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Shallaki – Boswellia serrata

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Shallaki Boswellia serrata is one of the herbs mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda. Shallaki is widely accepted in modern medicine to treat arthritis, low back pain, slip disc, lumbar spondylosis etc.

  • Botanical Name of Shallaki is Boswellia serrata.
  • Family Name of Shallaki is Burseraceae.

Synonyms of Shallaki Boswellia serrata

  • Gandhamula
  • Sushrava
  • Mukhameda
  • Vallaki
  • Sushreeka
  • Gajabhakshya
  • Jalavikrama
  • Surabhi
  • Chinnaruha
  • Bahusrava
  • Gandhaphala
  • Suvaha
  • Hradya
  • Maheruna
  • Kunduru
  • Kundureeki
  • Kunda
  • Niryasa
  • Shallaki
  • Vanaparnika
  • Mukund
  • Vanya
  • Sugandha
  • Gandhakari
  • Mocha
  • Gandhaveera
  • Nimbapatra
  • Yakshadhupa
  • Ashwamutri
  • Pichchha
  • Kantarika
  • Peeta
  • Trasraphala
  • Jalatiktika
  • Mahataru
  • Vasamaharuba
  • Rasa
  • Sukhamoda
  • Sallaka
  • Rasala
  • Salli
  • Visheshadhupa
  • Surabhisrava
  • Surabhisillaki
  • Gajavallabha
  • Kumbhi

Vernacular Names

Shallaki Boswellia serrata is known by different names in different languages.

  • Arabic – Bastaj, Kundur, Luban
  • Bengali – Kundur, Laban, Salai
  • Canaries – Dupa, Guggula, Kunda Lobana, Sambrani, Tadika, Site
  • Chinese – Fan Hun Hsiang
  • English – Indian Olibanum tree
  • Gujarati – Salado, Dhupado, Gugali, Mukulsalai
  • Hindi – Salai, Kundur, Laban, Salga, Sali, Selgond, Salhe
  • Kannada – Madi, Guggula, Chitta, Guguladhupa
  • Malyalam – Salai, Kunturukkam, Samprani, Parangi, Mukundam
  • Marathi – Salai, Salphullie
  • Oriya – Loban
  • Persian – Kundur
  • Punjabi – Salhi
  • Spanish – Asbol, Dol incienzo
  • Tamil – Paraginavani, Parankisampirani, Parangi, Attam
  • Telugu – Sanibrani, Paraginsavani, Phirangi, Anduga, Guggilamu
  • Urdu – Kundur, Lobana

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Shallaki Boswellia serrata comes under –

  • Vatadi Varga, Pureesha virajaneeya kashaya skanda, Shirovirechaneeya dravya
  • According to Sushruta – Yeladigana, Kashaya skanda, Lodhradi Gana

Systemic Classification

  • Division – Angiosperm
  • Sub division – Dicotyledon
  • Class – Polypetallae
  • Sub class – Discflorae
  • Order – Geraniales
  • Family – Burseraceae

Prayojya Anga (Parts used)

Following parts of Shallaki Boswellia serrata are used in medicine –

  • Tvak (bark)
  • Niryasa (gum-resin)
  • Pushp (flowers)
  • Patra (leaves)
  • Phala (fruits)

Ayurvedic Properties 

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Shallaki Boswellia serrata are as follows –

Rasa – Katu, Tikta

Guna – Tikshna

Veerya – Anushna

Vipaka – Katu

Therapeutic Indications and Actions

Externally – Vedanasthapana (analgesic), Shothahara (used in inflammation and swelling), Durgandha nashaka (used in foul smell), Jantughna (antihelminth), Vrana shodhaka (cleaning of wounds), Vranaropaka (healing wounds).

