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Amlika – Tamarindus indica

Introduction of Amlika Tamarindus indica –

amlika2Amlika Tamarindus indica is a tree with many therapeutic uses. Tamarind word is derived from Arabic word ‘Tamar hind (Indian date)’. It is called as Amlika in Sanskrit because of its sour property. Recent research study showed that it has Anti oxidant, fungicidal and antibacterial activity.

  • Botanical Name of Amlika is Tamarindus indica.
  • Family name of Amlika is Fabaceae.

Synonyms of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

In Ayurveda, Amlika Tamarindus indica has given many Sanskrit synonyms.

  • Amlika – tree having extremely sour.
  • Amla – fruits are extremely sour.
  • Chukrika – that which creates satisfaction.
  • Chincha – that which creates in distinguish.
  • Chinchaka – able and humming sound.
  • Shukta – that which causes acidity.
  • Tuntika – that which waters the tongue.
  • Vrikshamla – tree on which fruits with sour taste are born.
  • Bahupatrakam – having abundant small leaves.
  • Raktapura – having reddish brown fibers.
  • Amti – this word indicates, the tree having extremely sour taste.
  • Amlapura – carp which produce saliva.
  • Vishaghnanika — that which overcomes poisonous affection.

Classical Categorization of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Bhavaprakash Nighantu – Amradi phala Varga
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Amradi Varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga
  • Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Amradi Varga
  • Nighantu Adarsha – Putikaranjadi Varga.

Vernacular Names (Names in different languages) of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Amlika Tamarindus indica are known by different name in different languages.

  • Sanskrit – Amlika
  • English – Tamarind
  • Kannada – Hunise
  • Hindi        – Imli
  • Telgu        – Chincha
  • Tamil        – Puli
  • Malyalam – Puli
  • Gujrathi   – Avail
  • Bengali     – Tetula
  • Marathi    – Chincha

Systemic Classification of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Sub-family – Caesalpinioideae
  • Tribe – Detaricae
  • Genus – Tamarindus
  • Species  – indica

Useful parts of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Every parts of Amlika Tamarindus indica can be used in Ayurvedic medicine. But usually we use –

  • Phala (fruits)
  • Patra (leaves)
  • Beeja (seeds)
  • Pushpa (flowers)

Chemical Constituents of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Whole Plants – Volatile flavones compounds -Furfural, Furunone, Phenylacetaldehyde, Methylfurfural.

Bark – Tannin

Leaves, bark, flowers – hordenine, Kernels, Polysaccharide.

Pulp – Tartaric acid

Seed – Polysaccharide (glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in the ratio of 9:4:5:1)

Ayurvedic Properties of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Rasa – Madhura, Amla
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Amla
  • Karma – Kapha Vata hara, Dipana
  • Rogaghnata – Vata Vyadhi, Agnimandya, Kamla, Shotha.

Therapeutic  Uses of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • In atisara (dysentery) – outer layer of seeds of Amlika Tamarindus indica, shunti, rock salt and yavani are mixed together and taken with fresh butter milk.
  • In kasa (cough) – Make a mixture of epicarp of amlika fruit- 1 part, haridra – 2 parts, sarja kshara – 3 parts, punarnava – 1 parts and jati patra – 9 parts. This is made into wick and fumigated.
  • In fractures, external application of hot paste of fruits of Amlika Tamarindus indica mixed with takra and oil relieves pain and swellings.
  • Masurika (Pox) – Haridra and leaves of Amlika Tamarindus indica taken with cold water.
  • Soma roga (watery discharge from vagina) – Seeds of Amlika Tamarindus indica are soaked with water previous day and pounded with milk. This paste, if taken regularly, alleviates soma roga and asthi shrava (discharge from bone wound).
  • In gulma – Snuhi, palasha, apamarga, Amlika Tamarindus indica, arka, tila, yavakshara and sarja kshara these 8 kshara destroys gulma.
  • In vata vyadhi – Warm paste prepared from Amlika Tamarindus indica leaves alleviates pain.
  • In akshi roga (eye diseases) -Amlika patra swarasa (juice) mixed with kshira (milk) is rubbed in a vessel and then applied to eyelids. It removes redness, secretion, pain and congestion.
  • In sarpavisha (snake venom) -Amlika patra swarasa 160 ml mixed with salt 20 gmis taken orally.
  • In karna roga (ear problems) – In ear ache, oil processed with swarasa (juice) of amlika phala (fruit) is efficacious.
  • In ring worm – Local application of juice of amlika leaves cures ring worm.
  • In hrid roga (heart diseases), swarasa (juice) of Amlika Tamarindus indica leaves is given.
  • In bleeding piles – Amlika leaves is mixed with water, strained and added with salt. It is useful in bleeding piles.
  • Oedema – The affected part should be bathed with hot decoction of amlika leaves.

Dosage of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Fruit pulp – 5 – 10 gm
  • Beeja Churna – 3 – 5 gm.

Ayurvedic Medicines of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Amlika Tamarindus indica is used as an ingredint in many AYurvedic medicines. Few are listed below.

  • Chinchyadi lehya
  • Shankha Vati.

Photographs of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Click on image to zoom

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

(Image source – theferns.info)