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Patranga – Caesalpinia sappan

Introduction of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 3Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is a medicinal plant. It is used in various diseases related to mouth, menorrhagia and other menstrual problems, burning sensantion and skin diseases. The recent researches found that Patranga Caesalpinia sappan shows analgesic, anti-diabetic and antibacterial effects.

  • Botanical Name of Patranga is Patranga Caesalpinia sappan Linn.
  • Family Name of Patranga is Caesalpinaceae.

Literary Review

The drug Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is not mentioned in Vedas. Brihatrayi and almost all the Nighantu mentioned clear picture of this drug.

  • Acharya Charaka mentioned it under Shuka dhanya Varga and considered it as a Shali bheda (type) by the name “Patranga”. Charaka mentioned that Patranga Caesalpinia sappan has Sheeta veerya and Madhura Vipaka and indicated in diseases of mother and shukra dushya (related to semen and menses).
  • Acharya Sushruta and Acharya Vagbhatta categorized Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under the name ‘Patranga’ in Shuka dhanya Varga.
  • Acharya Vagbhatta described it with Madhura rasa and Madhura vipaka. It is useful in diseases like mutrakrichha (dysuria), vibandha (constipation) etc.
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu mentioned Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Chandanadi varga and quoted synonyms like Kuchandana, patanga, patranga etc. It is having kashaya, tikta and madhura rasa with katu vipaka.
  • Raja Nighantu mentioned Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Chandanadi varga with synonyms as Patranga, Raktakashta, Suranga. It subsides vata pittaj jvara, visphota, Unmada.
  • Bhavaprakasha nighantu categorized Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Karpuradi varga. It subsides pitta-kapha and vrana and daha.
  • Priya Nighantu explained it under saradi varga and having kashaya rasa and sheeta veerya with synonyms as Patanga, Rudhira, suranga etc.
  • Kaiyadeva nighantu mentions it under chandanadi varga and is useful in diseases like vrana (wound) and daha (burning sensation).
  • Madanapala nighantu explains it under karpuradi varga. He mentions synonyms as kuchandana, pattara, suranga etc. with shita veerya, pitta kapha hara and vranaghna.

Sanskrit Synonyms

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan has many Sanskrit synonyms. Have a look below –

  • Patanga – The plant which grows well.
  • Kuchandana – The plant which is characterized by its heart wood looking like Sandal.
  • Patranga – The plant which is covered with rich foliage.
  • Patradya – The plant which has rich foliage.
  • Pattaranjaka – The plant is used for dyeing cloths.
  • Raktasara – Heart wood yields red dye.
  • Ranjana – It is used in dyeing purpose.
  • Suranjam – It yields red dye.

Classical Categorization 

In Ayurveda, Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is categorized as follows –

  • Charaka Samhita – Shuka dhanya varga
  • Ashtanga hridayam – Shuka dhanya varga
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Karpuradi varga
  • Madanapala Nighantu – Karpuradi varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Shodhala Nighantu – Sukadhanya varga
  • Priya Nighantu – Saradi varga

Names in Different Languages

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is known by various names in different languages.

  • English – Sappan wood, Brazil wood
  • Hindi – Patanga, Bakam
  • Kannada – sappange
  • Malayalam – Cappannam, Sappannam
  • Sanskrit – Patrangah, Patangah
  • Tamil – Sapamga, Patamgam
  • Telugu – Bakarucakka, Vakamu
  • Marathi – Patang
  • Persian – Bakam
  • Arabic – Baggam
  • Gujarati – Patanga
  • Bengali – Bakam
  • Urdu – Bakam
  • Malayalam – Davan setjang, Sepang
  • Odiya – Bakomo

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub kingdom – Tracheobionata
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Sub division – Spermatophyta
  • Class – Magndiopsida
  • Sub class – Rosidae
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabeaceae
  • Genus – Caesalpinia
  • Species – Sappan

Useful Parts

Heart wood

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan.

  • Rasa – Kashaya, Tikta, Madhura
  • Guna – Ruksha
  • Virya – Shita
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Dosha karma – Kapha pitta shamaka

 

Actions (Karma)

Many Ayurvedic classics described actions of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan. Below are a few collection –

  • Artava Sangrahaniya (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 118/222)
  • Shonit asthapana (Susrutha samhita sutra 14/36)
  • Pramehaghna (Charaka chikista sthana 6/10)
  • Kushthaghna (Raja Marthanda 5/20)
  • Daha prashamana (Bhavaprakasha Nighantu)
  • Mastishka samaka (Ashtanga Hridaya Uttara 17/28)
  • Stambhana (Charaka chikistasthana 4/14)
  • Vrana ropana (Priya Nighantu)
  • Rakta stambhana (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 118/200)
  • Sugandhi (Sushruta samhita sutrastana 14/36)

Indications

Likewise, Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is indicated as follows in various classics –

  • Raktapradara (menorrhea)
  • Sveta pradara (leucorrhea)
  • Prameha (diabetes and other urine related problems)
  • Kushtha (skin ailments)
  • Daha (burning sensation)
  • Unmada (insanity)
  • Raktapitta (bleeding disorder)
  • Vrana (wound)
  • Pittaja jvara (fever where Pitta is dominated)
  • Rohini (diphtheria)
  • Mukha roga (oral diseases)

Pharmaco-therapeutic uses

  • Heart wood of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is used for blood purifying, anti-thirst, anti-diabetic and for improvement of complexion.
  • Patranga Caesalpinia sappan cures Jaundice and cough.
  • It is good for respiratory ailments and cures wound.
  • It has the capacity to cure Blood Pressure and Heart diseases.
  • The seeds of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan plant are used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.
  • It cures amenorrhea, dysmenorrheal, blood stasis after delivery, pricking pain in chest and abdomen, traumatic swelling and pain.
  • Decoction of wood and bark is used for Tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, tonic and for skin.

Dosage

  • Decoction – 50 – 100 ml
  • Oil – 5 – 15 drops
  • Powder – 1-2 gm

 

Ayurvedic Medicines

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Patranga Caesalpinia sappan. A few are listed below –

  • Patrangasava
  • Patrangadi Lepa

Photographs of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan

(Click on image to zoom)

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 2

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 3

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 4

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 1

(Image source – theferns.info)