Internally 

  • Nadivaha Samsthana (central nervous system) – Medhya, used in Mastishka Daurbalya.
  • Pachana Samsthana (digestive system) – Deepaka (appetizer), Pachaka (digestive), Grahi (astringent), Vatanulomaka, Pureesha virajaneeya (changes abnormal color of stool to normal), used in Grahani (IBS and ulcerative colitis), Atisara (dysentery), Pravahika (diarrhea), jaundice and Agnimandya (loss of appetite).
  • Raktavaha Samsathana (circulatory system) – Raktastambhaka (coagulant) and hridya (cardiac tonic) and can be used in Hridroga (heart diseases).
  • Swasana Samsathana (respiratory system) – Kapha nissaraka (expectorant), Shleshmahara, Putihara (corrects bad smell from breath). It can be used in Kasa (a cough) and Shwasa roga (bronchitis and asthma).
  • Prajanana Samsthana (reproductive system) – Vrishya (aphrodisiac), used in Shukra daurbalya (thin semen) and for Artavajanana (anovulation and amenorrhea). It is also used in vaginal discharge and syphilis.
  • Musculo skeletal system – It is used in Vata vyadhi like osteoarthritis, back pain, lumbar spondylosis etc.
  • Mutravaha Samsthana (urinary system) – It is Mutrala (diuretic) and used in Mutrakrichchha (dysuria), Prameha (polyuria and diabetes) and Puyameha (pus in urine).

The bark of Shallaki Boswellia serrata is sweet in taste (madhura rasa), acrid, cooling and a tonic. It is good for vitiated condition of Pitta and Kapha. Decoction of bark is used in Asthma, Dysentery, Ulcer, Hemorrhoids (piles) and skin diseases.

Matra (Dosage)

Shallaki Boswellia serrata may be used in the following dosage –

  • Twak Kashaya – 50 ml to 100 ml
  • Oleo gum resin – 1gm to 3gm

Formulations

There are many Ayurvedic Medicines in which Shallaki Boswellia serrata is used as an ingredient.

  • Shallaki Niryasa
  • Agaruvadya Taila

Photographs of Shallaki Boswellia serrata

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shallaki boswellia serrata

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shallaki boswellia serrata 1

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shallaki boswellia serrata 4

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shallaki boswellia serrata 3

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shallaki boswellia serrata 2

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shallaki boswellia serrata 6

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shallaki boswellia serrata 5

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Chakramarda – Cassia tora

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Chakramarda is a medicinal plant well described in Ayurveda. Chakramarda Cassia tora is used in ring worm and other skin diseases. Charaka and Vagbhatta described it by the name of Prapunnada and Edagaja. It is Susruta who used the term Chakramarda for the first time.

  • Botanical name of Chakramarda is Cassia tora.
  • Family name of Chakramarda is Leguminaceae.

Vernacular Names of Chakramarda Cassia tora

Chakramarda Cassia tora is known by different names in different languages.

  • Sanskrit – Chakramarda
  • Hindi – Chakaund, chakwad, parwad
  • English – Ring worm plant, The foetid cassia
  • Tamil – Usitagarai
  • Malayalam – Takara
  • Telugu – Tagarisha-Chettu
  • Kannada – Sojanku
  • Bengali – Panevar
  • Gujarati – Kuwadiyo

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – rosopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae, Leguminaceae
  • Subfamily – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Genus – Cassia
  • Species – Tora

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Chakramarda Cassia tora comes under –

  • Acc.to Charaka – Shakavarga

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Chakramarda Cassia tora are as follows –

  • Rasa – Katu
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha Vata Shamaka

Patra (leaves) and Beeja (seeds) of Chakramarda are having some different properties –

  • Rasa – Madhura
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Madhura

Karma (Therapeutic actions)

  • Kushtaghna
  • Kandughna
  • Dadrughna
  • Nadibalya
  • Anulomana
  • Krimighna
  • Rechna
  • Yakrit uttejana
  • Hridya
  • Rakta prasadana
  • Vishaghna
  • Ojo vardhaka
  • Medohara
  • Lekhana
  • Jwaraghna

Therapeutic Uses

Chakramarda is used in skin diseases and Vata roga (musculo skeletal disorders). It may be used externally and internally.

  • In vataroga – Chakramarda leaves are used as a vegetable in the dietary preparations.
  • Sidhma (a type of leucoderma) – Chakramarda, Sarjarasa, Nimba, Sariva are mixed with kanjika and applied externally.

Indications

Chakramarda Cassia tora is indicated in following diseases –

Internal uses –
  • Kushtha (chronic skin diseases), Kandu (itching), charmaroga (skin ailments), kasa (cough), shwasa (ashma and bronchitis), rakta vikara (blood impurities and related diseases), Hridroga (heart diseases), rakta shodhaka (blood purifier), arsha (piles), Kapha -Vata janya vikara, Vata nadi vikara (neurological problems), pakshaghata (paralysis), ardita (facial palsy), vibandha (constipation), krimi (worm infestation), gulma (cysts and tumors), and visha auposargika roga (poison cases).
External Uses –
  • Twacha (skin problems), rakta-varna vikara (pigmentation), visha vikriti (poison case), arsha (piles), dadru (a type of skin disease), pama (a skin disease), kandu (itching), gandamala (tubercular cysts in neck), kushtha (chronic skin ailments), sidhma (a type of leucoderma), shiro roga (headache and other diseases related to head) and vrana (wound).

