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Dhanvana – Grewia tiliaefolia

Introduction of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

The plant Dhanvana is botanically identified as Grewia tiliaefolia. It belongs to the family tiliaceae and malvaceae. Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia is jwaraghna (antipyretic), vishaghna (useful in poison case), used in non healing wounds (dushta vrana), ulcerative colitis, menorrhagea, respiratory problems etc.

Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia

 

Literary Reviews of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia is mentioned in various Ayurvedic classics.

  • Charaka has mentioned this drug under Amla skandha.
  • Bhavamishra has described it under the name of Dhanvangah. It is described among the Asava- yoni drayas and its fruits and wood have been used in medicine.
  • In Charaka Samhita, Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia can be seen in the preparation of chandanadi taila which is useful in fever with burning sensation.
  • In Sushruta Samhita, Dhanvana is included in the Pichha vasti (therapeutic enema) along with other drugs like leaf buds of badari, nagabala, shalmali, shlesmantaka etc.
  • Dhanurvriksha is the synonym which is commonly used in Nighantu.

Synonyms of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Dhanvana – Having the strength of a bow.
  • Dhanurvriksha – Branches are having the shape of bow.
  • Dhanvangah – Branches are of bow – shaped.
  • Mahabala – Having good strength.
  • Pinhilaka – Having pichhila guna.
  • Raktakusuma – Flowers are red in color.
  • Swaduphala – Fruits are sweet in taste.
  • Rujapaha – Reduces pain.

Ayurvedic Categorization of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Charaka Samhita – Amla skandha, Asava yoni phala.
  • Raja Nighantu – Prabhadradi Varga.
  • Bhava Prakasha Nighantu – Vatadi Varga.
  • Nighantu Adarsha – Dhanvanadi varga.

Vernacular Names (names in different languages) of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • English – Dhaman
  • Hindi – Dhamani, Dhamani, Pharsa
  • Kannada – Tadasali, thadsal, bhutthade
  • Malayalam – Chadicha, Catacci, satachi, unnam
  • Marathi – Dhaman, Daman, damni
  • Tamil – Karvini, Kitacari, tata
  • Telugu – Charachi, ettatada, Jana

Systemic Classification of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia –

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub Kingdom – Spermatophyta
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledonae
  • Subclass – Polypetalae
  • Order – Malvales
  • Family – Tiliaceae, Malvaceae
  • Genus – Grewia
  • Species – Tiliaefolia

Useful parts of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Bark
  • Fruit

Chemical Constituents of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Leaves contain 1 percent tannin.
  • Stem bark contains α-amyrin, β -amyrin, β-sitosterol and erythrodiol.
  • Roots contain α -amyrin, β -amyrin, betulin, friedlin, β -sitosterol and triacontanol.

Ayurvedic Properties of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

Rasa – Kashaya, Madhura

Guna – Laghu, Ruksha, Pichchhila

Virya – Sheeta

Vipaka – Katu

Dosha karma – Kapha- pitta shamaka

Classical Therapeutic Uses of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Fever – Dhanvana is one of the ingredients of Chandanadi taila which is useful in fever with burning sensation (Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa – 3/ 258).
  • Kaphaja Prameha – Decoction of patha, vidanga, arjuna and dhanvana mixed with honey is prescribed (Chara Samhita, Chikitsa – 6/ 27-29).
  • Haemorrhage – In case of excessive haemorrhage (bleeding conditions), powder of the barks of shala, sarja, arimeda, meshashringi, dhava and dhanvana should be applied and the spot is firmly bandaged (Sushruta Samhita, Sharira – 14/ 36).
  • Abdominal pain – In colic caused by pitta, soup of palasha or dhanvana mixed with sugar should be given (Sushruta Samhita, Uttara – 42/ 107).

Actions of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Jvaraghna
  • Shulaghna
  • Vranaghna
  • Bala karaka
  • Vrana ropaka
  • Vishaghna
  • Pramehaghna

Pharmaco-therapeutic Uses of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Diarrhoea – Decoction of bark is given orally.
  • Bloody Dysentery – Decoction of bark is given orally.
  • Dysentery – The bark is grounded or crushed and is soaked in water and after maceration, the mucilaginous liquid substance is given orally.
  • General debility and Muscular Dystrophy – The bark is ground and soaked in water and after maceration, the mucilaginous liquid substance is mixed with sugar and is given.
  • Itching due to cow hage plant – Application of paste of the bark over affected parts.
  • Opium poisoning – The wood is used in the powder form as an emetic and as an antidote.
  • Cough – The  bark is used as an expectorant.

Indications of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Visha
  • Jvara
  • Shoola
  • Prameha
  • Vrana
  • Dhatukshina
  • Bala kshaya

Dosage of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

Bark Juice – 1 – 2 Tola (Bhava Prakasha)

Kwatha – 50 – 100 ml

Ayurvedic Formulations Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Chandanadi Taila

Photographs of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

(Click on image to enlarge)

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(Image source – theferns.info)