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Shallaki – Boswellia serrata

Shallaki Boswellia serrata is one of the herbs mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda. Shallaki is widely accepted in modern medicine to treat arthritis, low back pain, slip disc, lumbar spondylosis etc.

  • Botanical Name of Shallaki is Boswellia serrata.
  • Family Name of Shallaki is Burseraceae.

Synonyms of Shallaki Boswellia serrata

  • Gandhamula
  • Sushrava
  • Mukhameda
  • Vallaki
  • Sushreeka
  • Gajabhakshya
  • Jalavikrama
  • Surabhi
  • Chinnaruha
  • Bahusrava
  • Gandhaphala
  • Suvaha
  • Hradya
  • Maheruna
  • Kunduru
  • Kundureeki
  • Kunda
  • Niryasa
  • Shallaki
  • Vanaparnika
  • Mukund
  • Vanya
  • Sugandha
  • Gandhakari
  • Mocha
  • Gandhaveera
  • Nimbapatra
  • Yakshadhupa
  • Ashwamutri
  • Pichchha
  • Kantarika
  • Peeta
  • Trasraphala
  • Jalatiktika
  • Mahataru
  • Vasamaharuba
  • Rasa
  • Sukhamoda
  • Sallaka
  • Rasala
  • Salli
  • Visheshadhupa
  • Surabhisrava
  • Surabhisillaki
  • Gajavallabha
  • Kumbhi

Vernacular Names

Shallaki Boswellia serrata is known by different names in different languages.

  • Arabic – Bastaj, Kundur, Luban
  • Bengali – Kundur, Laban, Salai
  • Canaries – Dupa, Guggula, Kunda Lobana, Sambrani, Tadika, Site
  • Chinese – Fan Hun Hsiang
  • English – Indian Olibanum tree
  • Gujarati – Salado, Dhupado, Gugali, Mukulsalai
  • Hindi – Salai, Kundur, Laban, Salga, Sali, Selgond, Salhe
  • Kannada – Madi, Guggula, Chitta, Guguladhupa
  • Malyalam – Salai, Kunturukkam, Samprani, Parangi, Mukundam
  • Marathi – Salai, Salphullie
  • Oriya – Loban
  • Persian – Kundur
  • Punjabi – Salhi
  • Spanish – Asbol, Dol incienzo
  • Tamil – Paraginavani, Parankisampirani, Parangi, Attam
  • Telugu – Sanibrani, Paraginsavani, Phirangi, Anduga, Guggilamu
  • Urdu – Kundur, Lobana

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Shallaki Boswellia serrata comes under –

  • Vatadi Varga, Pureesha virajaneeya kashaya skanda, Shirovirechaneeya dravya
  • According to Sushruta – Yeladigana, Kashaya skanda, Lodhradi Gana

Systemic Classification

  • Division – Angiosperm
  • Sub division – Dicotyledon
  • Class – Polypetallae
  • Sub class – Discflorae
  • Order – Geraniales
  • Family – Burseraceae

Prayojya Anga (Parts used)

Following parts of Shallaki Boswellia serrata are used in medicine –

  • Tvak (bark)
  • Niryasa (gum-resin)
  • Pushp (flowers)
  • Patra (leaves)
  • Phala (fruits)

Ayurvedic Properties 

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Shallaki Boswellia serrata are as follows –

Rasa – Katu, Tikta

Guna – Tikshna

Veerya – Anushna

Vipaka – Katu

Therapeutic Indications and Actions

Externally – Vedanasthapana (analgesic), Shothahara (used in inflammation and swelling), Durgandha nashaka (used in foul smell), Jantughna (antihelminth), Vrana shodhaka (cleaning of wounds), Vranaropaka (healing wounds).

Internally 

  • Nadivaha Samsthana (central nervous system) – Medhya, used in Mastishka Daurbalya.
  • Pachana Samsthana (digestive system) – Deepaka (appetizer), Pachaka (digestive), Grahi (astringent), Vatanulomaka, Pureesha virajaneeya (changes abnormal color of stool to normal), used in Grahani (IBS and ulcerative colitis), Atisara (dysentery), Pravahika (diarrhea), jaundice and Agnimandya (loss of appetite).
  • Raktavaha Samsathana (circulatory system) – Raktastambhaka (coagulant) and hridya (cardiac tonic) and can be used in Hridroga (heart diseases).
  • Swasana Samsathana (respiratory system) – Kapha nissaraka (expectorant), Shleshmahara, Putihara (corrects bad smell from breath). It can be used in Kasa (a cough) and Shwasa roga (bronchitis and asthma).
  • Prajanana Samsthana (reproductive system) – Vrishya (aphrodisiac), used in Shukra daurbalya (thin semen) and for Artavajanana (anovulation and amenorrhea). It is also used in vaginal discharge and syphilis.
  • Musculo skeletal system – It is used in Vata vyadhi like osteoarthritis, back pain, lumbar spondylosis etc.
  • Mutravaha Samsthana (urinary system) – It is Mutrala (diuretic) and used in Mutrakrichchha (dysuria), Prameha (polyuria and diabetes) and Puyameha (pus in urine).

The bark of Shallaki Boswellia serrata is sweet in taste (madhura rasa), acrid, cooling and a tonic. It is good for vitiated condition of Pitta and Kapha. Decoction of bark is used in Asthma, Dysentery, Ulcer, Hemorrhoids (piles) and skin diseases.

Matra (Dosage)

Shallaki Boswellia serrata may be used in the following dosage –

  • Twak Kashaya – 50 ml to 100 ml
  • Oleo gum resin – 1gm to 3gm

Formulations

There are many Ayurvedic Medicines in which Shallaki Boswellia serrata is used as an ingredient.

  • Shallaki Niryasa
  • Agaruvadya Taila

Photographs of Shallaki Boswellia serrata

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shallaki boswellia serrata

image – theferns.info

shallaki boswellia serrata 1

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shallaki boswellia serrata 4

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shallaki boswellia serrata 3

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shallaki boswellia serrata 2

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shallaki boswellia serrata 6

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shallaki boswellia serrata 5

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Chakramarda – Cassia tora

Chakramarda is a medicinal plant well described in Ayurveda. Chakramarda Cassia tora is used in ring worm and other skin diseases. Charaka and Vagbhatta described it by the name of Prapunnada and Edagaja. It is Susruta who used the term Chakramarda for the first time.

  • Botanical name of Chakramarda is Cassia tora.
  • Family name of Chakramarda is Leguminaceae.

Vernacular Names of Chakramarda Cassia tora

Chakramarda Cassia tora is known by different names in different languages.

  • Sanskrit – Chakramarda
  • Hindi – Chakaund, chakwad, parwad
  • English – Ring worm plant, The foetid cassia
  • Tamil – Usitagarai
  • Malayalam – Takara
  • Telugu – Tagarisha-Chettu
  • Kannada – Sojanku
  • Bengali – Panevar
  • Gujarati – Kuwadiyo

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – rosopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae, Leguminaceae
  • Subfamily – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Genus – Cassia
  • Species – Tora

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Chakramarda Cassia tora comes under –

  • Acc.to Charaka – Shakavarga

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Chakramarda Cassia tora are as follows –

  • Rasa – Katu
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha Vata Shamaka

Patra (leaves) and Beeja (seeds) of Chakramarda are having some different properties –

  • Rasa – Madhura
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Madhura

Karma (Therapeutic actions)

  • Kushtaghna
  • Kandughna
  • Dadrughna
  • Nadibalya
  • Anulomana
  • Krimighna
  • Rechna
  • Yakrit uttejana
  • Hridya
  • Rakta prasadana
  • Vishaghna
  • Ojo vardhaka
  • Medohara
  • Lekhana
  • Jwaraghna

Therapeutic Uses

Chakramarda is used in skin diseases and Vata roga (musculo skeletal disorders). It may be used externally and internally.

  • In vataroga – Chakramarda leaves are used as a vegetable in the dietary preparations.
  • Sidhma (a type of leucoderma) – Chakramarda, Sarjarasa, Nimba, Sariva are mixed with kanjika and applied externally.

Indications

Chakramarda Cassia tora is indicated in following diseases –

Internal uses –
  • Kushtha (chronic skin diseases), Kandu (itching), charmaroga (skin ailments), kasa (cough), shwasa (ashma and bronchitis), rakta vikara (blood impurities and related diseases), Hridroga (heart diseases), rakta shodhaka (blood purifier), arsha (piles), Kapha -Vata janya vikara, Vata nadi vikara (neurological problems), pakshaghata (paralysis), ardita (facial palsy), vibandha (constipation), krimi (worm infestation), gulma (cysts and tumors), and visha auposargika roga (poison cases).
External Uses –
  • Twacha (skin problems), rakta-varna vikara (pigmentation), visha vikriti (poison case), arsha (piles), dadru (a type of skin disease), pama (a skin disease), kandu (itching), gandamala (tubercular cysts in neck), kushtha (chronic skin ailments), sidhma (a type of leucoderma), shiro roga (headache and other diseases related to head) and vrana (wound).

Useful Parts

Following parts of Chakramarda Cassia tora are used as medicine –

  • Moola (Root)
  • Beeja (Seed)
  • Patra (Leaf)

Dosage

Chakramarda Cassia tora may be used in following dosage –

  • Beeja Choorna (seed powder) – 1 to 3 gm
  • Patra Swarasa (leaves juice) – 6 to12 gm

Formulations

There are many Ayurvedic Medicines in which Chakramarda Cassia tora is used as an ingredient.

  • Cakramarda Tailam
  • Edagajadi lepam
  • Dadrughni vati

Photographs of Chakramarda Cassia tora

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chakramarda cassia tora 2

image – agropedia.iitk.ac.in

chakramarda cassia tora 1

image – Srikanth

chakramarda cassia tora 4

image – Stephen

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 1

chakramarda cassia tora 3

image – wikipedia

chakramarda cassia tora 5

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chakramarda cassia tora 6

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chakramarda cassia tora

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Rakta Chandana – Pterocarpus santalinus

Rakta Chandana is a tree reaching upto 15-30 feet height and possess yellow flowers. It is useful in conditions like burning sensation, hyper acidity, skin diseases, blood impurities and for beauty purposes. Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus grows mainly in the forest of Eastern ghats in  Andhra Pradesh, Tamil nadu and Karnataka.

Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Rakta sara – It’s heart wood is red in colour
  • Hari chandana
  • Ranjana
  • Kuchandanam

Ayurvedic categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus comes under –

  • According to Sushruta – Patoladi Gana, Sarivadi Gana, Priyangvadi Gana.
  • According to Vagbhatta – Patoladi Gana.
  • According to Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadi Varga
  • According to Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Karpuradi Varga

Vernacular Names

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus is known by different names in different languages.

  • English – Red sandal wood, Red Saunders
  • Hindi – Lalchandan, Rakta Chandan, Rakta Chandan
  • Gujarati – Ratanjali, Lal Chandan
  • Kannada – Rakta Chandana, Honne
  • Telugu – Erra chananam, Perra Chandanamu, Agaru gandhamu, Errachandanam, Raktachandanam, Rakta ghandham
  • Malayalam – Tilapaparni, Patrangam
  • Tamil – Shivappu, Atti, Chensandanam, Semmaram, Sivaffu Chandanam
  • Bengali – Rakta Chandan
  • Marathi – Tambada Chandan,  Raktachandan

Systemic Clasification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Subfamily – Faboideae
  • Genus – Pterocarpus
  • Species – Santalinus

Useful Parts

Following parts of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus are used as medicine –

  • Heart Wood

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus are as follows –

  • Rasa – Tikta, Madhura
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshakarma – Kapha Pitta shamaka

Karma (Pharmacological actions and indications)

  • Daha prashamana (used in burning sensation of body, feet or palm)
  • Javaraghna (antipyretic)
  • Raktapitta (bleeding disorders)
  • Kusthaghna (useful in skin diseases)
  • Vishaghna (antidot)
  • Chardi nigrahana (used in vomiting)
  • Trisna nigrahana (used in excessive thirst)
  • Atisara hara (anti dysentery)
  • Shira shoola hara (used in headache and migraine)
  • Charma roga hara (cures skin diseases)
  • Chakshushya (good for eyes)
  • Vrisya (aphrodisiac)

Indications

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus is indicated in following diseases –

  • Raktapitta
  • Bhrama
  • Jvara
  • Daha

 

Dosage

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus may be used in following dosage –

  • Heart wood powder – 3 to 6 gm

Fomulations

There are many Ayurvedic Medicines in which Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus is used as an ingredient.