Useful Parts

Following parts of Chakramarda Cassia tora are used as medicine –

  • Moola (Root)
  • Beeja (Seed)
  • Patra (Leaf)

Dosage

Chakramarda Cassia tora may be used in following dosage –

  • Beeja Choorna (seed powder) – 1 to 3 gm
  • Patra Swarasa (leaves juice) – 6 to12 gm

Formulations

There are many Ayurvedic Medicines in which Chakramarda Cassia tora is used as an ingredient.

  • Cakramarda Tailam
  • Edagajadi lepam
  • Dadrughni vati

Photographs of Chakramarda Cassia tora

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chakramarda cassia tora 2

image – agropedia.iitk.ac.in

chakramarda cassia tora 1

image – Srikanth

chakramarda cassia tora 4

image – Stephen

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 1

chakramarda cassia tora 3

image – wikipedia

chakramarda cassia tora 5

image – aliexpress.com

chakramarda cassia tora 6

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chakramarda cassia tora

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Rakta Chandana – Pterocarpus santalinus

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Rakta Chandana is a tree reaching upto 15-30 feet height and possess yellow flowers. It is useful in conditions like burning sensation, hyper acidity, skin diseases, blood impurities and for beauty purposes. Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus grows mainly in the forest of Eastern ghats in  Andhra Pradesh, Tamil nadu and Karnataka.

Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Rakta sara – It’s heart wood is red in colour
  • Hari chandana
  • Ranjana
  • Kuchandanam

Ayurvedic categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus comes under –

  • According to Sushruta – Patoladi Gana, Sarivadi Gana, Priyangvadi Gana.
  • According to Vagbhatta – Patoladi Gana.
  • According to Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadi Varga
  • According to Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Karpuradi Varga

Vernacular Names

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus is known by different names in different languages.

  • English – Red sandal wood, Red Saunders
  • Hindi – Lalchandan, Rakta Chandan, Rakta Chandan
  • Gujarati – Ratanjali, Lal Chandan
  • Kannada – Rakta Chandana, Honne
  • Telugu – Erra chananam, Perra Chandanamu, Agaru gandhamu, Errachandanam, Raktachandanam, Rakta ghandham
  • Malayalam – Tilapaparni, Patrangam
  • Tamil – Shivappu, Atti, Chensandanam, Semmaram, Sivaffu Chandanam
  • Bengali – Rakta Chandan
  • Marathi – Tambada Chandan,  Raktachandan

Systemic Clasification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Subfamily – Faboideae
  • Genus – Pterocarpus
  • Species – Santalinus

Useful Parts

Following parts of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus are used as medicine –

  • Heart Wood

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus are as follows –

  • Rasa – Tikta, Madhura
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshakarma – Kapha Pitta shamaka

Karma (Pharmacological actions and indications)

  • Daha prashamana (used in burning sensation of body, feet or palm)
  • Javaraghna (antipyretic)
  • Raktapitta (bleeding disorders)
  • Kusthaghna (useful in skin diseases)
  • Vishaghna (antidot)
  • Chardi nigrahana (used in vomiting)
  • Trisna nigrahana (used in excessive thirst)
  • Atisara hara (anti dysentery)
  • Shira shoola hara (used in headache and migraine)
  • Charma roga hara (cures skin diseases)
  • Chakshushya (good for eyes)
  • Vrisya (aphrodisiac)

Indications

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus is indicated in following diseases –

  • Raktapitta
  • Bhrama
  • Jvara
  • Daha

 

Dosage

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus may be used in following dosage –

  • Heart wood powder – 3 to 6 gm

Fomulations

There are many Ayurvedic Medicines in which Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus is used as an ingredient.

