and white variety as Suta Rodhra. (S.S.Ci 17 and 22, A.H.Su. 15/41 and A.H.Ci 8/109).
  • Vagbhatta specifically indicated the white variety of Rodhra for the treatment of eye diseases (A.H.Ut 34/4).

Nighantu-

  • In Dhanwantari Nighantu, Lodhra is mentioned for treatment of shotha, rakta shrava, atisar,  raktapitta.
  • In Raja Nighantu, Lodhra is mentioned under pippalayadi varga, synonyms mentioned are rodhra, thirada, savara.
  • Acc. to Priya Nighantu, Lodhra is useful in rakta shrava and atisar.
  • Bhava Prakash Nighantu mentioned Lodhra under haritakyadi varga and used in rakta shrava and atisar.

Modern Books- 

  • Handbook of Medicinal plants (S. K. Bhattacharjee)- mentioned that Lodhra is used to treat excessive bleeding during menstruation, and also used to cure digestive disorders.
  • Indian Medicinal plants (Kiritikar K.R.)- Lodhra is used in the treatment of snake bite and scorpion sting.
  • Indian plants and drugs (Nadkarni)- The bark of the tree is used in dyeing red. It is found to contain alkaloids viz. Loturine, collaturne and kinovine.

Synonyms of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Kramuka- It is very astringent in taste.
  • Galvaha- Its taste produces tears.
  • Tireda- It cures diseases like jwara, sotha
  • Tilvaka-It produces smoothness to different organs of the body.
  • Rodhra- It stops bleeding.
  • Marjana- It cleans the body.
  • Lakshapradhan- Its yields Lakh (a gum resin).

Gana (Classical Categorisation) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Charaka- Shonitasthapana, Sandhaniya, Purisha Sangrahaniya, Kashaya Skandha.
  • Sushruta- Lodhradi, Nyagrodhadi.
  • Vagbhatta- Rodhradi, Nyagrodhadi.
  • Priya Nighantu- Haritakyadi Varga.
  • Raja Nighantu- Pippalayadi Varga.

Varieties of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

There are two varieties of Lodhra- Savara Lodhra and Pattika Lodhra. The second variety is described with synonyms like Krimka, Jirna, Brihat parna, Laksha, Prasadana, Tivita, Marjana, and Pattika. Thakurji reported Savara Lodhra as Symplocos racemose roxb and Pattika Lodhra as Symplocos crataegoids. Prof. P.V Sharma described about another species of Symplocos viz. Symplocos laurina,  Symplocos paniculata and Symplocos summuntia are also used under the name Lodhra.

Vernacular Names of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Hindi- Lodhra
  • Bengali- Lodhra
  • Marathi- Lodhra
  • English- Symplocos Tree (Lodh Tree)
  • Telugu- Lodduga
  • Tamil- Bellilotti
  • Gujarathi- Lodhara
  • Kannada- Pachettu
  • Malayalam- Pachotti
  • Oriya- Lodho

Prayojya Anga (Parts used) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Tvak- Stem bark (bark is used mostly)
  • Flower

Chemical Constituents of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Bark contains Loutrine-0.06%, Colloturine-0.02%, Loturidine.
  • Bark ash contain-18%(soda bicarb), Quinovine.

Ayrvedic Properties of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • RASA- Kashaya, Tikta
  • GUNA- Laghu, Ruksha
  • VIRYA- Sheeta
  • VIPAKA- Katu
  • DOSHAGHNATA- Kapha Pittaghna

Karma (Actions) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Grahee, Chakshushya, Kapha- Pittaghna, Garbhashaya shotha, Shravahara, Stambhana, Rakta stambhana, Sothahara, Kushthaghna, Sankochaka, Kaphaghna, Vishaghna, Kandughna.

Indications of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Pradara, Rakta pitta, Pravahika, Atisara, Netra roga, Jwara, Shotha, Kustha, Shwet pradara, Haemorrhage, Acne, Pimples, Leucorrhea, Vrana, Udara roga, Mukha Paka, Swarabheda, Yakrit Vikhara.

Therapeutic Uses of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • PRADARA- Bark of Lodhra is given orally with the decoction of Nyagradha (banyan tree) bark.
  • PRAVAHIKA- Bark paste is administered.
  • KUSHTHA- Bark paste is used externally.
  • LEUCORRHOEA- Paste of Lodhra with a decoction of Nyagradha bark (banyan tree) is recommended. (C.H-25\67-68)
  • NETRA ROGA- Useful for eye diseases.
  • VRANA- The paste is prepared with Lodhra and Nyagradha.
  • TARUNYA PIDIKA- The paste of Lodhra and sphatika should be applied in acne.
  • HAEMORRHAGE- Lodhra powder is recommended for external application which acts as a haemostatic remedy.

The dosage of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Bark Powder-  1- 5 gm
  • Lodhrasava- 10- 15 ml
  • Kwatha- 20- 60 ml

Vishishtha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa 

  • Lodhrasava
  • Lodhradi Kwatha
  • Lodhradi Choorna

Photographs of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa 

The high-quality images may found at these links: 1 2 3 )

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Shirisha – Albizzia lebbeck

Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck

Introduction of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck benth – 

  • Botanical Name of Shirisha is Albizzia lebbeck benth.
  • The family of Shirisha is Leguminosae.

Shirisha is one of the best antitoxic drug mentioned in Ayurveda. The ladies tongue which is nothing but shirisha was used for grahashanti and nakshatra snana etc. during the Vedic period to dispel the evil spirits which are nothing but toxic elements. As in the ancient day, people used to leave in forests the chances for exposure to toxicity become more. Hence Shirisha was identified as anti poisonous drug and it got the name Vishahanta not only for poison but also for different kinds of disease like asthma, piles, skin diseases, eye diseases, ulcers, syphilis etc. The plant can be used as anti-malarial drug also.

Different types of reference about Shirisha can be found in various classics. In Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Ashtangahridayam, more than fifty references were found in each of the text under the concept of visha and chikitsa. It includes a description of different formulations, different pharmacological properties, different therapeutic indications, uses etc of Shirisha. Not only in classics but also other successive authentic scriptures specifies the alexipharmic property as the prabhava of plant Shirisha. Hence Shirisha has a brand therapeutic importance and as it is an authentic drug of choice of poison it has got a special importance in Ayurvedic system of treatment.

 

The literature review of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck benth –

  • The Vedas are the oldest written document which is available nowadays. In Atharvaveda, Shirisha has been mentioned as an anti-toxic drug. It was used for Grahashanti and Nakshatra snana etc.
  • In Samhita period, Shirisha is considered as one of the best Vishaghna drug (Anti-poison). In Charaka Samhita, Shirisha is mentioned in the second chapter of suthra stana under Shirovirechaniya gana then at several contests, it is mentioned in Sutra sthana, Vimana sthana and Shareera sthana.
  • In Sushruta Samhita, a more than fifty reference was found in each of the text under the concept of Visha chikitsa. He included Shirisha under Salasaradi gana and Shirovirechaniya gana. He mentioned the drug in Sutra sthana, Vimana sthana and Uttara Tantra.
  • Vagbhatta has mentioned Shirisha under Shirovirechaniya, Kashaya skandha and Asanadi gana. He also mentioned this as the best antitoxic drug.
  • In Dhanwantari nighantu, there is a slight change in Veerya as Ushna and Snigdha property.
  • Bhavaprakasha mentioned that it is having Anushna property.
  • Raja nighantu explained it as Sheeta veerya and having Katu rasa.
  • The modern book like Indian medicinal plants, Indian material medica, classical use of medicinal plants etc. books explained the plant Shirisha under the Latin name Albizzia lebbeck.

Varieties of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  1. Albizzia odoratissisma Benth
  2. Albizzia julibrissin Ourazz
  3. Albizzia amara Boir
  4. Albizzia procera (roxb) Benth

Gana of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

According to Charaka Samhita-

  • Sirovirechana gana
  • Vishaghna gana
  • Vedanasthapana
  • Kashayaskanda

According to Sushruta Samhita-

  • Salasaradi gana
  • Siroviraechanagana

According to Astanga Samgraha & Ashtanga Hridayam-

  • Kashaya skandha
  • Sirovirechana gana
  • Asanadi gana

Vernacular Names of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  • Hindi- Garso, kalashish, losrin shiris, shirish, sirasa, sirini, tantia.
  • English- Parrot tree, sirisa tree, slizzling tree, lady’s tongue.
  • Sanskrit – Barhapushpa, Bhandila, Kalima, Uddanaka, Shireesha.
  • Kannada- Bage, doddaebage, doddasirisa, hombage, sirisa.
  • Malayalam – Kattuvaka, malanthakara, nenmenivaka, vaka.
  • Tamil- Vaki, vaga, addukavagai, kulindi, kattuvagai, peruvagai, pandil.
  • Telugu- Dirisanamu, girisamu, kapitanamu sirishamu.
  • Bombay- Garso, harreri.
  • Bengali- Siris, sirisha.
  • Urdu –  Daras.

Systemic Classification of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  • KINGDOM- Planate
  • PHYLUM- Angiosperm
  • CLASS- Dicotyledonous
  • SUBCLASS- Archichlamydae
  • ORDER- Rasales
  • FAMILY- Leguminoseae
  • SUBFAMILY- Mimoseae
  • GENUS- Albizzia
  • SPECIES- Leddeck

Prayojya anga (parts used) of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  1. Root Bark
  2. Stem Bark
  3. Leaf
  4. Seed
  5. Oil from seed and flower

Chemical Constituents in Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

BARK- The main chemical constituent in the bark is saponin and also condensed tannin acid isomers etc. Also Tannins- D Catechin; Isomers- leucocyanidin malacicidin, neo-leucoanthocynaidin, lebbecacidin, tridelin; Alkaloid- β sitosterol; Acids- echinocystic acids are present in the bark of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck

ROOT- Contains saponin β sitosterol and stigmasterol.

LEAF- Alkaloids, kaempferol, quercetin, caffeic acid. Mature leaves contain ketoacids.

FLOWERS – It gives a sweet smelling oil.

SEED- Echinocystic acids, β sitosterol, Lebbekain- a, Lebbekain- e, triterpenic saponin.

PODS- Contain a cyclic ester, lupeol, oleanolic acids, decosanonic acids, β sitosterol.

TREE- Yields resinous gum, saponic acids, 7-10% of tannin.

Ayurvedic Properties of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  • Rasa- Kashaya, Tikta, Madhura.
  • Guna- Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna.
  • Virya- Ushna.
  • Vipaka- Katu.
  • Doshaghnata- Tridosha hara.
  • Prabhava- Vishaghna.

Karma (Actions) of-of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

Varnya, Vishaghna, Shothahara, Vedanasthapana, Vranaropana, Expectorant, Aphrodisiac, Anti-inflammatory, cephalic, ophthalmic, brain tonic, emollient,  anti hermetic, restorative.

Pharmaco-therapeutic Action of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

Saponin fraction and seed extract of the plant significantly reduce the number of the ruptured mast cell. This Saponin showed infinite hemolytic agent human blood. It also showed antifungal activity against macrophomina phasiolina stemphilum species.

Prayoga (indications) of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck-

  • Suryavarta
  • Ardhavabhedaka
  • Vishama jwara
  • Visarpa
  • skin disease
  • worms
  • Apasmara
  • Sannipataja murchha
  • hiccough
  • asthma
  • dyspnoea,
  • obesity
  • boils
  • nyctalopia
  • lymphoma
  • dental caries.

Therapeutic Uses of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  1. Bark powder with ghee is used as balya.
  2. Gargling the decoction of Shirisha bark is used in dental disorder.
  3. External application of the paste of seed and internal use of the powder seed is used in Gandamala.
  4. The flower is helpful as Shukra stambhana in premature ejaculation.
  5. The decoction of leaves is taken internally and juice is used as Tarpana cures nyctalopia.
  6. The powder of seed along with milk and sugar make the semen thick.
  7. Powder of flower processed with ghee and paste is made by adding water is indicated in Kaphaja Visarpa.
  8. Bark’s paste is applied to the skin is beneficial in Kushtha.
  9. The paste of flower is used in the hiccup.
  10. The root and fruit are made into juice and administered in the nose (Nasyam) is used in Ardhrava bhedaka.
  11. Aqueous extract of flower bark is made into powder form and is used in Mooshika Visha (Rat poison).
  12. The juice of Shirisha mixed with honey is used as collyrium in case of conjunctivitis.
  13. Seeds and hardwood powder are used as snuff (Pradhamana Nasya) in Shiroroga.
  14. The application of the paste of Shirisha and Sinduvara is used in Visha chikitsa (poison case).
  15. Triphala, Maduka, Vidari kanda and Shirisha flower is used in Kaphaja Visarpa.
  16. In Dushi Visha, the alkali obtained from Shirisha and Himasara is applied locally.

Matra (Dosage) of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  • Bark powder 3- 6 masha  (3- 6 gm).
  • Powder of seed 1-2 masha (1- 2 gm).
  • Juice of leaves 1-2 tola (12- 24 ml).
  • Juice of leaves 1-2 tola (12 – 24 ml).
  • Decoction of bark 1-2 pala (50-100 ml).

Vishishtha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations) of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck –

  • Mahasugandhi Agada, Eakarasa yoga, Pancha Shirisha Kwatha, Shirisharjuna Kwatha, Kshara Agada, Mahakalyanaka ghrita, Parama Agada, Tvagadi Tailam, Vajraka Taila, Shirisharishtam, Siddharthaka grita.

Photographs of Shirisha Albizzia lebbeck benth –

The high-quality images may be found at Thefern.info

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Ardraka – Zingiber officinale

Ardraka Zingiber officinale

Introduction of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

  • Botanical Name of Ardraka (ginger) is Zingiber officinale.
  • The family name of Ardraka is Zingiberaceae.

Ardraka zingiber officinale (ginger) is one of the reputed drugs of Ayurveda, also termed as shonth, shunthi, adrak etc and is employed in indigenous systems of medicine for a very long period. The trade scholars of  Ayurveda viz Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhatta mentioned its use in udara roga (diseases of the digestive system), shotha (inflammations), karna shoola (an earache), in kapha and vata roga. Ardraka has been described by Sanskrit writers as Acrid, healing, carminative, rubefacient, useful in infections of the throat, head, chest, haemorrhoids, rheumatism, dropsy and many other diseases.

Trikatu, a favourite carminative remedy which has shonth (shunthi or ginger) is often prescribed. Ginger with salt taken before meals are considered to be a highly reputed carminative. It is taken to clean the tongue and throat and increase the appetite. Fresh Ardraka is much employed as a domestic medicine, the juice with sugar or honey is prescribed for colds and coughs. In European medicine, Ginger is one of the most highly valued carminatives and enters into many official preparations.

Literary Review of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

The drug ‘Shunti’ has been described in various Ayurvedic classics as well as modern textbooks for its different uses.

  • In Vedas, the description about shunti is not available. But after the period of Vedas, the use of shunti is seen in almost all books of Ayurveda and also in modern texts.
  • In Sushruta samhita sutrasthana, 46th chapter, it is mentioned that it is having katu rasa, ushna veerya and having laghu, hridya and deepana properties. It is also mentioned that it is sasneha and rochana.
  • In Sushruta Samhita kalpasthana, it is mentioned as it cures visha (poison) with the help of other drugs such as Chavya, Haritaki, Vidanga, Pippali, Madhu and Shrankota beeja for drinking purpose.
  • In Sushruta Samhita, shaarirasthana, it is mentioned as it cures Ruk (pain).
  • In Charaka Samhita, Suthrasthana, 27th chapter it is mentioned that qwatha of shunti and pippali with laja and dadima cures kshutha (skin diseases), pipasa (thirst) and malapaha and it is pathya.
  • In Charaka chikitsa, 21st chapter it is mentioned that draksha, parapataka, shunti, guduchi, dhanvayasaka at night cures trishna (thirst) and visarpa (erysipelas).
  • In  Ashtanga hridayam, chikitsa sthana, 1st chapter it is mentioned that hima of chandana, shunti ambu, parpataka and ushira cures jwara (fever) and it is having pachana (digestive) action.
  • In Kaideva nighantu, it is mentioned that it is having katu rasa and ushnaveerya. It is deepana and cures shwasa (asthma), kasa (cough), vami (nausea and vomiting), hikka (hiccups), vibanda (constipation), vaha and pitta dominating diseases.
  • In Rajanighantu, it is mentioned that it is having katu rasa and ushna veerya. It is deepana and hridya and it cures shopha (oedema) and diseases of throat.
  • In Bhava prakasha nighantu, it is mentioned that, before the meals it is always pathya with the help of lavana for bhakshanartha (loss of appetite). It cause agnisandeepana (appetizer), ruchya and vishodhana of kantha and jihva (purification of throat and tongue). It cures kushtha (skin diseases), pandu (anemia), rakta pitta (bleeding disorders), vrana (wounds) and jwara (fever). It is contraindicated in daha (burning) condition and sharada ritu.
  • In Madanapala nighantu, it is mentioned that, Shunthi is having the actions like ruchya, amavatagni, pachani and laghu. It is having snigdha and ushna guna, katu vipaka and cause vibandha of vata and kapha. But Ardraka is having guru guna and deepana and bhedana actions.
  • In sharangadhara Samhita, it is mentioned that shunti made in to kalk (paste) along with guda and tila, and taken with anupana i.e. dugdha (milk) cures parinama shoola and amavata.
  • In Dhanwantari nighantu, it is mentioned that shunti is having snigdha and ushna guna and vrishya property. It cures shopha, aruchi, vathodara, shvasa, pandu, shlipada etc.

Synonyms of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

  • Shunti
  • Mahaushada
  • Vishvaushada
  • Vishvabeshaja
  • Nagara
  • Katubhadra
  • Rahuchathra
  • Katoothkata
  • Ardraka
  • Shrungaveera
  • Katukanda
  • Katubheda
  • Avirbhavika
  • Shrungika
  • Katuthoya
  • Katushrungika
  • Latiladhrungi
  • Sushakaka
  • Mahija
  • Gulmamoola
  • Moolaja
  • Kandala
  • Anupaja
  • Ardrashaka
  • Sharangya
  • Sachchaka
  • Rutubhuhvaya
  • Vishva
  • Katugranthi
  • Katushana
  • Sauparna
  • Ooshana
  • Ahichathra
  • Avapchathra
  • Katubaddhi
  • Uthkata
  • Shoshana
  • Kaphari
  • Ushna
  • Meshashrungi

Ayurvedic Properties of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

Rasa – Katu

Guna – Ardraka – guru, ruksha and shunti – laghu, snigdha

Veerya – Ushna

Vipaka – madhura

Doshagnatha – kapha and vata shamaka

Gana and Varga (Ayurvedic Categorization) of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

  • Triptighna, Deepaniya, Arshoghna, Trishna nigrahana Gana (By Charaka Samhita)
  • Pippalyadi, Trikatu Varga (By Sushruta Samhita)
  • Shada Ushana, Panchakola (By Bhavaprakasha nighantu)

Vernacular Names of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

  • Sanskrit – Shunti, Ardraka
  • English – Ginger
  • Hindi – Adharak, Sont
  • Kannada – Shunti
  • Malyalam – Chukka, Inchi
  • Tamil – Shukku, Inji
  • Telugu – Sonti, Allum
  • Bengali – Ada, Soonthi
  • Gujarati – Sunt, Ati
  • Marathi – Ale, Nisam
  • Assami – Ada
  • Nepali – Ada
  • Oriya – Ada
  • Arabic – Zanjabil, Zanjabile- yabis
  • Barmis – Khyenseing
  • Parsian – Zanjabine-khushk

Classification & Varieties of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

In Ayurveda, Shunthi and Ardraka are mentioned as varieties of ginger.

Other varieties or nomenclature of ginger are –

  • Peeled Ginger
  • Red sand coated Ginger
  • Limed Ginger
  • Jamica Ginger
  • Cochin Ginger
  • African Ginger
  • Indian or Bengal Ginger
  • Ratoon Ginger

Systemic Classification of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

  • Subkingdom – Phanerogamia
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Monocotyledanae
  • Subclass – Petaloideae
  • Series – Epigynae (Overy inferior)
  • Natural order – Zingiberaceae
  • Genus – Zingiber
  • Species – Officinalae

Useful Part of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

Rhizome (moola).

Chemical Constituents of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

The composition of ardraka zingiber officinale (ginger) varies according to the type and the agro-climatic conditions under which is in growing.  Analyses of 26 types of ginger grown at the Central Horticultural Research Station, Ambalavayal, gave the following range of values –

  • Moisture – 8.5 – 16.5% dry cut, crude protein 10.3 – 15.0%, crude fibre 4.8 – 9.8 %, starch 40.4 – 25.8%, cold alcohol extr.  3.6 – 9.3 % , and  volatile oil 1.0 – 2.7 %.
  • Analyses of a bazaar sample of green ginger gave the following values – moisture 80.9%, protein 2.3%, fat 0.9%, fibre 2.4%, carbohydrates 12.3%, and minerals – 1.2%, calcium 20%, protein 60%, and fibre 2.6 mg/100 g. Ginger contains traces of iodine and fluorine.
  • The vitamin present in green ginger are -Thiamine 0.06, roboflavin 0.03, niacin 0.60 and utc 6.0 mg / 100 g.  the value reported for carotene in the fresh rhizome is 40 mg /100 g.
  • Ginger contains small quantities of glucose, fructose and sucrose. The principal carbohydrate of the rhizome is starch.
  • Ginger contains 1.60 – 2.44% nitrogen on dry basin, of which non-protein nitrogen accounts for roughly on third.  The free amino acids present in ginger includeglutamic acid arpartic, r-aminobutylic acid, valine, phenylalanine, arparagine, lysine, cystine, listridine, uciner, praline and pipecolic acid.  Non volatile pungent principle – oleoresin contains gingerol, paradol.  Non pungent substance in alcoresin include plmitic and other fatty acids.
  • Water soluble extracts – not less than 15% (90%) Alcohol-soluble extractive- not less than 4.5%.  Total ash – not more than 6% water soluble and – not less than 1.7%.

Therapeutic Actions of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

Ginger is aromatic and beneficial in dropsy and dyspepsia, anti-emitic, anti-rheumatic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, stimulant and stomachic, used in infections of the chest, colic pain, cold and cough, haemorrhoids, sore throat and hoarseness of voice and urticaria.

Therapeutic Uses of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

  • To improve appetite and digestion, mix trikatu in some ginger juice and gargle few times to acquire a strong appetite and power of digestion.
  • In indigestion, the decoction of dry ginger and rock salt is very helpful in tackling undigested material.
  • In Jaundice, take a teaspoon of powder of dry ginger with some jaggery twice a day for free passage of stool and as a liver tonic.
  • In Ascitis, take equal quantities of ginger juice and milk every day after meals.
  • In Diarrhoea, boil dry ginger and khas-khas roots in a glass of water and take thrice a day to arrest loose motions.
  • In Cholera, add some dry ginger powder to a decoction of the flesh of Ball fruits (Bilva or bel) and take this twice a day to arrest vomiting and diarrhoea.
  • In Piles, make small balls of dry ginger and jaggary of peanut size, eat one twice a day to reduce the pile mass size and allow free passage of stool.
  • In Colic pain, equal parts of shunthi, til (sesame) seeds and jaggery should be pasted and drunk with milk twice a day.
  • In Cold or Asthmatic attacks, ginger tea – crushed ginger is added to boiling water and tea is prepared with this water. Take this tea to decrease inflammation and relieve congestion and body ache.
  • In Asthma à A few garlic cloves may be added to the above tea. Ginger may be mixed with mustard oil and applied externally on the chest to relieve congestion.
  • In Earaches, warm a little Ginger juice and instil a few drops in the ear to relieve pain and clear ear wax (cerumen).
  • In Arthritic joints, decoction of dry ginger and caster roots should be taken every morning for lubrication of joints and relief from pain.
  • Blood in Urine- Boil 1 teaspoon of dry ginger in a glass of milk and drink twice a day to arrest the bleeding.
  • In allergic rashes, crush some old jaggery in ginger juice and take twice a day.
  • In hiccups, mix jaggery and ginger juice and instil a few drops in the nostrils to stop hiccups.
  • In heart disease, take a hot decoction of dry ginger often in the morning meal daily.
  • A toothache- Apply a paste of dry ginger on the outside of the cheek at the point of pain.
  • On Insect bites or stings, a dry ginger paste mixed in yoghurt is an effective topical application to reduce the swelling.
  • In scrotal swelling- apply a mixture of dry ginger and salt solution in testicles to reduce pain and swelling. Also, Ardraka swarasa (juice) is taken orally with honey.
  • In Parinama shoola, kalka of shunthi, guda and tila with milk is advised.
  • In Deepanartha à Shunti choorna with Yavakshara and ghee is used.
  • In Grahani, Shunti along with bala and bilva choorna is advised.
  • In Vishamajwara, kwatha of shunti and maha bala moola choorna is advised.

Pharmaceutical Preparations of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

Following Ayurvedic medicines are available in the market in which Ardrak is used as an ingredient.

  • Panchasam Churna
  • Samasharkara Churna
  • Rasnasdi kwatha
  • Saubhagya Shunti Paka
  • Shunti Sura
  • Shunti Panaka
  • Sitopladi Churna
  • Trikatu Churna
  • Bilwadi Churna

Posology (Dosage) of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

Swarasa – 1/2 – 2 tsp  or  5-10 ml.

Churna – 3 – 7 or 1-2 gms.

Shunti Sura – 0.3 – 0.6 ml

Shunti Panaka – 2-4 ml (If diluted with water –QS)

Adulterants of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

Ginger is adulterated with exhausted ginger, but it can be detected by determination of water-soluble ash, volatile oil content and alcohol and water-soluble extractions. Wall’s (1967) mentioned that Japanese ginger which usually occurs in small flattened unscraped pieces is used as the adulterant. It can be differentiated from Z. officinale having the presence of compound starch grains.

Besides this exhausted ginger, which is found generally in the form of powder, is also used as an adulterant. It is impossible to detect this adulterant by the use of the structural characters of the powder.

Photographs of Ardraka Zingiber officinale – 

You may find high-quality images of Ardraka Zingiber officinale by clicking this link – theferns.info