INTRODUCTION OF GUDUCHI Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy)
- Botanical name of Guduchi is Tinospora cordifolia.
- Family Name of Guduchi is Menispermaceae.
Guduchi is one of the most rejuvenating herbs. It works all the tissues elements of the body. Guduchi means which protect the body from disease. So it is called Amrita. It strengthens the immune system of the body. It grows thoroughly in India. It is considered as a Hindu medicine. It is a deciduous woody climber. The aqueous extract and alcoholic extract helps in reduction of blood sugar level due to its bitter principles. Leaves are rich in calcium and phosphate. The fresh stem is more efficacious than the dry stem. It is collected during the rainy season. The raw drugs are used for the preparation of many of the Ayurvedic medicines. The drug commonly used in rheumatism, urinary disease, dyspepsia, general debility, fever etc. This plant is also used for the ornamental purpose.
LITERARY REVIEW OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
This drug has been used in traditional Indian medicine system since ancient time. In Vedas and Puranas Guduchi mentioned pittaghni, bhishakpriya. In samhitas like Sushruta Samhita, he mentioned Guduchi leaves as therapeutic in mahajwara and jwara (various types of fever). Nighantu (Ayurvedic texts) mentioned its efficiency in jaundice, Vatarakta etc. Bhavamishra considered it as a time astringent, diuretic and potent aphrodisiac. Dhanvanthari Nighantu considered that it is useful in bleeding piles & ulcers. European physicians in India used it as febrifuge & diuretic.
OTHER VARIETIES OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
- Tinospora crispa
- Tinospora malabarica
- Tinospora sinensis.
SYNONYMS OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
Guduchi is also known by Amruta, Shyama, Nagakumarka, Amruta lata, Vamsa, Amruta valli, Vatsadini, Bhishakpriya, Vishalya, Chakralakshika, Chandrahasa, Chandraprasa, Chhinna, Chhinnaruha, Chhinnodbhava, Devanirmita, Ghora, Goraksha, Jeevanti, Kundalini, Madhuparni, Rasayani, Sangrahini, Soma etc.
VERNACULAR NAMES OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
- English – Gulancha tinospora
- Hindi – Giloya, Gulancha
- Malayalam – Chittamrta
- Tamil – Amritavalli
- Arabic – Gilo
- Bengal – Gadancha
- Bombay – Ambaivel
- Burma – Singomone
- Decan – Gulbel, Gulo
- French – Culancha
- Goa – Amritavel
- Gujarat – Gado, Galo
- Oriya – Gulamcha
GANA & VARGA OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia (Ayurvedic Categorization)
- Gana (Acc. to Charaka)- Vayasthapana, Daha prashamana, Trishna nigraha, Stanya shodhana,Triptighna.
- Varga (Acc. to Sushruta)- Guduchadi, Patoaladi, Aragwadhadi, Kakolayadi, Vallipanchamula.
- Acc. to Bhavaprakasha- Guduchyadi gana.
SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
- Kingdom- Plantea
- Sub kingdom- Phanerogamia
- Division- Angiosperm
- Class- Dicotyledons
- Subclass- Thalamisflorae
- Family- Menispermacea
- Genus- Tinospora
- Species- Cordifolia
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
- A glucoside, alkaloidal constituents, their crystalline substances, two bitter principles and a neutral fatty alcohol is found in stem of Guduchi.
- There is also presence of the bitter principles Columbian, chasmanthin and palmarin in the drug. Some other texts mentioned 3 bitter compounds namely tinosporin, tinosporic acid and tinosporal.
- The leaves are rich in calcium and phosphate.
PHYTO-CHEMISTRY BASED ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GUDUCHI
Different constituent reported include a glucoside, alkaloids, bitter principles, crystalline components etc. The glycoside- giloin, and non glucoside- gilenin and gilosterol have been found. The bitter principle has been identified as columbin, chasmanthin and palmarin. The alkaloid tinosporin, tinosporic acid and tinosporal have been identified in leaves, which are rich in protein, calcium and phosphorus. Protoberberine alkaloids are found as trace components in many plants. Alkaloids belongs to beberin, palmatin, tembutain, mangoflorin, choline & tinosporin. Other components are sterol, aphenolic, lignin, tinospolidin, cordyol.
AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
- Rasa – Tikta, Kashaya
- Guna – Guru, Snigdha
- Veerya – Ushna
- Vipaka – Madhura
- Doshaghna – Thridoshaghna
ACTION OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
Rasayana, vayasthapana, dhatukrit, jvaraghna, dahaprashamana, kushthagna, vedanasthapana, kaphaghna, vrishya, chakshushya, medhya, balya, keshya, kesharopana, bhramahara, hridhya, raktashodhana, raktavardhana, trishnanigraha, chhardi nigraha, bhootaghna, deepana, pachana, sangrahi, anulomana, pittasaraka, krimighna, mutra janana, vishaghna.
USES OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
Guduchi (Giloy) is used in following diseases-
Jvara, Grahani, Jeerna jvara, Krimiroga, Daha, Visha, Trishna, Bhrama, Chhardi, Netraroga, Vatarakta,
Amavata, Sthanyashudhi, Rakta vikara, Vali, Palitya, Mutrakrichha, Mutradaha, Prameha, Kasa, Kushtha, Kandu, Charmaroga, Hridaya dourbalya, Pandu, Kamala, Pravahika
DOSE OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
Guduchi satva – 5- 15 ratti (625-1875 mg)
Guduchyadi Taila – Topical uses
Guduchyadi kashaya – 60-100 ml twice or thrice a day
Guduchyadi churna – 1.5-3 gm twice or thrice a day
VISISHTA YOGA (Pharmaceutical preparations) of Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
Guduchyadi churna, Guduchyadi kwatha, Guduchi leha, Guduchi taila, Guduchi satva, Amrutarishta, Guduchyadi ghrita, Guduchyadi rasa kriya, Guduchi hima.
SUBSTITUTES & ADULTERANTS OF Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia
The piece of thick ariel roots of the same plant is always present in commercial samples. The surface of these pieces is smooth and light grey in colour. Stems of T. malabarica and crispa are the common adulterants. Some commercial samples of Guduchi contain exclusively of T. malabarica. There is a minor difference in the external morphology, the surface in the latter case, however, is slightly hairy. It is considered to be the source of kandodabhava Guduchi in ayurveda pharmacopoeia.
Photographs of Guduchi Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy)
The high-quality images may be found at theferns.info