  • Dashanga Lepa
  • Parpatadi kwatha
  • Amritashtaka kwatha
  • Guduchyadi kwatha
  • Shadanga paniya
  • Chandanadi Lauh
  • Guduchyadi Kashayam
  • Asanadi Kashayam

Photographs of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 2

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 4

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 5

image source – seeds Alibaba

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 6

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 1

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 3

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Puga – Areca catechu

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Puga Areca catechu is a medicinal plant originally from Cochin. It is widely found in china and Malaya. Its name Areca is a translation from Malayalam word. It was referred to many of Indian ancient books, mythologies and classics. It was considered as sacred nut offered while welcoming an honoured guest. Sushruta told it is a nut which cures diseases of Kapha, cleans mouth and rectifies disorder of Pitta. In excess, it affects throat and voice. In India, it is commonly known by the name- Supari. It is told as the crown of leaves as it looks like an arrow stuck in the ground.

  • Botanical Name of Puga is Areca Catechu.
  • Family Name of Puga is Palmae.

Varieties

Puga Areca catechu may be classified as follows –

According to processing –

  1. Safed Supari (white areca nut)- Prepared by harvesting fully ripe areca nut and by sun drying for 40-50 days. After drying the nut, the shell of the nut has to be removed by hand machine and called as Supari.
  2. Lal Supari (red areca nut) – Prepared by harvesting tender green areca nut and peeling the husk, boiled in water and dried and known as Chikni Supari (smooth nut).

According to the place where it is grown –

  1. Shreevardhan – Grown in the coastal Maharastra state of India.
  2. Mangala –  Grown in Dakshina Kannada.
  3. Sumangala – Selection from Indonesia.
  4. Shree Mangala – Selection from Singapore.
  5. Mettupalayam – Grown in Coimbatore district of Tamilnadu.
  6. Mohitnagar – Largely grown in the north eastern region like west Bengal.
  7. Kahikuchi – Grown in northeastern regions like Assam, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura.

Other varieties of Puga Areca catechu available in Indian market –

  1. Mora
  2. Moti
  3. Vachras
  4. Jamnagar
  5. Jini
  6. Lindi

Synonyms of Puga Areca catechu 

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Puga Areca catechu has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Guvaka
  • Khapura
  • Kramuka
  • Puga
  • Tanthusara
  • Pugi
  • Valkatharu
  • Rajathala
  • Drida Valka
  • Udvega
  • Thailvana
  • Akoda
  • Gholya
  • Chataphala
  • Ghoranta
  • Chikkni
  • Chikka
  • Dhirghapadapa
  • Chikkanam
  • Dridavalkala
  • Khubaka
  • Ghonta
  • Kashaya Phala
  • Ghopadala
  • Pushpaka
  • Kappithana
  • Thramu
  • Karamatta
  • Thramuki
  • Suranjana
  • Seri
  • Tamboola
  • Khebuka

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorised under Varga and Gana. Likewise, Puga Areca catechu comes under –

  1. According to Bhava Prakash – Amra Phalaadi Varga
  2. According to Raja Nighantu – Amraadi Varga
  3. According to Madanapala Nighantu – Phalaadi Varga
  4. According to Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga

Vernacular Names

Puga Areca catechu is known by different names in different languages.

  • Arabic – Fofal, Feefal
  • Assam – Tambul
  • Bengal – Gua, Supari
  • Burma – Kun, Kunsi
  • Chinese – Ping Lang
  • Dutch – Areca palm Boom, Pinang
  • English – Arecanut Palm, Betel Palm, Catechu Palm, Fausel nut Palm, Medicinal Cabbage Tree, Indian Nut Tree, Pinang Palm, Supari Palm
  • French – Arec, Arec Betel, Arec Cachou
  • German – Areca Palm
  • Gujarati – Hopari, Phophal,Sopari
  • Hindi – Supari, Suppari, Supyari, Supadi
  • Italian – Areca
  • Konkani – Feefal, Maddi, Supari
  • Malayalam – Atekka, Chempalukka, Pakka, Phugam, Kramukam, Ghonta, Kamuka, Kavunnu
  • Marathi – Pophali, Pung, Supari
  • Portuguese – Areca
  • Russian – Areka, Kapustnaya Palma
  • Tamil – Kamugee, Kandi, Kiramugam, Kugagam, Pakku, Pugam
  • Telugu – Chikinamu, Chikini, Kolapoka, Kramukamu, Poka, Prakka, Pugamu
  • Urdu – Supari, Feefal, Choalia

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub-Kingdom – Phanerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Monoctyledonae
  • Series – Calycineae
  • Order – Princeps( Palmales)
  • Family – Palmae
  • Genus – Areca
  • Species – Catechu

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Puga Areca catechu are as follows –

  • Rasa – Kashaya, Madhura
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha Pitta Shamaka

Useful Parts

Following parts of Puga Areca catechu are used as medicine –

  • Beeja (Seed)
  • Tvaka (Bark)
  • Moola (Roots)

Vishitha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations)

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Puga Areca catechu. A few are listed below –

  • Puga Khanda
  • Supari Paka
  • Khadira – Kramuka Yoga

Indications

Puga Areca catechu is indicated in following diseases –

  • Shweta pradara (leucorrhea)
  • Vata vyadhi (neuro, muscular and skeletal problem)
  • Kati shoola (low back pain)
  • Aruchi (loss of appetite)
  • Atisara (dysentery)
  • Pravahika (diarrhea)
  • Krimi roga (worm infestation)
  • Rakta pitta (bleeding conditions)
  • Shukra meha (sementorrhea)
  • Bhahumutra (polyuria)
  • Vrana (wound)
  • Mukha paka (mouth ulcer)
  • Gala roga (diseases of throat)
  • Upadansha (syphilis)
  • Rakta atisara (dysentery with rectal bleeding)
  • Sootika vikara (peurperal problems)
  • Danta puya (suppurative gums)
  • Grahani (IBS and related conditions)
  • Masoorika (small pox)

Therapeutic Uses

  • Uttara Basti (therapeutic enema) is administered in case of Leucorrhea.
  • A dusting of powder is suggested for wounds and ulcers.
  • The gargle of decoction of puga phala (areca nut) is taken in diseases of the mouth, particularly stomatitis and throat infections.
  • The oil prepared with puga is applied in a backache, waist pain and other Vata vyadhi.
  • The powder of nut, mixed with lime juice / milk is good for anorexia, diarrhoea, dysentery and worms.
  • The seed of areca mixed with lime, black catechu and leaves of betel are useful in the decay of teeth.
  • Powder of dried nuts in 10 -15 grains along with equal part of sugar is used in diarrhoea.
  • 1/4th tola (1 tola = 12 gm) powder rubbed into a paste with 2 tola of fresh lemon juice makes an excellent vermifuge.
  • About a teaspoonful is administered after the patient has fasted for 12-14 hrs either up to a bolus with a ghee / floating on milk is useful for the expulsion of tapeworm.
  • Tincture form of areca nut is used as an astringent gargle when freely diluted with water i.e. 1 drachm of powder with 4 ounces of water in bleeding gums. It is also used as an injection for stopping watery discharge from the vagina and in checking pyrosis of pregnancy.
  • Nut burnt to charcoal and quarter part of cinnamon forms a good herbal tooth powder.
  • Juice of tender leaves mixed with til oil is applied as an embrocation in cases of lumbago.
  • A decoction of the root is a repeated cure for sore lips.
  • In Rakta pitta (bleeding disorders), supari churna with Chandana churna in equal quantity should be taken with Tandulodaka (rice water) and Madhu (honey).
  • In Vata vyadhi, shallaki along with supari kwatha mixed with til oil and is given to drink.
  • In Upadansha (syphilis), lepana (external application) of Puga paste is applied.
  • Avachurnam (external application of powder) of areca nut used in Vrana (wound).
  • In Dysuria, water boiled with areca nut is used.
  • In a cough, betel nut is chewed along with leaves of betel climber.
  • 1 gm powder of areca nut along with 1 cup lukewarm milk is advised in case of lack of sexual pleasure.
  • Boiling 4 gm of areca nut in 4 cups of water and then it is reduced to 1 cup; 2 parts of it are taken daily twice in bloody dysentery and indigestion.

Toxicity of Puga Areca catechu

4-nitroso compounds, N-nirtosoguvacoline, N-nitrosoguvacaine, 3(N- nitrosomethylamine) propionaldehyde and 3-(N-nitroso methylamine) propionitrile isolated from an aqueous extract of betel nuts have been found cytotoxic and genotoxic to human buccal epithelial cells and also produce pancreatic, lung, nasal and liver tumour in rats.

Shodhana (Purification) of Puga Areca catechu

  • Dipping supari in hot water
  • Frying in bhalu mitti
  • Boiling in milk

Dosage

Puga Areca catechu may be used in the following dosage –

Kwatha (decoction) – 50 to 100 ml

Seed powder – 1 to 3 gm

Substitute and Adulterants

Nuts from other plants like Areca caliso, Areca nagensis are used as substitutes for areca nut (puga/ supari). Sago palm nuts dried tapioca and slices of sweet potato from chief adulterants that are mixed with slices of areca nut. Also nuts of Caryota urens cut to various shapes and sizes resembling genuine areca nut are coated and concentrated and used as adulterants for areca nut.

Photographs of Puga Areca catechu

(Please click on image to zoom)

Puga Areca catechu 6

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Puga Areca catechu 7

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Puga Areca catechu 8

(3) image- theferns.info

Puga Areca catechu 1

(4) image- specialtyproduce.com

Puga Areca catechu 3

(5) image- indianaturewatch.net

Puga Areca catechu 4

(6) image- ioffer.com

Puga Areca catechu 5

(7) image- allpointseast.com

Puga Areca catechu

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Shami – Prosopis cineraria

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Shami Prosopis cineraria is a medicinal tree. It is well known by Hindus for its spiritual uses. Medicinally it is used in various skin diseases, diseases of eyes, digestive problems and respiratory illness.

  • Botanical name of Shami is – Shami Prosopis cineraria.
  • The family name of Shami is – Mimosaceae.

In this post, I tried to compile in brief about medicinal properties, uses, indications, dosage and photographs of Shami Prosopis cineraria tree.

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorised under Varga and Gana. Likewise, Shami Prosopis cineraria comes under –

  • Gana – Asavayoni gana
  • Varga – Aushadhi varga, Vatadi varga, Aamradi Varga, panchabhringa, Shalmayadi varga.

Vernacular Names

Shami Prosopis cineraria is known by different names in different languages.

  • English – Indian Mesquite, shamee, sponge tree.
  • Hindi – Chikur, Rhejri, Chonkar, Sami, Shami, Chinkur, chokara, chonkara, chounkar, chourkara, sepada, taant, safet kikar, shame, jhand
  • Rajastani – Khejri, Rhejri, Loong
  • kannada – Banni mara, Banni ele, Shamee patre, Perumbe, Perunje, Vunne, vanni Kashanti
  • Telugu – Jammi chettu
  • Tamil – Vanni, Jambu, kalisam, kulisam, parambai, perabe, perumbe, Sami, seemaimullu, sivaa, thamali,
  • Marathi – Saunder, savandad, shamee, shambaree
  • Bengali – Shami,
  • Punjabi – Jund, Bishnois, Janti
  • Gujarati – Samadi, Khijadi
  • Malayalam – Parampu, Marampu, Thawi Vanni,
  • Telugu – Jammi chettu, Jammi, Jambi, priyadarshini, shamichetta

Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Shami Prosopis cineraria tree has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Shami
  • Shiva
  • Lakshmi
  • Mangalya
  • Tunga
  • Agnigarbha
  • Ishani
  • Shanku phala
  • Shankari
  • Saktu phala.
  • Shamira
  • Chikur

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Tracheobionta-Vascular plants
  • Superdivision – Spermatophyta-Seed plants
  • Division – Magnoliophyta-flowering plants
  • Class – Magnoliopsida-dicotyledons
  • Subclass – Rosidae
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae-Pea family
  • Genus – Prospis L.-Mesquite
  • Species – Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce-Jand

Useful Parts

Following parts of Shami Prosopis cineraria tree is used as medicine –

  • Twak (stem bark)
  • Phala (fruit)

Indications of Shami Prosopis cineraria

Shami is indicated in

  • Kushtha (skin diseases)
  • Granthi (cysts and tumour)
  • Bala roga (diseases of children)
  • Kapha pitta vyanga vikara (blemishes and hyperpigmentation due to Kapha and Pitta)
  • Kasa (cough)
  • Swasha (bronchitis and asthma)
  • Arsha (piles)
  • Krimi roga (worm infestation)
  • Atisara (dysentery)
  • Pravahika (diarrhoea)
  • Amatisara (a type of dysentery)

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug are described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Below are Ayurvedic properties of Shami Prosopis cineraria.

  • Rasa – Madhura Kasaya
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Virya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha-Pitta shamaka

Dosage

  • Kwatha (decoction) – 20 to 60 ml
  • Phala churna (seed powder)- 2 to 5 gm

Vishishta yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparation)

Shami Prosopis cineraria is used as an ingredient is following Ayurvedic medicine –

  • Ksharagada

Photographs

(Click on image to zoom)

Shami Prosopis cineraria 1

1

Shami Prosopis cineraria 2

2

Shami Prosopis cineraria

3

(Image source – 1, 2, 3 – theferns.info)

Shami Prosopis cineraria 3

(image source – wikipedia.org)

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Ingudi – Balanites aegyptiaca

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

The main action of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca are Kapha – Vata hara (kapha vata predominant diseases), Krimighna (deworming), Kusthaghna (cures skin ailments).

  • Botanical Name of Ingudi is Balanites aegyptiaca.
  • Family name of Ingudi is Zygophyllaceae or Balanitaceae (see wiki)

 

It is an important tree having seed oil with excellent therapeutic utility in kushta. Though modern research now reported it as anaesthetic, emethic, antehelmentic etc.

The compilations covers various aspects of the above drug namely literary view, synonyms, vernacular names, systemic classification, controversial verities, genus and vargas, habit & distribution, morphology, microscopic, macroscopic characters, chemical studies properties, action, uses, formulations and clinical reference.

Sanskrit Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca plant has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Inguda : Difficulty in movements
  • Angara vriksha : Tree has sharp spines
  • Anilantaka : Seeds yields oil which is useful in Vata disorders.
  • Kroshtu phala : Grows wild
  • Tapasa druma : Known as hermits tree as it used by them in many way.
  • Tikshna kanta : Tree has sharp spines.
  • Tikta majja : Bears fruit with bitter pulp.
  • Taila phala : Seeds yield oil
  • Pooti gandha : Having disagreeable smell.
  • Bhallakah : Tree has sharp spines.

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca comes under –

  • According to Charaka Samhita – Phala varga
  • According to Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Vatadi Varga
  • According to Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga
  • According to Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadi Varga
  • According to Raja Nighantu – Shalmayadi Vraga
  • According to Madanapala Nighantu – Vatadi Vraga
  • According to Shodhala Nighantu – Amradi Varga

Vernacular Names

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca is known by different names in different languages.

  • English – Desert date
  • Gujarati – Egorea, Hinger, Hngoriyum, Igorea
  • Hindi – Hingot, hingan, Ingua.
  • Malayalam – Nanjunta
  • Marathi – Hingam, Hngane
  • Tamil – Nanjundan, Toruvather
  • Telugu – Gara, Ingudi, Ringri

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantea
  • Phylum – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliatea or Dicolyledons
  • Subclass – Rosidae
  • Order – Geraniales
  • Family – Balanitaceae
  • Genus – Balanitis
  • Species – aeyptiaca

Useful Parts

Following parts of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca are used as medicine –

  • Twak (Bark)
  • Phala Majja (Fruit pulp)
  • Beeja (Seeds)
  • Beeja Taila (Seed Oil)

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca.

  • Rasa – Tikta, Katu
  • Guna – Laghu, Snigdha
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha Vata hara, Rasayana

Indications & Uses of Ingudi balanites aegyptiaca

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca is used externally and internally.

External Uses

  • Agnidagdha (Fire burn case)
  • Vrana (wounds)
  • Siroroga (diseases of head)
  • Kesa vikara (hair problems)
  • Dusta vrana (non healing wounds)
  • Visha – musika damsa (poison – rat bite)

Internal Uses

  • Krimi roga  (worm infestation)
  • Vibandha (constipation)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetite)
  • Udara shula (abdominal pain)
  • Rakta vikara (diseases related to blood)
  • Jeerna kasa (chronic cough)
  • Shvasa (asthma and bronchitis)
  • Mutra krichchha (dysuria)
  • Shvitra (leucoderma)
  • Charma roga – vyanga (skin diseases like blemishes, melasma and hyper pigmentation)
  • Visha (poison)
  • Shoola (Abdominal colic)
  • Kustha (skin diseases)
  • Musika visha (rat bite poison)

Dosage

  • Decoction – 50 – 100 ml
  • Powder – 3 – 6 gm
  • Seed oil – 5 – 10 drops
  • Fruit pulp – 500 – 1000 mg
  • Seed powder – 500 – 1000 mg

Pharmaceutical Preparation

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca. A few are listed below –

  • Ingudi taila

Photographs of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

(Click on image to zoom)

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

(image source – theferns.info)

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

(image source – google image)