  • Dashanga Lepa
  • Parpatadi kwatha
  • Amritashtaka kwatha
  • Guduchyadi kwatha
  • Shadanga paniya
  • Chandanadi Lauh
  • Guduchyadi Kashayam
  • Asanadi Kashayam

Photographs of Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 2

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 4

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 5

image source – seeds Alibaba

Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 6

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 1

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Rakta Chandana Pterocarpus santalinus 3

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Puga – Areca catechu

Puga Areca catechu is a medicinal plant originally from Cochin. It is widely found in china and Malaya. Its name Areca is a translation from Malayalam word. It was referred to many of Indian ancient books, mythologies and classics. It was considered as sacred nut offered while welcoming an honoured guest. Sushruta told it is a nut which cures diseases of Kapha, cleans mouth and rectifies disorder of Pitta. In excess, it affects throat and voice. In India, it is commonly known by the name- Supari. It is told as the crown of leaves as it looks like an arrow stuck in the ground.

  • Botanical Name of Puga is Areca Catechu.
  • Family Name of Puga is Palmae.

Varieties

Puga Areca catechu may be classified as follows –

According to processing –

  1. Safed Supari (white areca nut)- Prepared by harvesting fully ripe areca nut and by sun drying for 40-50 days. After drying the nut, the shell of the nut has to be removed by hand machine and called as Supari.
  2. Lal Supari (red areca nut) – Prepared by harvesting tender green areca nut and peeling the husk, boiled in water and dried and known as Chikni Supari (smooth nut).

According to the place where it is grown –

  1. Shreevardhan – Grown in the coastal Maharastra state of India.
  2. Mangala –  Grown in Dakshina Kannada.
  3. Sumangala – Selection from Indonesia.
  4. Shree Mangala – Selection from Singapore.
  5. Mettupalayam – Grown in Coimbatore district of Tamilnadu.
  6. Mohitnagar – Largely grown in the north eastern region like west Bengal.
  7. Kahikuchi – Grown in northeastern regions like Assam, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura.

Other varieties of Puga Areca catechu available in Indian market –

  1. Mora
  2. Moti
  3. Vachras
  4. Jamnagar
  5. Jini
  6. Lindi

Synonyms of Puga Areca catechu 

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Puga Areca catechu has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Guvaka
  • Khapura
  • Kramuka
  • Puga
  • Tanthusara
  • Pugi
  • Valkatharu
  • Rajathala
  • Drida Valka
  • Udvega
  • Thailvana
  • Akoda
  • Gholya
  • Chataphala
  • Ghoranta
  • Chikkni
  • Chikka
  • Dhirghapadapa
  • Chikkanam
  • Dridavalkala
  • Khubaka
  • Ghonta
  • Kashaya Phala
  • Ghopadala
  • Pushpaka
  • Kappithana
  • Thramu
  • Karamatta
  • Thramuki
  • Suranjana
  • Seri
  • Tamboola
  • Khebuka

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorised under Varga and Gana. Likewise, Puga Areca catechu comes under –

  1. According to Bhava Prakash – Amra Phalaadi Varga
  2. According to Raja Nighantu – Amraadi Varga
  3. According to Madanapala Nighantu – Phalaadi Varga
  4. According to Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga

Vernacular Names

Puga Areca catechu is known by different names in different languages.

  • Arabic – Fofal, Feefal
  • Assam – Tambul
  • Bengal – Gua, Supari
  • Burma – Kun, Kunsi
  • Chinese – Ping Lang
  • Dutch – Areca palm Boom, Pinang
  • English – Arecanut Palm, Betel Palm, Catechu Palm, Fausel nut Palm, Medicinal Cabbage Tree, Indian Nut Tree, Pinang Palm, Supari Palm
  • French – Arec, Arec Betel, Arec Cachou
  • German – Areca Palm
  • Gujarati – Hopari, Phophal,Sopari
  • Hindi – Supari, Suppari, Supyari, Supadi
  • Italian – Areca
  • Konkani – Feefal, Maddi, Supari
  • Malayalam – Atekka, Chempalukka, Pakka, Phugam, Kramukam, Ghonta, Kamuka, Kavunnu
  • Marathi – Pophali, Pung, Supari
  • Portuguese – Areca
  • Russian – Areka, Kapustnaya Palma
  • Tamil – Kamugee, Kandi, Kiramugam, Kugagam, Pakku, Pugam
  • Telugu – Chikinamu, Chikini, Kolapoka, Kramukamu, Poka, Prakka, Pugamu
  • Urdu – Supari, Feefal, Choalia

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub-Kingdom – Phanerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Monoctyledonae
  • Series – Calycineae
  • Order – Princeps( Palmales)
  • Family – Palmae
  • Genus – Areca
  • Species – Catechu

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Ayurvedic properties of Puga Areca catechu are as follows –

  • Rasa – Kashaya, Madhura
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha Pitta Shamaka

Useful Parts

Following parts of Puga Areca catechu are used as medicine –

  • Beeja (Seed)
  • Tvaka (Bark)
  • Moola (Roots)

Vishitha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations)

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Puga Areca catechu. A few are listed below –

  • Puga Khanda
  • Supari Paka
  • Khadira – Kramuka Yoga

Indications

Puga Areca catechu is indicated in following diseases –

  • Shweta pradara (leucorrhea)
  • Vata vyadhi (neuro, muscular and skeletal problem)
  • Kati shoola (low back pain)
  • Aruchi (loss of appetite)
  • Atisara (dysentery)
  • Pravahika (diarrhea)
  • Krimi roga (worm infestation)
  • Rakta pitta (bleeding conditions)
  • Shukra meha (sementorrhea)
  • Bhahumutra (polyuria)
  • Vrana (wound)
  • Mukha paka (mouth ulcer)
  • Gala roga (diseases of throat)
  • Upadansha (syphilis)
  • Rakta atisara (dysentery with rectal bleeding)
  • Sootika vikara (peurperal problems)
  • Danta puya (suppurative gums)
  • Grahani (IBS and related conditions)
  • Masoorika (small pox)

Therapeutic Uses

  • Uttara Basti (therapeutic enema) is administered in case of Leucorrhea.
  • A dusting of powder is suggested for wounds and ulcers.
  • The gargle of decoction of puga phala (areca nut) is taken in diseases of the mouth, particularly stomatitis and throat infections.
  • The oil prepared with puga is applied in a backache, waist pain and other Vata vyadhi.
  • The powder of nut, mixed with lime juice / milk is good for anorexia, diarrhoea, dysentery and worms.
  • The seed of areca mixed with lime, black catechu and leaves of betel are useful in the decay of teeth.
  • Powder of dried nuts in 10 -15 grains along with equal part of sugar is used in diarrhoea.
  • 1/4th tola (1 tola = 12 gm) powder rubbed into a paste with 2 tola of fresh lemon juice makes an excellent vermifuge.
  • About a teaspoonful is administered after the patient has fasted for 12-14 hrs either up to a bolus with a ghee / floating on milk is useful for the expulsion of tapeworm.
  • Tincture form of areca nut is used as an astringent gargle when freely diluted with water i.e. 1 drachm of powder with 4 ounces of water in bleeding gums. It is also used as an injection for stopping watery discharge from the vagina and in checking pyrosis of pregnancy.
  • Nut burnt to charcoal and quarter part of cinnamon forms a good herbal tooth powder.
  • Juice of tender leaves mixed with til oil is applied as an embrocation in cases of lumbago.
  • A decoction of the root is a repeated cure for sore lips.
  • In Rakta pitta (bleeding disorders), supari churna with Chandana churna in equal quantity should be taken with Tandulodaka (rice water) and Madhu (honey).
  • In Vata vyadhi, shallaki along with supari kwatha mixed with til oil and is given to drink.
  • In Upadansha (syphilis), lepana (external application) of Puga paste is applied.
  • Avachurnam (external application of powder) of areca nut used in Vrana (wound).
  • In Dysuria, water boiled with areca nut is used.
  • In a cough, betel nut is chewed along with leaves of betel climber.
  • 1 gm powder of areca nut along with 1 cup lukewarm milk is advised in case of lack of sexual pleasure.
  • Boiling 4 gm of areca nut in 4 cups of water and then it is reduced to 1 cup; 2 parts of it are taken daily twice in bloody dysentery and indigestion.

Toxicity of Puga Areca catechu

4-nitroso compounds, N-nirtosoguvacoline, N-nitrosoguvacaine, 3(N- nitrosomethylamine) propionaldehyde and 3-(N-nitroso methylamine) propionitrile isolated from an aqueous extract of betel nuts have been found cytotoxic and genotoxic to human buccal epithelial cells and also produce pancreatic, lung, nasal and liver tumour in rats.

Shodhana (Purification) of Puga Areca catechu

  • Dipping supari in hot water
  • Frying in bhalu mitti
  • Boiling in milk

Dosage

Puga Areca catechu may be used in the following dosage –

Kwatha (decoction) – 50 to 100 ml

Seed powder – 1 to 3 gm

Substitute and Adulterants

Nuts from other plants like Areca caliso, Areca nagensis are used as substitutes for areca nut (puga/ supari). Sago palm nuts dried tapioca and slices of sweet potato from chief adulterants that are mixed with slices of areca nut. Also nuts of Caryota urens cut to various shapes and sizes resembling genuine areca nut are coated and concentrated and used as adulterants for areca nut.

Photographs of Puga Areca catechu

(Please click on image to zoom)

Puga Areca catechu 6

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Puga Areca catechu 7

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Puga Areca catechu 8

(3) image- theferns.info

Puga Areca catechu 1

(4) image- specialtyproduce.com

Puga Areca catechu 3

(5) image- indianaturewatch.net

Puga Areca catechu 4

(6) image- ioffer.com

Puga Areca catechu 5

(7) image- allpointseast.com

Puga Areca catechu

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Shami – Prosopis cineraria

Shami Prosopis cineraria is a medicinal tree. It is well known by Hindus for its spiritual uses. Medicinally it is used in various skin diseases, diseases of eyes, digestive problems and respiratory illness.

  • Botanical name of Shami is – Shami Prosopis cineraria.
  • The family name of Shami is – Mimosaceae.

In this post, I tried to compile in brief about medicinal properties, uses, indications, dosage and photographs of Shami Prosopis cineraria tree.

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorised under Varga and Gana. Likewise, Shami Prosopis cineraria comes under –

  • Gana – Asavayoni gana
  • Varga – Aushadhi varga, Vatadi varga, Aamradi Varga, panchabhringa, Shalmayadi varga.

Vernacular Names

Shami Prosopis cineraria is known by different names in different languages.

  • English – Indian Mesquite, shamee, sponge tree.
  • Hindi – Chikur, Rhejri, Chonkar, Sami, Shami, Chinkur, chokara, chonkara, chounkar, chourkara, sepada, taant, safet kikar, shame, jhand
  • Rajastani – Khejri, Rhejri, Loong
  • kannada – Banni mara, Banni ele, Shamee patre, Perumbe, Perunje, Vunne, vanni Kashanti
  • Telugu – Jammi chettu
  • Tamil – Vanni, Jambu, kalisam, kulisam, parambai, perabe, perumbe, Sami, seemaimullu, sivaa, thamali,
  • Marathi – Saunder, savandad, shamee, shambaree
  • Bengali – Shami,
  • Punjabi – Jund, Bishnois, Janti
  • Gujarati – Samadi, Khijadi
  • Malayalam – Parampu, Marampu, Thawi Vanni,
  • Telugu – Jammi chettu, Jammi, Jambi, priyadarshini, shamichetta

Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Shami Prosopis cineraria tree has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Shami
  • Shiva
  • Lakshmi
  • Mangalya
  • Tunga
  • Agnigarbha
  • Ishani
  • Shanku phala
  • Shankari
  • Saktu phala.
  • Shamira
  • Chikur

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Tracheobionta-Vascular plants
  • Superdivision – Spermatophyta-Seed plants
  • Division – Magnoliophyta-flowering plants
  • Class – Magnoliopsida-dicotyledons
  • Subclass – Rosidae
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae-Pea family
  • Genus – Prospis L.-Mesquite
  • Species – Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce-Jand

Useful Parts

Following parts of Shami Prosopis cineraria tree is used as medicine –

  • Twak (stem bark)
  • Phala (fruit)

Indications of Shami Prosopis cineraria

Shami is indicated in

  • Kushtha (skin diseases)
  • Granthi (cysts and tumour)
  • Bala roga (diseases of children)
  • Kapha pitta vyanga vikara (blemishes and hyperpigmentation due to Kapha and Pitta)
  • Kasa (cough)
  • Swasha (bronchitis and asthma)
  • Arsha (piles)
  • Krimi roga (worm infestation)
  • Atisara (dysentery)
  • Pravahika (diarrhoea)
  • Amatisara (a type of dysentery)

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug are described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Below are Ayurvedic properties of Shami Prosopis cineraria.

  • Rasa – Madhura Kasaya
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Virya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha-Pitta shamaka

Dosage

  • Kwatha (decoction) – 20 to 60 ml
  • Phala churna (seed powder)- 2 to 5 gm

Vishishta yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparation)

Shami Prosopis cineraria is used as an ingredient is following Ayurvedic medicine –

  • Ksharagada

Photographs

(Click on image to zoom)

Shami Prosopis cineraria 1

1

Shami Prosopis cineraria 2

2

Shami Prosopis cineraria

3

(Image source – 1, 2, 3 – theferns.info)

Shami Prosopis cineraria 3

(image source – wikipedia.org)

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Ingudi – Balanites aegyptiaca

The main action of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca are Kapha – Vata hara (kapha vata predominant diseases), Krimighna (deworming), Kusthaghna (cures skin ailments).

  • Botanical Name of Ingudi is Balanites aegyptiaca.
  • Family name of Ingudi is Zygophyllaceae or Balanitaceae (see wiki)

 

It is an important tree having seed oil with excellent therapeutic utility in kushta. Though modern research now reported it as anaesthetic, emethic, antehelmentic etc.

The compilations covers various aspects of the above drug namely literary view, synonyms, vernacular names, systemic classification, controversial verities, genus and vargas, habit & distribution, morphology, microscopic, macroscopic characters, chemical studies properties, action, uses, formulations and clinical reference.

Sanskrit Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca plant has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Inguda : Difficulty in movements
  • Angara vriksha : Tree has sharp spines
  • Anilantaka : Seeds yields oil which is useful in Vata disorders.
  • Kroshtu phala : Grows wild
  • Tapasa druma : Known as hermits tree as it used by them in many way.
  • Tikshna kanta : Tree has sharp spines.
  • Tikta majja : Bears fruit with bitter pulp.
  • Taila phala : Seeds yield oil
  • Pooti gandha : Having disagreeable smell.
  • Bhallakah : Tree has sharp spines.

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wise Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca comes under –

  • According to Charaka Samhita – Phala varga
  • According to Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Vatadi Varga
  • According to Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga
  • According to Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadi Varga
  • According to Raja Nighantu – Shalmayadi Vraga
  • According to Madanapala Nighantu – Vatadi Vraga
  • According to Shodhala Nighantu – Amradi Varga

Vernacular Names

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca is known by different names in different languages.

  • English – Desert date
  • Gujarati – Egorea, Hinger, Hngoriyum, Igorea
  • Hindi – Hingot, hingan, Ingua.
  • Malayalam – Nanjunta
  • Marathi – Hingam, Hngane
  • Tamil – Nanjundan, Toruvather
  • Telugu – Gara, Ingudi, Ringri

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantea
  • Phylum – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliatea or Dicolyledons
  • Subclass – Rosidae
  • Order – Geraniales
  • Family – Balanitaceae
  • Genus – Balanitis
  • Species – aeyptiaca

Useful Parts

Following parts of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca are used as medicine –

  • Twak (Bark)
  • Phala Majja (Fruit pulp)
  • Beeja (Seeds)
  • Beeja Taila (Seed Oil)

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca.

  • Rasa – Tikta, Katu
  • Guna – Laghu, Snigdha
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha Vata hara, Rasayana

Indications & Uses of Ingudi balanites aegyptiaca

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca is used externally and internally.

External Uses

  • Agnidagdha (Fire burn case)
  • Vrana (wounds)
  • Siroroga (diseases of head)
  • Kesa vikara (hair problems)
  • Dusta vrana (non healing wounds)
  • Visha – musika damsa (poison – rat bite)

Internal Uses

  • Krimi roga  (worm infestation)
  • Vibandha (constipation)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetite)
  • Udara shula (abdominal pain)
  • Rakta vikara (diseases related to blood)
  • Jeerna kasa (chronic cough)
  • Shvasa (asthma and bronchitis)
  • Mutra krichchha (dysuria)
  • Shvitra (leucoderma)
  • Charma roga – vyanga (skin diseases like blemishes, melasma and hyper pigmentation)
  • Visha (poison)
  • Shoola (Abdominal colic)
  • Kustha (skin diseases)
  • Musika visha (rat bite poison)

Dosage

  • Decoction – 50 – 100 ml
  • Powder – 3 – 6 gm
  • Seed oil – 5 – 10 drops
  • Fruit pulp – 500 – 1000 mg
  • Seed powder – 500 – 1000 mg

Pharmaceutical Preparation

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca. A few are listed below –

  • Ingudi taila

Photographs of Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

(Click on image to zoom)

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

(image source – theferns.info)

Ingudi Balanites aegyptiaca

(image source – google image)

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Harmala – Peganum harmala

Harmala Peganum harmala is a medicinal plant used in various Ayurvedic medicines. It is indicated as an analgesic to get relief from pain like a toothache, earache, sciatica pain etc.

  • Botanical name of Harmala is Peganum harmala.
  • The family name of Harmala is Zygophyllaceae.

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 10

Literary Review

Harmala Peganum harmala is one of the drugs mentioned in Adarsha Nighantu and Shankara Nighantu. This drug is elaborately mentioned in Dravya guna vijnana by Prof. P.V. Sharma and by Dr. J.L.N. Shastry where they described it main use as hridya (cardiac tonic).

Varieties of Harmala Peganum harmala

According to Dr. J.L.N. Shastry, there are two varieties of Harmala Peganum harmala are found.

  1. Dark seeded
  2. White seeded

Classical Categorization

According to Adarsha Nighantu and Bhavaprakasha – Beeja purakadi varga

Vernacular Names

Harmala Peganum harmala is known by different names in different languages.

  • English – Foreign Henna, Harmal Syrian Rue, Wild Rue
  • Hindi – Harmal, Isbanda houri, Kaladana
  • Malayalam – Haramala
  • Sanskrit – Haramala
  • Tamil – Simaiyalavinai
  • Telugu – Simagoranta
  • Kannada – Simagoranta
  • French – Rue savage
  • German – Harmal kraute
  • Spain – Alharme

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopside
  • Order – Sapindales
  • Family – Nitrariaceae
  • Genus – peganum
  • Species – Haramala

Useful Parts

Harmala Peganum harmala is used in various Ayurvedic medicines. Following parts of Harmal is used as medicine –

  • Seeds
  • Leaves
  • Root

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug are described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Harmala Peganum harmala –

  • Rasa – Tikta, Katu
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha vataghna, pitta vardhaka

Actions

  • Artava janana (promotes ovulation)
  • Stanya janana (galactagogue)
  • Kamottejaka (stimulate sexual urge)
  • Kapha nisaraka (expectorant)
  • Vajikarak (aphrodisiac)
  • Krimighna (antihelmintic)
  • Javarghna (antipyretic)
  • Kapha vata shamaka (pacify Kapha and Vata)
  • Nidra janana (good for proper sleep)
  • Vatanulomana (balances Vata)
  • Shula prashamana (analgesic)
  • Rakta shodhaka (blood purifier)
  • Garbhashaya sankochaka (contracts uterus)
  • Mutrala (diuretic)

Indications

Harmala Peganum harmala is indicated in following diseases –

  • Kaphavata vikara (all diseases where Kapha and Vata are dominant)
  • Danta shula (a toothache)
  • Karna shula (an earache)
  • Dushta Vrana (chronic non-healing wounds)
  • Gridhrasi (sciatica)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetite)
  • Ashmari (calculus)
  • Gulma (cysts and internal tumours)
  • Udavarta (a typical Vata disease)
  • Vedana shamana (analgesic)
  • Udara shula (abdominal pain)
  • Rakta vikara (blood impurities and diseases related with blood)
  • Kasa (cough)
  • Shwasa (asthma and bronchitis)
  • Hikka (hiccup)
  • Rajorodha (amenorrhea)
  • Kashta artava (dysmenorrhea)
  • Javara (fever)

Dosage

  • Churna (powder) – 1 to 3 gm
  • Kashaya (decoction) – 20- 80 ml

Photographs of Harmala Peganum harmala

(Click on image to zoom)

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 1

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 2

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 3

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 4

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 5

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 6

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 7

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 8

Harmala Peganum harmala

image source – 9

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Jayanti – Sesbania sesban

Jayanti Sesbania sesban is a medicinal plant. It is known for its use in sore throat, cervical lymphadenopathy and for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is also used as a best medicine for Scorpion sting.

  • Botanical Name of Jayanti – Sesbania sesban, Sesbania aegyptiaca, Aeschynomene elongata, Aeschynomene aegyptiaca, Aeschynomene sesban, Sesbania tchadica or Sesbania punctata.
  • Family Name of Jayanti is Fabaceae.

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorized under Varga and Gana. Like wiseJayanti Sesbania sesban  comes under –

  • Acc. to Raja Nighantu – Shatahvadi Varga
  • Acc. to Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga
  • Acc. to Dhanvantri Nighantu – Guduchyadhi Varga
  • Acc. to Bhavaprakasa Nighantu – Guduchyadhi varga
  • Acc. to Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga

Vernacular Names

Jayanti Sesbania sesban is known by different names in different languages.

  • Arabic – Saisaban, Torero
  • English – Common sesban, Egyptian Rattle pod, Egyptian Sesban, Egyptian River hemp, Yellow wisteria tree.
  • Gujarati – Rayasingan
  • Hindi – Jait, Jayanti, Jhijham
  • Malayalam – Kitannu
  • Marathi – Jayat
  • Tamil – Asnaparni
  • Telugu – Mallasominta, Jalugu, Sominta
  • Odiya – Joyontri

Sanskrit Synonyms of Jayanti Sesbania sesban

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Jayanti Sesbania sesban plant has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Jayanti – Daughter of Lord Indra
  • Jaya – Victorious
  • Jayantika – Banner of Indra
  • Nadeyi – River born
  • Vijaya – Victorious
  • Harita
  • Sukshma mula
  • Balamota
  • Aparajita – Which can’t be defeated
  • Vikranta

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Phylum – Angiosperms
  • Class – Magnoliatae
  • Subclass – Rosidae
  • Order – Rosales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Genus – Sesbania
  • Species – sesban

Useful Parts of Jayanti Sesbania sesban

  • Mula (roots)
  • Twak (stem bark)
  • Patra (leaves)
  • Pushpa (flowers)
  • Phala (fruits)
  • Beeja (seed pod)

Therapeutic Uses of Jayanti Sesbania sesban

Jayanti Sesbania sesban can be used externally or internally according to diseases.

External Uses of Jayanti Sesbania sesban

  • Warm Kalka (paste) of leaf is applied to Vidradhi (abscess) and vriddhi (over growth or tumor) and in sandhi shotha (inflammation of joints).
  • Decotion of Jayanti Sesbania sesban is useful in cleansing wound.
  • Lepan (application) of leaves is useful in Khalitya (baldness) and Palitya (premature greying of hairs).
  • Paste of seeds or roots is applied as vedana sthapana (analgesic) in scorpion bite.
  • Paste of leaves is useful in galaganda (goiter), Kushtha (chronic skin disease) and kandu (itching).

Internal Uses of Jayanti Sesbania sesban

  • Beeja choorna (seed powder) or patra swarasa (leaves juice) is used as deepana (appetizer), grahi (astringent) and krimighna (antihelmintic).
  • Bark decoction of Jayanti Sesbania sesban stem is used in rakta dushti (blood impurities).
  • Patra swarasa (leaf juice) of Jayanti Sesbania sesban is useful in swara bheda (hoarseness of voice) and pratishyaya (common cold and flu).
  • Leaf decoction is used in ikshumeha (diabetes) and bahumutrata (polyuria).
  • Kalka (paste) of flowers are made in to a gruel and taken internally for 3 days after menstrual cycle as a contraceptive.
  • Paste of leaves is applied to head for treating hair diseases and decoction of leaves is used as a hair wash.
  • The decoction of leaves is used in hoarseness, throat infection, cold, coryza and cough ailments.
  • Leaves are cooked to vegetable which is given to the patient in case of relapsing coryzal tendency or chronic coryza.
  • Flowers are orally recommended as an anti fertility herbal remedy which carries classical base in textual sources.
  • Seeds are stimulant and astringent in property and heal chronic ulcers and eruptions. Seeds of Jayanti Sesbania sesban are also useful in diseases of spleen, diarrhoea and excessive menstrual flow.
  • Seeds of Jayanti Sesbania sesban removes small pox eruptions.
  • Seeds powder mixed with flour applied to itching of the skin and other skin infections.

Indications of Jayanti Sesbania sesban

Jayanti Sesbania sesban is indicated in following diseases –

  • Twag vikara (skin ailments), Kandu (itching)
  • Kustharoga – Shvitra (leucoderma)
  • Vidradhi (abscess)
  • Sandhi sotha (inflammation of joints)
  • Jangama Visa (animal poisons like scorpion bite/ sting)
  • Kesya (good for hairs) – khalitya (baldness), Palitya (premature greying of hairs)
  • Galaganda (goiter)
  • Prameha (diabetes and polyuria)
  • Pliharoga (spleenomegaly)
  • Masurika (chicken pox)
  • Slaishmika vikara (kapha dominance) – svara bheda (hoarsness of voice), pratishyaya.
  • Kashtartava (dysmenorrhea), rajarodha (amenorrhea)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetiete), Atisara (dysentery) and Krimi (worm infestation).

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Jayanti Sesbania sesban –

  • Rasa – Katu, Tikta
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Virya – Usna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Kapha Pitta shamaka, Tridosha hara.

Dosage

  • Churna (Powder)- 2 – 6 gm
  • Swarasa (Juice) – 12 – 24 gm
  • Kashaya (Decoction) – 50 – 100 ml

Pharmaceutical Preparations

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Jayanti Sesbania sesban. A few are listed below –

  • Jaya vati
  • Mahapaishachika Ghritam
  • Ratnagiri Rasa

Photographs

(Click on image to zoom)

Jayanti Sesbania sesban

Jayanti Sesbania sesban

Jayanti Sesbania sesban

Jayanti Sesbania sesban

(image source – theferns.info)

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Musali – Asparagus adscendens

Musali Asparagus adscendens is a medicinal plant. It is known by different names in Ayurveda, such as – Talamuli, Musali, Chamara Musali etc. Musali Asparagus adscendens is known for its aphrodisiac property which enhances sexual power. The Ayurvedic classics mention two varieties of Musali viz. Shweta (white) and Krishna (black). The word Musali alone denotes the white variety, which is commonly used. The white variety is commonly known as Safed Musali and the black variety as Kali Musali. Though the black varieties are supposed to the superior in properties, both the varieties have, more or less, similar properties and uses. In this article both are described together.

Literary Review

  • In the Vedas, the descriptions regarding the plant Musali Asparagus adscendens is not available.
  • Description of Musali Asparagus adscendens is not available in Charaka Samhita and Ashtanga Hridayam.
  • In Sushruta Samhita, Musali Asparagus adscendens is mentioned in Chikitsa sthana 7th chapter and Uttara Sthana 51st chapter. Sushruta has mentioned the therapeutic efficiency of Musali.
  • Raja Nighantu, Bhavaprakash Nighantu, Priya Nighantu and Kaiyadev Nighantu has given synonyms, guna (properties) and karma (actions) of Musali Asparagus adscendens.
  • In Danwantari Nighantu the plant Musali is not mentioned.

Types & Varieties

Musali is classified into two types:

  1. Kali Musali – Curculigo Orchioides Gaerttu (Amaryllidaceae)
  1. Safed Musali – Asparagus Adscendens Roxb (Liliaceae)

Also, following varieties of Safed Musali is found –

  1. Chlorophytum Laxum Br.
  2. Chlorophytum Tuberosum Baker
  3. Ampelocissus Araneosa Planch (Vitaceae)

Tala muli is a Sanskrit synonym of Kali Musali.

Synonyms

In Ayurveda, many synonyms of Musali Asparagus adscendens plant has been described in Sanskrit. Few of them are listed below –

  • Shveta
  • Talapatrika – Resembles roots like that of tala (Taal)
  • Dholi
  • Hiranya Pushpee
  • Godhapadi
  • Karjuri
  • Bhutali – Ground Palm
  • Kalini
  • Samaraja – Its stem is deep reddish colour
  • Talapatri – Leaves resemble tender leaves of tala
  • Tejaraja – Its mucilaginous taste
  • Vrushakanda
  • Bhoraja – stem of plant flat and divided by grooves into 3 columns
  • Mousali – Cut the doshas and cure diseases
  • Musali – It destroys Guda (rectum) and vata roga
  • Madavruksha
  • Talamuli – Resembles root like Tala
  • Vrukshakanda
  • Suvaha
  • Talamulika – Resembles root like tala
  • Godhapadi
  • Soukari
  • Hemapushpee – Rootstock long, tuberous and flower bright yellow
  • Mahapushpa
  • Kanchana Puspika
  • Varahi – Tuberous underground portion of plant is dug up by boar of eating
  • Kamaraja – A reddish brown tuberous root, strongly astringent
  • Deergha Kandika – Resembles roots like that of tala
  • Uchchata

Classical Categorization

In Ayurvedic classics, plants have been categorised under Varga and Gana. Like wise Musali Asparagus adscendens comes under –

According to Priya Nighantu – Saradi varga

According to Prof P.V. Sharma – Vrushyadi varga, Sukrajanana gana

Vernacular Names

Musali Asparagus adscendens is known by different names in different languages. Have a look below –

  • Sanskrit – Musali
  • English – Musali
  • Hindi – Musali, Hazar Muli, Shatavari, Shatmuli
  • Marathi – Safed Musali
  • Gujarati – Dholi Musali, Ujali Musali
  • Malayalam – Tannir Vettang, Shedeveli
  • Punjabi – Syahoo Musali
  • Bengali – Dholi Musali, Talamuli
  • Kannada – Bili Musali
  • Tamil – Nilapana, Nilappanaikkilanku
  • Oriya – Talamuli, Talamulika

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Phenerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Monocotyledons
  • Subclass – Liliforae
  • Nature order/ Family – Liliaceae
  • Genus – Asparagus
  • Species – Adscendens

Useful Parts

The useful part of Musali Asparagus adscendens for medicinal purpose Mula (roots).

Dosage

Churnas (root powder) – 3 – 6 gm

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug are described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Musali Asparagus adscendens –

  • Rasa – Madura
  • Guna – Guru, Snigdha
  • Veerya – Sheeta
  • Vipaka – Madhura
  • Doshaghnata – Vata Pitta Shamaka, Kapha Vardhaka

Indications of Musali Asparagus adscendens

Musali Asparagus adscendens is indicated in following diseases –

  • Arsha (piles), Dourbalya (debility or weakness), Asthi Bhanga (bone fracture), Kamala (jaundice), Shula (Abdominal colic and pain), Mutrakrichchha (dysuria), Pravahika (diarrhoea) Atisara (dysentery) etc.

External Uses

  • Musali prepared as a paste with goats milk or honey and applied locally increases complexion of face or skin.

Internal Uses

  • 1 Tola (12 gm) Musali Churna mixed with equal quantity of sugar if taken with milk helps to cure the Napusmakata (impotency), Pradara (menstrual disorders), Svapnasrava (nocturnal emission/ nightfall), Atisara (dysentery), Pravahika (diarrhoea) etc.
  • Badhiryam (Deafness) – Churna of Musali and bakuchi to be taken with Ghee or honey.
  • For Mukhakanti (face glow), as a cosmetic to brighten the complexion of the face, Musali prepared as a paste with goats milk or honey and applied locally over the face.
  • Vrushyam (aphrodisiac) – Musali powder to be taken with Ghee followed by milk.
  • Aphrodisiac – Powder of Musali root, Guduchi satva, Kapikachchhu, Gokshura, Shalmali and Amalaki are milxed together in the proper ratio. It is mixed with milk added with Ghee and taken orally. This formula helps to arouse sexual urge.
  • Tubers boiled in milk and sugar are used in Spermatorrhoea, Chronic Leucorrhea, also in Diarrhoea, Dysentery and general debility.

Pharmaceutical Preparations

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Musali Asparagus adscendens. A few are listed below –

  • Musali Paka

Photographs of Musali

(Click on image to zoom)

Curculigo orchioides
Curculigo orchioides

image – Ravi Vaidyanathan

Chlorophytum borivilianum
Chlorophytum borivilianum

image by Dinesh Valke

Chlorophytum tuberosum
Chlorophytum tuberosum

image by Dinesh Valke

Chlorophytum borivilianum
Chlorophytum borivilianum

image by Dinesh Valke

Chlorophytum tuberosum
Chlorophytum tuberosum

image by Shubhada Nikharge

chlorophytum borivilianum
chlorophytum borivilianum

image source – merinews.com

Musali Asparagus adscendens

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Patranga – Caesalpinia sappan

Introduction of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 3Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is a medicinal plant. It is used in various diseases related to mouth, menorrhagia and other menstrual problems, burning sensantion and skin diseases. The recent researches found that Patranga Caesalpinia sappan shows analgesic, anti-diabetic and antibacterial effects.

  • Botanical Name of Patranga is Patranga Caesalpinia sappan Linn.
  • Family Name of Patranga is Caesalpinaceae.

Literary Review

The drug Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is not mentioned in Vedas. Brihatrayi and almost all the Nighantu mentioned clear picture of this drug.

  • Acharya Charaka mentioned it under Shuka dhanya Varga and considered it as a Shali bheda (type) by the name “Patranga”. Charaka mentioned that Patranga Caesalpinia sappan has Sheeta veerya and Madhura Vipaka and indicated in diseases of mother and shukra dushya (related to semen and menses).
  • Acharya Sushruta and Acharya Vagbhatta categorized Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under the name ‘Patranga’ in Shuka dhanya Varga.
  • Acharya Vagbhatta described it with Madhura rasa and Madhura vipaka. It is useful in diseases like mutrakrichha (dysuria), vibandha (constipation) etc.
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu mentioned Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Chandanadi varga and quoted synonyms like Kuchandana, patanga, patranga etc. It is having kashaya, tikta and madhura rasa with katu vipaka.
  • Raja Nighantu mentioned Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Chandanadi varga with synonyms as Patranga, Raktakashta, Suranga. It subsides vata pittaj jvara, visphota, Unmada.
  • Bhavaprakasha nighantu categorized Patranga Caesalpinia sappan under Karpuradi varga. It subsides pitta-kapha and vrana and daha.
  • Priya Nighantu explained it under saradi varga and having kashaya rasa and sheeta veerya with synonyms as Patanga, Rudhira, suranga etc.
  • Kaiyadeva nighantu mentions it under chandanadi varga and is useful in diseases like vrana (wound) and daha (burning sensation).
  • Madanapala nighantu explains it under karpuradi varga. He mentions synonyms as kuchandana, pattara, suranga etc. with shita veerya, pitta kapha hara and vranaghna.

Sanskrit Synonyms

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan has many Sanskrit synonyms. Have a look below –

  • Patanga – The plant which grows well.
  • Kuchandana – The plant which is characterized by its heart wood looking like Sandal.
  • Patranga – The plant which is covered with rich foliage.
  • Patradya – The plant which has rich foliage.
  • Pattaranjaka – The plant is used for dyeing cloths.
  • Raktasara – Heart wood yields red dye.
  • Ranjana – It is used in dyeing purpose.
  • Suranjam – It yields red dye.

Classical Categorization 

In Ayurveda, Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is categorized as follows –

  • Charaka Samhita – Shuka dhanya varga
  • Ashtanga hridayam – Shuka dhanya varga
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Karpuradi varga
  • Madanapala Nighantu – Karpuradi varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Chandanadi varga
  • Shodhala Nighantu – Sukadhanya varga
  • Priya Nighantu – Saradi varga

Names in Different Languages

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is known by various names in different languages.

  • English – Sappan wood, Brazil wood
  • Hindi – Patanga, Bakam
  • Kannada – sappange
  • Malayalam – Cappannam, Sappannam
  • Sanskrit – Patrangah, Patangah
  • Tamil – Sapamga, Patamgam
  • Telugu – Bakarucakka, Vakamu
  • Marathi – Patang
  • Persian – Bakam
  • Arabic – Baggam
  • Gujarati – Patanga
  • Bengali – Bakam
  • Urdu – Bakam
  • Malayalam – Davan setjang, Sepang
  • Odiya – Bakomo

Systemic Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub kingdom – Tracheobionata
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Sub division – Spermatophyta
  • Class – Magndiopsida
  • Sub class – Rosidae
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabeaceae
  • Genus – Caesalpinia
  • Species – Sappan

Useful Parts

Heart wood

Ayurvedic Properties

In Ayurveda, properties of every plants / drug is described by Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and doshaghnata. Have a look below to know about Ayurvedic properties of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan.

  • Rasa – Kashaya, Tikta, Madhura
  • Guna – Ruksha
  • Virya – Shita
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Dosha karma – Kapha pitta shamaka

 

Actions (Karma)

Many Ayurvedic classics described actions of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan. Below are a few collection –

  • Artava Sangrahaniya (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 118/222)
  • Shonit asthapana (Susrutha samhita sutra 14/36)
  • Pramehaghna (Charaka chikista sthana 6/10)
  • Kushthaghna (Raja Marthanda 5/20)
  • Daha prashamana (Bhavaprakasha Nighantu)
  • Mastishka samaka (Ashtanga Hridaya Uttara 17/28)
  • Stambhana (Charaka chikistasthana 4/14)
  • Vrana ropana (Priya Nighantu)
  • Rakta stambhana (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 118/200)
  • Sugandhi (Sushruta samhita sutrastana 14/36)

Indications

Likewise, Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is indicated as follows in various classics –

  • Raktapradara (menorrhea)
  • Sveta pradara (leucorrhea)
  • Prameha (diabetes and other urine related problems)
  • Kushtha (skin ailments)
  • Daha (burning sensation)
  • Unmada (insanity)
  • Raktapitta (bleeding disorder)
  • Vrana (wound)
  • Pittaja jvara (fever where Pitta is dominated)
  • Rohini (diphtheria)
  • Mukha roga (oral diseases)

Pharmaco-therapeutic uses

  • Heart wood of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan is used for blood purifying, anti-thirst, anti-diabetic and for improvement of complexion.
  • Patranga Caesalpinia sappan cures Jaundice and cough.
  • It is good for respiratory ailments and cures wound.
  • It has the capacity to cure Blood Pressure and Heart diseases.
  • The seeds of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan plant are used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.
  • It cures amenorrhea, dysmenorrheal, blood stasis after delivery, pricking pain in chest and abdomen, traumatic swelling and pain.
  • Decoction of wood and bark is used for Tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, tonic and for skin.

Dosage

  • Decoction – 50 – 100 ml
  • Oil – 5 – 15 drops
  • Powder – 1-2 gm

 

Ayurvedic Medicines

Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared from Patranga Caesalpinia sappan. A few are listed below –

  • Patrangasava
  • Patrangadi Lepa

Photographs of Patranga Caesalpinia sappan

(Click on image to zoom)

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 2

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 3

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 4

Patranga Caesalpinia sappan 1

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Kasamarda – Cassia occidentalis

Introduction of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis 

kasamarda7Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is a medicinal plant mainly used in respiratory problems like cough, asthma, bronchitis etc. As the word Kasa refers to cough, and marda to end or to cure in Ayurveda, Kasamarda Cassia occidentalisis hence a drug of choice for all types of cough.

  • Botanical Name of Kasamarda is Cassia occidentalis.
  • Family Name of Kasamarda is Caeselpiniaceae.

Literary Review of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis  

  • Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is mentioned in various Ayurvedc classics where its properties and uses has been described.
  • Maharshi Charaka mentioned it under Surasadi gana, also denoted as best drug for kasa (cough), Shwasa (asthma), Hikka (hiccup) etc.
  • Kaiyadeva nighantu mentions that Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is useful in diseases like kasa (cough) and  swarabheda (hoarseness of voice).
  • Bhava Prakasha nighantu mentioned Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis as Rochaka (increases taste), vrishyakara (aphrodisiac), grahi (astringent), pitta hara (pacify Pitta dosha) and Kasa hara (cures cough).
  • Raja nighantu describes Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis as best remedy for ajeerna (indigestion) and kantha shodhana (clears voice).
  • Chakradutta mentioned that Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is useful in dadru (a skin disease), kushtha (skin disease), sidhma (a skin disease).

Ayurvedic (Classical) Categorization of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis 

  • Sushruta – Surasadi gana
  • Vagbhatta – Surasadi gana

Names in different languages 

  • Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is known by different names in different languages.
  • English – Fetid Cassia, Negro Coffee, Rubbish Cassia.
  • Hindi – Chakunda, Kasonda, Kasondi, Kasunda.
  • Malyalam – Karintakara, Mattantakara, Peyaviram, Ponnaviram.
  • Telugu – Peddakasinda
  • Tamil – Nattandagarai, Peyavirai, Ponnavirai
  • Gujarati and Marathi – Kasuvayee.
  • Bengali – Kalakasunda.

Systemic Classification 

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis may be classified as below –

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Rosopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Sub-Family – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Genus – Cassia
  • Species – Occidentalis

Useful Parts 

Following parts of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis are useful in Ayurvedic medicines –

  • Mula (Root)
  • Beeja (Seed)
  • Patra (Leaves)

Ayurvedic Properties

  • Rasa – Tikta, Madhura
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Tridosha hara

Therapeutic Uses

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis can be used externally or internally according to the proplems.

  • The paste of root of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis drug is mixed with cow’s urine or cows ghee is suggested to be used in filaria.
  • The kasamarda leaves, shobhanjana and brihati are added with honey is given for alleviation of cough where Kapha dosha is predominated.
  • The soup made up of Kasamarda leaves, shigru, bringaraja and dried radish (moolaka) is taken to alleviate hiccough & asthma.
  • Roots of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis are pounded with sour gruel and the same is applied as paste. It is useful for eradicating ring worm, kitibha and other skin disease.
  • The seeds of  Kasamarda and radish mixed with Gandhaka is an excellent remedy for sidhma kushtha (a skin disease).
  • The paste of kasamarda root pounded with jambira swarasa (lime juice) is an effective medicine for all types of vicharchika (a skin disease).
  • In Shlipada (filaria), root paste of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is mixed with ghee and taken internally.
  • In Vicharcika (a skin disease), root paste of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is mixed with lime juice and applied externally.

Karma (Actions)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is found to perform following actions –

  • Kasaghna (relieves cough)
  • Kaphaghna (pacifies Kapha dosha)
  • Mutrala (diuretic)
  • Kushthaghna (beneficial in skin diseases)
  • Jwaraghna (antipyretic)
  • Vishaghna (good for poison)
  • Akshepa samana (anticonvulsant)
  • Dipana (appetizer)
  • Vatanulomana (pacifies Vata dosha)
  • Pitta saraka (purgative)

Indications 

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is indicated in following diseases –

  • Kasa (cough)
  • Shwasa (asthma, bronchitis)
  • Hikka (hiccup)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetite)
  • Udara roga (abdominal diseases)
  • Pitta vikara (Pitta dominated diseases)
  • Vibandha (constipation)
  • Apasmara (epilepsy)
  • Apatantraka (tetanus)
  • Akshepaka (convulsion)
  • Kushtha (skin diseases)
  • Visarpa (erysipelas)
  • Sleepada (filariasis)
  • Vrana (wound)
  • Dadru (a skin disease)
  • Mutra Krichha (dysuria)
  • Ikshu Meha (a urine disease)

Dosage

  • Root Decoction – 40 – 80 ml
  • Seed Powder –  3 – 6 gm
  • Leaf Juice – 10 – 20 ml

Ayurvedic Medicine

Many Ayurvedic medicines are available in market where Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis is used as an ingredient. A few are listed below –

  • Guduchyadi Ghritam
  • Kasamardadi Ghritam
  • Vasaharitaki Leha

Photographs of Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(click on image to zoom)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image Source – wikimedia.org

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(Image source – theferns.org)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – wikimedia.org

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – westafricanplants.senckenberg.de

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – 101herbs.com

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

Image source – jimbotany.com

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(image source – flickr.com)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(Image source – theferns.org)

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

(Image source – theferns.org

Kasamarda Cassia occidentalis

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Amlika – Tamarindus indica

Introduction of Amlika Tamarindus indica –

amlika2Amlika Tamarindus indica is a tree with many therapeutic uses. Tamarind word is derived from Arabic word ‘Tamar hind (Indian date)’. It is called as Amlika in Sanskrit because of its sour property. Recent research study showed that it has Anti oxidant, fungicidal and antibacterial activity.

  • Botanical Name of Amlika is Tamarindus indica.
  • Family name of Amlika is Fabaceae.

Synonyms of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

In Ayurveda, Amlika Tamarindus indica has given many Sanskrit synonyms.

  • Amlika – tree having extremely sour.
  • Amla – fruits are extremely sour.
  • Chukrika – that which creates satisfaction.
  • Chincha – that which creates in distinguish.
  • Chinchaka – able and humming sound.
  • Shukta – that which causes acidity.
  • Tuntika – that which waters the tongue.
  • Vrikshamla – tree on which fruits with sour taste are born.
  • Bahupatrakam – having abundant small leaves.
  • Raktapura – having reddish brown fibers.
  • Amti – this word indicates, the tree having extremely sour taste.
  • Amlapura – carp which produce saliva.
  • Vishaghnanika — that which overcomes poisonous affection.

Classical Categorization of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Bhavaprakash Nighantu – Amradi phala Varga
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Amradi Varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga
  • Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Amradi Varga
  • Nighantu Adarsha – Putikaranjadi Varga.

Vernacular Names (Names in different languages) of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Amlika Tamarindus indica are known by different name in different languages.

  • Sanskrit – Amlika
  • English – Tamarind
  • Kannada – Hunise
  • Hindi        – Imli
  • Telgu        – Chincha
  • Tamil        – Puli
  • Malyalam – Puli
  • Gujrathi   – Avail
  • Bengali     – Tetula
  • Marathi    – Chincha

Systemic Classification of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Sub-family – Caesalpinioideae
  • Tribe – Detaricae
  • Genus – Tamarindus
  • Species  – indica

Useful parts of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Every parts of Amlika Tamarindus indica can be used in Ayurvedic medicine. But usually we use –

  • Phala (fruits)
  • Patra (leaves)
  • Beeja (seeds)
  • Pushpa (flowers)

Chemical Constituents of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Whole Plants – Volatile flavones compounds -Furfural, Furunone, Phenylacetaldehyde, Methylfurfural.

Bark – Tannin

Leaves, bark, flowers – hordenine, Kernels, Polysaccharide.

Pulp – Tartaric acid

Seed – Polysaccharide (glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in the ratio of 9:4:5:1)

Ayurvedic Properties of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Rasa – Madhura, Amla
  • Guna – Guru, Ruksha
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Amla
  • Karma – Kapha Vata hara, Dipana
  • Rogaghnata – Vata Vyadhi, Agnimandya, Kamla, Shotha.

Therapeutic  Uses of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • In atisara (dysentery) – outer layer of seeds of Amlika Tamarindus indica, shunti, rock salt and yavani are mixed together and taken with fresh butter milk.
  • In kasa (cough) – Make a mixture of epicarp of amlika fruit- 1 part, haridra – 2 parts, sarja kshara – 3 parts, punarnava – 1 parts and jati patra – 9 parts. This is made into wick and fumigated.
  • In fractures, external application of hot paste of fruits of Amlika Tamarindus indica mixed with takra and oil relieves pain and swellings.
  • Masurika (Pox) – Haridra and leaves of Amlika Tamarindus indica taken with cold water.
  • Soma roga (watery discharge from vagina) – Seeds of Amlika Tamarindus indica are soaked with water previous day and pounded with milk. This paste, if taken regularly, alleviates soma roga and asthi shrava (discharge from bone wound).
  • In gulma – Snuhi, palasha, apamarga, Amlika Tamarindus indica, arka, tila, yavakshara and sarja kshara these 8 kshara destroys gulma.
  • In vata vyadhi – Warm paste prepared from Amlika Tamarindus indica leaves alleviates pain.
  • In akshi roga (eye diseases) -Amlika patra swarasa (juice) mixed with kshira (milk) is rubbed in a vessel and then applied to eyelids. It removes redness, secretion, pain and congestion.
  • In sarpavisha (snake venom) -Amlika patra swarasa 160 ml mixed with salt 20 gmis taken orally.
  • In karna roga (ear problems) – In ear ache, oil processed with swarasa (juice) of amlika phala (fruit) is efficacious.
  • In ring worm – Local application of juice of amlika leaves cures ring worm.
  • In hrid roga (heart diseases), swarasa (juice) of Amlika Tamarindus indica leaves is given.
  • In bleeding piles – Amlika leaves is mixed with water, strained and added with salt. It is useful in bleeding piles.
  • Oedema – The affected part should be bathed with hot decoction of amlika leaves.

Dosage of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

  • Fruit pulp – 5 – 10 gm
  • Beeja Churna – 3 – 5 gm.

Ayurvedic Medicines of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Amlika Tamarindus indica is used as an ingredint in many AYurvedic medicines. Few are listed below.

  • Chinchyadi lehya
  • Shankha Vati.

Photographs of Amlika Tamarindus indica – 

Click on image to zoom

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

Amlika Tamarindus indica

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Tintidika – Rhus parviflora

Introduction of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Tintidika Rhus parviflora is a medicinal plant used in anorexia, heart diseases, musculo-skeletal diseases etc. It is used externally or internally.

  • Botanical name of Tintidika is Rhus parviflora.
  • Family name of Tintidika is Anacardiaceae.

tintidika rhus parviflora

(Image source – tasteofnepal.blogspot.in)

 

Vernacular Names (Names in different languages) of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Tintidika Rhus parviflora has different names in different regions and languages.

  • Sanskrit – Tintidika
  • Hindi – Samakdan
  • English – Sumac
  • Marathi – Samaka Kadana
  • Nepali – Satibair
  • Punjabi – Khatte Masoor
  • Kashmir – Samak

 

Systemic Classification of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub-kingdom – Tracheobionta-vascular Plants
  • Division – Magnoliophyta-flowering plants
  • Class – Magnoliopsida-Dicotyledons
  • Subclass – Rosidae
  • Order – Sapindales
  • Family – Anacardiaceae
  • Genus – Rhus
  • Species – Parviflora

 

Useful Parts of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Fruits

 

Chemical Constituents of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

It is highly rich in tannin.

 

 

 

Ayurvedic Properties of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

  • Rasa – Amla
  • Guna – Lakhu, Ruksha
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Amla
  • Doshaghnata – Vata hara

 

Actions of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

According to Ayurveda, following actions (Karma) are performed by Tintidika Rhus parviflora in our body –

  • Dipana (appetizer)
  • Grahi (astringent)
  • Hridroga hara (cures heart diseases)
  • Vataroga hara (cures musculo- skeletal diseases)
  • Ama Pachana (digestive)
  • Ruchya

 

Therapeutic Uses of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

  • Fruit juice is credited with vermifuge properties.
  • In toothache the hot infusion used for gargling.
  • In conjunctivitis it is applying in eyes.
  • In case of oedema paste is applied on the affected area.
  • In rhinitis, the paste is applied in forehead.

 

Dosage of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Chrurna – 3 – 6 gm

 

Ayurvedic Medicines –

  • Yavani shadava Churna
  • Pathadi churna
  • Vyoshadi vati

Photographs of Tintidika Rhus parviflora – 

Click on image to enlarge

tintidika rhus parviflora tintidika rhus parviflora tintidika rhus parviflora tintidika rhus parviflora

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Ankola – Alangium salvifolium

Introduction of Ankola Alangium salvifolium –

ankola1Ankola Alangium salvifolium is a medicinal plant also known by Ankota used in Ayurveda since long. It is mentioned to be useful in Gara dosha – Danta visha (canine poison), Jalodara (ascites), Puyameha (pus in urine), Kamala (jaundice), Matsya (fish bite), Mushaka (rodent bite), Luta (spider bite), Kukkura (dog bite) and sarpadi (snake) visha. Also it is good anti helmenthic, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac. Ankola Alangium salvifolium is also used in Panchakarma therapies like Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and Virechana (purgation therapy). Ankola Alangium salvifolium is a well documented drug in ancient Indian medicine. We come across ‘Ankola Dvaya’ in Amarakosa. Charaka also mentioned it under phala varga. Commentators have described that ‘Nikochaka’ is a fruit resembling Ankola which is famous in the Northern India.

  • Botanical Name of Ankola is Alangium salvifolium.
  • Family name of Ankola is Alangiaceae.

Literary Review of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Ankola Alangium salvifolium is mentioned in Vedas, brihatrayis and also Laghutrayis. Further many Nighantu mentioned more about this drug.

  • Charaka mentioned it under Phala varga.
  • Kaiyyadeva Nighantu mentioned under Aushadhi varga and Taila varga.
  • The synonyms Guptasneha also indicates towards the presence of oils in this plant seeds.

Sanskrit Synonyms of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Ankota
  • Ankola
  • Deergakila
  • Harikila
  • Talakota
  • Nikochaka
  • Akallaka
  • Reci
  • Gandha
  • Guptasneha
  • Tamraphala
  • Dhera
  • Angulipatra
  • Drutamoola
  • Shubrapatra
  • Mallika
  • Kantaki
  • Peethatamra phala
  • Gunaddhya
  • Kolak
  • Lambakarna
  • Rochan

 Ayurvedic Categorization of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Bhavaprakash Nighantu – Guduchyadi varga
  • Kaiyadev Nighantu – Aushadhi varga, Taila varga
  • Raj Nighantu – Prabhadradi varga
  • Charaka Samhita – Phala varga
  • Dhanvantari – Guduchyadi varga

Vernacular Names (names in different languages) of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Ankola Alangium salvifolium is known by various names in different region and locale.

  • Hindi – Ankola, Akola, Ankollaka, Dhera
  • Gujarati – Ankola, Akol
  • Marathi – Ankol
  • Bengali – Akoda, Badh Ankoda
  • Telugu – Amkolamu, Udugga Chettu
  • Tamil – Elangi
  • English – Sage leaved alangium
  • Kannada – Ankolimara, Ansaroli, Arinjil, Lucki
  • Malayalam – Ankolam, Azhinni
  • Oriya – Ankula

Systemic Classification of  Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub kingdom – Viridae plantae
  • Phylum – Magnoliophyta
  • Sub phylum – Euphyllophytina
  • Infra phylum – Radiatopses
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Sub class – Cornidae
  • Super order – Cornaceae
  • Order – Cornales
  • Family – Cornaceae
  • Subfamily – Hydrangeoidece
  • Tribe – Hydrangeae
  • Genus – Alangium
  • Species – Salvifolium

Chemical Constituents of  Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Following chemical constituents have been found in  Ankola Alangium salvifolium.

  • In Root bark –  Alangine A, Marckine, Marckidine, Tubulosine, Cephaeline, Emetine, Psychotrine, Alangicine, Demethylpsychotrine.
  • Stem Bark – Lamarckinine
  • Stem – Emetine, Cephaeline, Psychotrine, Methyl cephaeline, Deoxytubulosine,
  • Leaves – Ankorine, Campester, episterol, Deoxytubulosine, Alangimarckine, Chole- chloride
  • Seeds – Betulinic acid, Betulin aldehyde, Betulin, Lupeol, β-sitosterol, Alangamide.

Ayurvedic Properties of  Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • Rasa – Tikta, Katu, Kasaya
  • Guna – Laghu, Snigdha, Tiksna, Sara
  • Veerya – Usna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnatha – Kapha vata shamaka, Pitta samsodhana. Fruit is Kapha pitta shamaka.

Uses of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

The roots of Ankola Alangium salvifolium have been in use in Ayurvedic medicine since Vedic era. It mentioned to be used for alarka vish (rabies). Root bark of Ankola Alangium salvifolium is very bitter and is reputed as a cure for skin diseases. It is credited with astringent, pungent, anthelmintic, purgative and emetic properties and prescribed for biliousness and colic. Ankola Alangium salvifolium is a good substitute for ipecac and also proves useful as a diaphoretic and antipyretic. It is used in the form of decoction or powder. Ankola Alangium salvifolium contains an alkaloid which when administered in small doses causes a transient fall in BP followed by a sustained rise, depression of heart and irregular respiration. It also increases peristaltic movement of the intestine. The bark exhibits anti tubercular activity and is active against gram-positive organisms and Helminthosporium sativum Pammel. Oil from the root bark of Ankola Alangium salvifolium is rubbed in acute rheumatism.

Actioins of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

In Ayurvedic classics following actions (karma) of Ankola Alangium salvifolium are mentioned.

  • Vishaghna (antidote) – Jangama visha hara (poison source – animal).
  • Vedana sthapana (analgesic).
  • Rechana (purgative).
  • Vamaka (emetic)
  • Shoola prashamana (relieves abdominal pain and colic)
  • Krimighna (antihelmintic)
  • Yakrit uttejaka (stimulate proper functioning of hepatobiliary system)
  • Hridya (cardiac tonic)
  • Rakta vahini prasaraka (vasodilator)
  • Kusthaghna (cures skin diseases)
  • Sothahara (anti inflammatory)
  • Raktasodhaka (blood purifier)
  • Mutrala (diuretic)
  • Rasayana (rejuvenator)
  • Balya (gives strength and increase immunity)
  • Brimhana (nourishes body)
  • Veerya stambhaka (prevent early ejaculation of semen).

Indications of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Ankola Alangium salvifolium is indicated in following diseases externally or internally-

  • Abhyantara (internal) – Visha (poison), Gara dosa (canine poison), Jalodara (ascites), arsha (piles), krimi (worm infestation), atisara (dysentery), fever, jaundice and Rakta bharadhikya (high blood pressure).
  • Bahya (external)  Sotha (inlammatory conditions), rakta vikara (blood related problems), Puyameha (pus in urine),  mutra krichchha (dysuria), Kustha (skin ailments, leprosy), visarpa (erysipelas), phiranga (syphilis).

Useful Parts of Ankola Alangium salvifolium –  

Roots, Root bark, Fruits, Seeds, Fruit oil (seed oil) and Leaves, almost whole plant of Ankola Alangium salvifolium is used as medicine in Ayurveda.

Dosage of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

  • For Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) – 15 grain – 3 gm
  • Churna (Powder) in – 2 -10 grains
  • Poison antidote – 60 grains

Ayurvedic Medicines in which Ankola Alangium salvifolium is used as an ingredient – 

  • Kaalakuta rasa
  • Amrita ghrita
  • Ankotamulani kwatha

Photographs of Ankola Alangium salvifolium – 

Please click on image to zoom

Ankola Alangium salvifolium Ankola Alangium salvifolium

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Arishtaka – Sapindus trifoliatus

Introduction of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

The herb Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is ascribed with extra ordinary healing and occult power and is widely used in Visha roga (poison and toxicity). Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is commonly known as Ritha in Hindi and used to wash hairs for its rejuvenation and growth.

  • Botanical name of Arishtaka is Sapindus trifoliatus.Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus
  • Family name of Arishtaka is Sapindaceae.

Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus has other two varieties, viz –

  • Sapindus laurifolius Vahl.
  • Sapindus mukorossi Gaertt.

Literary Review of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is mentioned in various Ayurvedic classics.

  • Arishtaka is described in the nighantu, mainly as abortoficiant.
  • Pandit Narahari mentioned it as a good remedy for Kushtha (skin diseases), Kandu (itching), Visha (toxicity) and Visphota (boils).
  • Prof. P.V. Sharma considered that Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is south Indian variety and Sapindus mukorossi is north Indian variety.
  • Bhavaprakasha mentioned it as a good remedy for snake bite.
  • Kaiyadeva nighantu mentioned it as a good remedy for krimi rogas (worm infestation). Also it is used in kushtha (skin disease), visarpa (erysipelas), kandu (itching) etc.
  • Dhanwantari Nighantu is the one, that gives elaborated idea of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus with its action and uses.

Varieties of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus –

  1. Chhota Ritha – Sapindus trifoliatus
  2. Bada Ritha – Sapindus mukorossi

Vernacular Names (names in different languages) Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

  • English – Soap nut
  • Hindi – Ritha
  • Sanskrit – Arishtaka
  • Kannada – Kookata Kayi
  • Malayalam – Chavakagi maram
  • Telugu – kunkudu chetu
  • Tamil – Pannonkottai
  • Bengal – Bara Mitha
  • Urdu – Ritha
  • Gujarati – Arothan

Useful Parts of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

  • Fruit (nut pulp or epicarp)
  • Leaves, root and bark.

Chemical Constituents of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

The fruits of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus contain saponin 11.5 %, sugar 10 %, and some mucilage.

Seeds yield 30% oil, It is a rich source of n- licosanic.  Acid

Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus also contains –

  • Hederagin
  • Oleanotic acid
  • Sapindic acid
  • Sapindocide A & B
  • Trifolioside II

Ayurvedic Categorization of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

Charaka Samhita – Prajasthapanadi

Vagbhatta – Guduchyadi Gana, Pheniladi Gana

Ayurvedic Properties of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

  • Rasa – Tikta, katu
  • Guna – Laghu, Teekshna
  • Veerya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Tridoshahara

Therapeutic Uses of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus –  

External Uses – Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is used externally for various ailments.

  • Anti inflammatory – A paste of pulp with vinegar on suitable liquids is applied topically.
  • For poison – Pulp of fruit is applied over affected parts.
  • Antihelmintic – Roots and fruits both are given as antihelmintic.
  • Antiseptic – Fruit pulp (epicarp) of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is taken and applied over particular area.
  • In Snake bite – Fruit mixed with water and used as anjana.
  • In Shotha (inflammatory conditions) – A paste of pulp with vinegar is applied topically.
  • Sandivata (osteoarthritis), Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis) – Upanaha sweda (paultice) with leaves and bark.

Internal Uses of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

  • Digestive system – Carminative, appetizer, antacid and anti helmentic in nature.
  • Circulatory System – It is a blood purifier.
  • It is used in rheumatoid arthritis, gout and paralysis.
  • Respiratory System – The powder of fruits of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is used in bronchitis and asthma as decongestant.
  • Urinary System – It is diuretic and reduces ph of urine. It is also used in nephritis condition.
  • Skin – It is anti pruritic hence used in dermatitis, leprosy, skin eruptions, boils and glandular infections.
  • Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus is useful as Garbhapathaka (prevents miscarriage). Fruit pulp is given in this condition.
  • For Vamana – Fruit or Pericarp of fruit is given internally.
  • In Asthma – Few drops of a thick solution of pulp is placed for snuff in the nose.
  • Diarrhoea – Pulp is given internally.

Actions of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus –

  • Vamaka (emetic)
  • Rechaka (purgative)
  • Krimighna (anti helmintic)
  • Madaka (sedative)
  • Rakta shodhaka (blood purifier)
  • Kushthaghna (cures sking ailments)
  • Lekhana (exfoliation and scrapping)
  • Vedana sthapana (analgesic)
  • Shodhana (detoxification)

Indications of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus –

  • Krimi Roga (worm infestation)
  • Medo Roga (obesity)
  • Rakta Roga (disease related with blood)
  • Kushtha Roga (skin diseases)
  • Kandu Roga (itching)
  • Visha Roga (toxicity and poison)
  • Shotha Roga (inflammatory conditions)
  • Vedana Vikara (painful conditions)
  • Kasa shwasa Roga (respiratory illness)
  • Visphota (boils)

Dosage of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

Choorna (powder) – 1 – 3 gm

Kwatha (decoction) – 20 ml

Available Medicines with Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus as an ingredient – 

Vatari  Guggulu

Photographs of Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus – 

(Click on image to zoom)

Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus Arishtaka Sapindus trifoliatus

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Koshamra – Schleichera oleosa

Introduction of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

 

Koshamra Schleichera oleosaKoshamra Schleichera oleosa is a large deciduous tree commonly found in India. Seed oil of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa also known as Kusum Oil is used in Ayurveda for various skin ailments. Koshamra is also spelled as Kosamra.

  • Botanical Name of Koshamra is Schleichera oleosa.
  • Family Name of Koshamra is Sapindaceae.

Literary Review of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa –

  • Sushruta quoted Koshamra Schleichera oleosa among Nyagrodhadi gana and Amla Varga.
  • Charaka mentioned it under Amla skanda.
  • Vagbhatta mentioned it under Nyagrodhadi gana.

Synonyms Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is also known by following names botanically and in Ayurveda –

  • Cussambium oleosum O.Kuntze
  • Melicocca trijuga Juss.
  • Pistacia oleosa Lour.
  • Schleichera trijuga Willd.
  • Laksha vriksha
  • Sukoshaka
  • Koshamra – This fruit is sour like mango but contain more fiber.
  • Surataka
  • Jatudruma
  • Koshamraka
  • Jantu Vriksha
  • Kshudra Maukuli

Ayurvedic Categorization of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is categorized as follows in according to Ayurvedic classics –

  • Charaka Samhita – Amla Skantha
  • Sushruta Samhita – Nyagrodadi gana, Amla varga
  • Ashtanga Hridayam (vagbhatta) – Nyagrodadi gana

Vernacular Names (Names in different languages) of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • English – Ceylon oak, gum lac tree, Honey tree
  • Hindi – Koshamba, Kusum, Kusuma, Kosam
  • Kannada – Jendal chakot
  • Malayalam – Puvam
  • Marathi – Kochan, Kosemb, Kusumb, peduman
  • Tamil – Pumarat
  • Telugu – Adavi Mamidi
  • Gujarati – Kosumb, Kossame
  • Punjabi – Gausam, Jamoa, Kussumb

Systemic Classification of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Spermatophyta
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledone
  • Subclass – Polypetalae
  • Order – Disciflorae
  • Family – Sapindaceae
  • Genus – Schleichera
  • Species – Trijuga or oleosa

Useful Parts of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Stem bark
  • Seed
  • Fruit
  • Oil

Chemical Constituents of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Seed : Synogenatica glucosida, phenoles.

Bark : Betulin, Lupeol, β-sitosterol, Scapoletin, 9.4% tannin in its watery extract.

Indications of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Vrana (external ulcers or wounds)
  • Kushtha (skin diseases)
  • Shotha (inflammatory conditions)
  • Raktta pitta (bleeding disorders)
  • Krimi (worm infestation)
  • Pama roga (a skin disease)
  • Kati shoola (lower backache)

Ayurvedic Properties of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Rasa – Amla
  • Guna- Guru
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka -Katu
  • Doshagnata – Vatashamaka
  • Karma – Increase Kapha and Pitta, Ruchya

Properties of fruit – Ushna veerya, Grahi, Vatanashaka, Kushthaghna.

Properties of ripen fruit – Agnideepak (appetiser), ruchikaraka, Ushna and kapha vata hara.

Properties of fruit pulp – Kesha vardhaka (good for hairs), Vata nashaka, Snigdha, Kapha vardhaka

Therapeutic Uses of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Seed oil (kusum oil) of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is efficacious in alopecia, acne, itching and used for massage in rheumatism.
  • In Vrana – Kalaya leaves and Koshamra seed coat are made in to paste and applied locally in wounds.
  • In vata vriddhi roga : Oil obtained from the seed of Kosamra, tilvaka and eranda shall be used for one month for massage.
  • Stem bark powder of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is applied in kushta and tvak roga (skin diseases).
  • In  Pamaroga (a skin disease) – Churna along with oil is applied.
  • In Kati shoola (lower back pain) – Lepa is done with tvaka churna (bark powder).
  • Seed powder of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is applied over the wounds in animals to remove germs.
  • Vishama jvara – Stem bark of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is given in the form of powder or decoction.
  • Application of seed oil of kusum (Koshamra Schleichera oleosa) once a day in scalp is good for hair growth.

Dosage of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Decoction – 50 to 100 ml

Powder – 1 to 3 gm

Pharmaceutical Preparations of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Kshara agada

Nyagrodhadi Kashayam

Photographs of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Click on image to zoom.

Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa

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Methika – Trigonella foenum graecum

Introduction of Methika Trigonella foenum –

Methika Trigonella foenum is an annual herb bearing yellow flowers. It is cultivated in several parts of India as commercial crop. Botanical name of Methika is Trigonella foenum graecum. Methika Trigonella foenum belongs to Fabaceae family. Methika Trigonella foenum is called Methi which is commonly used in gastric trouble, diabetes and joints pain. In India, Methika Trigonella foenum is used in kitchen as an important spice.

Methika Trigonella foenum

Varieties of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

There are two varieties of Methika Trigonella foenum –

  1. Laghu methika – It is used as vegetable (Patra shaka).
  2. Brihat methika – It is used as cattle food (Pashu khadya)

Synonyms of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Methika, Methi, Pitabija – Seeds are yellow in color.
  • Methini, Dipani – The plant which acts as appetizer.
  • Bahupatrika – The plant which has abundant leaves.
  • Jyoti, Gandhaphala – The fruit which gives odor.
  • Kumbhika

Classical Categorization Methika Trigonella foenum – 

In Ayurvedic classics, Methika Trigonella foenum is categorized as follows –

  • Haritakyadi Varga
  • Aushadhi Varga
  • Pippalyadi Varga

Vernacular Names (Names if different languages) Methika Trigonella foenum – 

In different area and locality, the name differs. Methika Trigonella foenum is also called by following names –

  • English – Fenugreek, Greek hayes
  • Hindi – Methi
  • Kannada – Mentya, Mentesoppu Mente
  • Malayalam – Ventiyam, Vendiyam
  • Sanskrit – Methika, Methi, Kalanusari
  • Tamil – Ventayam
  • Telugu – Mentulu, Mentikura
  • Urdu – Methi
  • Spanish – Alolva
  • Arabic – Hulbah
  • Bengal – Haenugraeb, Methi
  • Punjabi – Methi, Methri.

Systemic Classification of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Genus – Trigonella
  • Species – Foenum Graecum

Useful Parts of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Seeds
  • Leaves

Chemical Constituents of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

The seeds of Methika Trigonella foenum contain moisture 13.7, protein 26.2% fat 5.8%, fibres 7.2% carbohydrate 44.1% and ash 3.0%. Seeds of Methika Trigonella foenum also contains mineral which include calcium, phosphorous, iron, sodium and potassium.

Ayurvedic Properties Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Rasa – Katu
  • Guna – Laghu, Snigdha
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Dosha karma – Vata shamaka, Vata kapha nashaka

Karma (Actions) Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Vataghna
  • Vedana hara
  • Sotha nashana
  • Nadi balya
  • Rakta – pitta kopaka
  • Angamarda prashamana
  • Dipana, pachana, anulomana
  • Shoola prashamana
  • Stanya janana
  • Garbhashaya shodhana

Indications of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Vatajanita vikara – Vata vyadhi (neuro muscular disorders)
  • Shoola (abdominal pain)
  • Sotha (inflammatory conditions)
  • Angamarda (bodyache)
  • Agnimandhya (loss of appetite)
  • Udara shoola (Abdominal pain)
  • Adhmana (bloating and gastritis)
  • Stanya kshaya (diminished lactation)
  • Garbhashaya suddhikara (useful in uterine and menstrual problems)
  • Prasavottara vyapat or sutika roga (puerperal diseases)
  • Dourbalya (weakness or debility)

Therapeutic Uses of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • In constipation (Vibandha) – The leaves used as a vegetable (curry) is helpful in bowel clearance.
  • For Inflammation (Shvayathu vilayana) – Methika patra (fenugreek leaves) are pounded and applied over affected parts to relieve swelling and inflammatory conditions.
  • For Diarrhoea and small pox – Roasted seeds of Methika Trigonella foenum in the form of infusion are indicated.
  • As galactogogue – Porridge of Methika Trigonella foenum is used to increase lactation in feeding mother.
  • In Diarrhoea – Roasted seeds along with dry grapes and common salt are given.
  • In hair fall and dandruff – Seeds powder or leaf pulp is used locally.

Dosage of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Seed Powder: 1 – 3 gm

Pharmaceutical Preparations of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

  • Methi modaka
  • Pancha jiraka paka

Photographs of Methika Trigonella foenum – 

Click on image to zoom

methika1 methika2

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Dhanvana – Grewia tiliaefolia

Introduction of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

The plant Dhanvana is botanically identified as Grewia tiliaefolia. It belongs to the family tiliaceae and malvaceae. Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia is jwaraghna (antipyretic), vishaghna (useful in poison case), used in non healing wounds (dushta vrana), ulcerative colitis, menorrhagea, respiratory problems etc.

Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia

 

Literary Reviews of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia is mentioned in various Ayurvedic classics.

  • Charaka has mentioned this drug under Amla skandha.
  • Bhavamishra has described it under the name of Dhanvangah. It is described among the Asava- yoni drayas and its fruits and wood have been used in medicine.
  • In Charaka Samhita, Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia can be seen in the preparation of chandanadi taila which is useful in fever with burning sensation.
  • In Sushruta Samhita, Dhanvana is included in the Pichha vasti (therapeutic enema) along with other drugs like leaf buds of badari, nagabala, shalmali, shlesmantaka etc.
  • Dhanurvriksha is the synonym which is commonly used in Nighantu.

Synonyms of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Dhanvana – Having the strength of a bow.
  • Dhanurvriksha – Branches are having the shape of bow.
  • Dhanvangah – Branches are of bow – shaped.
  • Mahabala – Having good strength.
  • Pinhilaka – Having pichhila guna.
  • Raktakusuma – Flowers are red in color.
  • Swaduphala – Fruits are sweet in taste.
  • Rujapaha – Reduces pain.

Ayurvedic Categorization of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Charaka Samhita – Amla skandha, Asava yoni phala.
  • Raja Nighantu – Prabhadradi Varga.
  • Bhava Prakasha Nighantu – Vatadi Varga.
  • Nighantu Adarsha – Dhanvanadi varga.

Vernacular Names (names in different languages) of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • English – Dhaman
  • Hindi – Dhamani, Dhamani, Pharsa
  • Kannada – Tadasali, thadsal, bhutthade
  • Malayalam – Chadicha, Catacci, satachi, unnam
  • Marathi – Dhaman, Daman, damni
  • Tamil – Karvini, Kitacari, tata
  • Telugu – Charachi, ettatada, Jana

Systemic Classification of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia –

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub Kingdom – Spermatophyta
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledonae
  • Subclass – Polypetalae
  • Order – Malvales
  • Family – Tiliaceae, Malvaceae
  • Genus – Grewia
  • Species – Tiliaefolia

Useful parts of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Bark
  • Fruit

Chemical Constituents of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Leaves contain 1 percent tannin.
  • Stem bark contains α-amyrin, β -amyrin, β-sitosterol and erythrodiol.
  • Roots contain α -amyrin, β -amyrin, betulin, friedlin, β -sitosterol and triacontanol.

Ayurvedic Properties of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

Rasa – Kashaya, Madhura

Guna – Laghu, Ruksha, Pichchhila

Virya – Sheeta

Vipaka – Katu

Dosha karma – Kapha- pitta shamaka

Classical Therapeutic Uses of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Fever – Dhanvana is one of the ingredients of Chandanadi taila which is useful in fever with burning sensation (Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa – 3/ 258).
  • Kaphaja Prameha – Decoction of patha, vidanga, arjuna and dhanvana mixed with honey is prescribed (Chara Samhita, Chikitsa – 6/ 27-29).
  • Haemorrhage – In case of excessive haemorrhage (bleeding conditions), powder of the barks of shala, sarja, arimeda, meshashringi, dhava and dhanvana should be applied and the spot is firmly bandaged (Sushruta Samhita, Sharira – 14/ 36).
  • Abdominal pain – In colic caused by pitta, soup of palasha or dhanvana mixed with sugar should be given (Sushruta Samhita, Uttara – 42/ 107).

Actions of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Jvaraghna
  • Shulaghna
  • Vranaghna
  • Bala karaka
  • Vrana ropaka
  • Vishaghna
  • Pramehaghna

Pharmaco-therapeutic Uses of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Diarrhoea – Decoction of bark is given orally.
  • Bloody Dysentery – Decoction of bark is given orally.
  • Dysentery – The bark is grounded or crushed and is soaked in water and after maceration, the mucilaginous liquid substance is given orally.
  • General debility and Muscular Dystrophy – The bark is ground and soaked in water and after maceration, the mucilaginous liquid substance is mixed with sugar and is given.
  • Itching due to cow hage plant – Application of paste of the bark over affected parts.
  • Opium poisoning – The wood is used in the powder form as an emetic and as an antidote.
  • Cough – The  bark is used as an expectorant.

Indications of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Visha
  • Jvara
  • Shoola
  • Prameha
  • Vrana
  • Dhatukshina
  • Bala kshaya

Dosage of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

Bark Juice – 1 – 2 Tola (Bhava Prakasha)

Kwatha – 50 – 100 ml

Ayurvedic Formulations Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

  • Chandanadi Taila

Photographs of Dhanvana Grewia tiliaefolia – 

(Click on image to enlarge)

dhanvana grewia tiliaefolia dhanvana grewia tiliaefolia dhanvana grewia tiliaefolia dhanvana grewia tiliaefolia dhanvana grewia tiliaefolia dhanvana grewia tiliaefolia

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Agastya – Sesbania Grandiflora

Introduction of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

Agastya is one of ornamental tree having high economic importance. The Swamp pea or cork wood tree is nothing but Agastya. It is used in Ayurvedic medicine for Naktandhya (night blindness), Vatarakta (gout) and Jwara (fever). Four varieties of Agastya has been mentioned by Raja Nighantu based on the color of the flower. Charaka did not mention this drug whereas Sushruta classified it under Shaka varga.

Apart from being grown for ornament, Agastya is grown as a support for pepper and betel vines and as shade plant for coconut seedlings.

Literary Review of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Chakara has not mentioned about Agastya Sesbania grandiflora.
  • Sushruta described it under Saka Varga (su.su-46).
  • Vagbhatta quoted Agastya Sesbania grandiflora as Kumbha yoni in Asthtanga Hridayam Uttara 13.
  • Sushruta highlighted the utility of Agastya sesbania grandiflora in Naktandhya (night blindness).
  • In Harita Samhita Chikitsa, this drug has been mentioned.
  • All Nighantus have described about this drug. In Nighantu Adarsha, it is mentioned under Palashadi Varga; Raja Nighantu has mentioned this drug under Karaveeradi Varga; Bhava Prakasha has quoted this drug under Pushpa varga and saka varga; Kaiyyadeva Nighantu mentioned it under Aushadhi varga and Shodhala Nighantu mentioned this drug under Shimbi Dhanya Varga.
  • The modern books like Indian medicinal plants, Indian materia medica, classical use of the medicinal plant Agastya has been described under the botanical name Sesbania grandiflora poir.

Types of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

Four kinds of Agastya plants are mentioned according to the color of the flower. They are –

  1. Shveta (white)
  2. Pita (yellow)
  3. Nila (blue)
  4. Rakta (red)

Commonly available are the red and white flowered plant.

Synonyms of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Agastya – This tree is famous in the name of Saint Agastya or Saint Agastya likes this tree. The tree blossoms during Agastya Nakshaktra in Sharada Ritu.
  • Munidruma – It is very much praised by Saint Agastya.
  • Vaktrapushpa – The keel petal is large and half curved.

Ayurvedic Categorization (Gana & Varga) of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Charaka – Not mentioned.
  • Sushruta – Saka Varga.
  • Vagbhata – Kumbha yoni.
  • Nighantu Adarsha – Palashadi Varga.
  • Bhava Prakasha – Pushpa varga, Saka varga.
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga.
  • Raja Nighantu – Karaviradi Varga.
  • Shodhala Nighantu – Shimbi Dhanya Varga.

Vernacular names (Name in different language) of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • English – Swamp pea, Corkwood tree, Sesban, vegetable humming bird
  • Kannada – Agasi, Agaci
  • Hindi – Agastya, Hathya, Agast, Basna
  • Tamil – Attikkirai
  • Telugu – Avesi, Avasinara
  • Malayalam – Akatti, Agatti, Alti, Argatti
  • Bengali – Agasti, Agusa, Bak, Buka, Buko
  • Gujarati – Agathio
  • Marathi – Agastha, Agathi, Chopchini, Shevari
  • Urdu – Agast

System Classification Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub Kingdom – Trachebionta (Vascular plants)
  • Division – Magnoliphyta (Flowering Plants)
  • Class – Magnolipsida (Dicotyledons)
  • Sub class – Rosidae
  • Order – Fabales
  • Family – Fabaceae
  • Genus – Sesbania
  • Species – Grandiflora

Useful Parts (in medicine) of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

Panchanga (whole plant)

  • Flowers
  • Leaves
  • Bark
  • Roots
  • Fruits

Dosage of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Churna (powder) – 5 – 10 gm.
  • Swarasa (juice) – 3 – 6 ml.
  • Kwatha (decoction) – 10 – 20 ml.

Chemical Constitutents Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Grandiflorol
  • Kaempferol 3
  • 7-diglucoside, leucocuanidin
  • Cyaniding – 3-glucoside
  • Arginine
  • Cystine
  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine
  • Threonine alanine
  • Aspargine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Galactose
  • Rhamnose and gluoronic acid

Ayurvedic Properties of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Rasa – Tikta
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Shita
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Dosha Karma – Kapha Pitta Shamaka, Vatakara

Karma (Actions) of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Shotha hara
  • Vrana shodhana
  • Ropana
  • Bhutaghna
  • Shirovirechana
  • