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Ankola – Alangium salvifolium

Introduction of Ankola Alangium salvifolium –

ankola1Ankola Alangium salvifolium is a medicinal plant also known by Ankota used in Ayurveda since long. It is mentioned to be useful in Gara dosha – Danta visha (canine poison), Jalodara (ascites), Puyameha (pus in urine), Kamala (jaundice), Matsya (fish bite), Mushaka (rodent bite), Luta (spider bite), Kukkura (dog bite) and sarpadi (snake) visha. Also it is good anti helmenthic, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac. Ankola Alangium salvifolium is also used in Panchakarma therapies like Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and Virechana (purgation therapy). Ankola Alangium salvifolium is a well documented drug in ancient Indian medicine. We come across ‘Ankola Dvaya’ in Amarakosa. Charaka also mentioned it under phala varga. Commentators have described that ‘Nikochaka’ is a fruit resembling Ankola which is famous in the Northern India.

  • Botanical Name of Ankola is Alangium salvifolium.
  • Family name of Ankola is Alangiaceae.

Literary Review of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Ankola Alangium salvifolium is mentioned in Vedas, brihatrayis and also Laghutrayis. Further many Nighantu mentioned more about this drug.

  • Charaka mentioned it under Phala varga.
  • Kaiyyadeva Nighantu mentioned under Aushadhi varga and Taila varga.
  • The synonyms Guptasneha also indicates towards the presence of oils in this plant seeds.

Sanskrit Synonyms of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Ankota
  • Ankola
  • Deergakila
  • Harikila
  • Talakota
  • Nikochaka
  • Akallaka
  • Reci
  • Gandha
  • Guptasneha
  • Tamraphala
  • Dhera
  • Angulipatra
  • Drutamoola
  • Shubrapatra
  • Mallika
  • Kantaki
  • Peethatamra phala
  • Gunaddhya
  • Kolak
  • Lambakarna
  • Rochan

 Ayurvedic Categorization of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Bhavaprakash Nighantu – Guduchyadi varga
  • Kaiyadev Nighantu – Aushadhi varga, Taila varga
  • Raj Nighantu – Prabhadradi varga
  • Charaka Samhita – Phala varga
  • Dhanvantari – Guduchyadi varga

Vernacular Names (names in different languages) of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Ankola Alangium salvifolium is known by various names in different region and locale.

  • Hindi – Ankola, Akola, Ankollaka, Dhera
  • Gujarati – Ankola, Akol
  • Marathi – Ankol
  • Bengali – Akoda, Badh Ankoda
  • Telugu – Amkolamu, Udugga Chettu
  • Tamil – Elangi
  • English – Sage leaved alangium
  • Kannada – Ankolimara, Ansaroli, Arinjil, Lucki
  • Malayalam – Ankolam, Azhinni
  • Oriya – Ankula

Systemic Classification of  Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub kingdom – Viridae plantae
  • Phylum – Magnoliophyta
  • Sub phylum – Euphyllophytina
  • Infra phylum – Radiatopses
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Sub class – Cornidae
  • Super order – Cornaceae
  • Order – Cornales
  • Family – Cornaceae
  • Subfamily – Hydrangeoidece
  • Tribe – Hydrangeae
  • Genus – Alangium
  • Species – Salvifolium

Chemical Constituents of  Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Following chemical constituents have been found in  Ankola Alangium salvifolium.

  • In Root bark –  Alangine A, Marckine, Marckidine, Tubulosine, Cephaeline, Emetine, Psychotrine, Alangicine, Demethylpsychotrine.
  • Stem Bark – Lamarckinine
  • Stem – Emetine, Cephaeline, Psychotrine, Methyl cephaeline, Deoxytubulosine,
  • Leaves – Ankorine, Campester, episterol, Deoxytubulosine, Alangimarckine, Chole- chloride
  • Seeds – Betulinic acid, Betulin aldehyde, Betulin, Lupeol, β-sitosterol, Alangamide.

Ayurvedic Properties of  Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Rasa – Tikta, Katu, Kasaya
  • Guna – Laghu, Snigdha, Tiksna, Sara
  • Veerya – Usna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnatha – Kapha vata shamaka, Pitta samsodhana. Fruit is Kapha pitta shamaka.

Uses of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

The roots of Ankola Alangium salvifolium have been in use in Ayurvedic medicine since Vedic era. It mentioned to be used for alarka vish (rabies). Root bark of Ankola Alangium salvifolium is very bitter and is reputed as a cure for skin diseases. It is credited with astringent, pungent, anthelmintic, purgative and emetic properties and prescribed for biliousness and colic. Ankola Alangium salvifolium is a good substitute for ipecac and also proves useful as a diaphoretic and antipyretic. It is used in the form of decoction or powder. Ankola Alangium salvifolium contains an alkaloid which when administered in small doses causes a transient fall in BP followed by a sustained rise, depression of heart and irregular respiration. It also increases peristaltic movement of the intestine. The bark exhibits anti tubercular activity and is active against gram-positive organisms and Helminthosporium sativum Pammel. Oil from the root bark of Ankola Alangium salvifolium is rubbed in acute rheumatism.

Actioins of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

In Ayurvedic classics following actions (karma) of Ankola Alangium salvifolium are mentioned.

  • Vishaghna (antidote) – Jangama visha hara (poison source – animal).
  • Vedana sthapana (analgesic).
  • Rechana (purgative).
  • Vamaka (emetic)
  • Shoola prashamana (relieves abdominal pain and colic)
  • Krimighna (antihelmintic)
  • Yakrit uttejaka (stimulate proper functioning of hepatobiliary system)
  • Hridya (cardiac tonic)
  • Rakta vahini prasaraka (vasodilator)
  • Kusthaghna (cures skin diseases)
  • Sothahara (anti inflammatory)
  • Raktasodhaka (blood purifier)
  • Mutrala (diuretic)
  • Rasayana (rejuvenator)
  • Balya (gives strength and increase immunity)
  • Brimhana (nourishes body)
  • Veerya stambhaka (prevent early ejaculation of semen).

Indications of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Ankola Alangium salvifolium is indicated in following diseases externally or internally-

  • Abhyantara (internal) – Visha (poison), Gara dosa (canine poison), Jalodara (ascites), arsha (piles), krimi (worm infestation), atisara (dysentery), fever, jaundice and Rakta bharadhikya (high blood pressure).
  • Bahya (external)  Sotha (inlammatory conditions), rakta vikara (blood related problems), Puyameha (pus in urine),  mutra krichchha (dysuria), Kustha (skin ailments, leprosy), visarpa (erysipelas), phiranga (syphilis).

Useful Parts of Ankola Alangium salvifolium –  

Roots, Root bark, Fruits, Seeds, Fruit oil (seed oil) and Leaves, almost whole plant of Ankola Alangium salvifolium is used as medicine in Ayurveda.

Dosage of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • For Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) – 15 grain – 3 gm
  • Churna (Powder) in – 2 -10 grains
  • Poison antidote – 60 grains

Ayurvedic Medicines in which Ankola Alangium salvifolium is used as an ingredient – 

  • Kaalakuta rasa
  • Amrita ghrita
  • Ankotamulani kwatha

Photographs of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Please click on image to zoom

Ankola Alangium salvifolium Ankola Alangium salvifolium

(Image source – theferns.info)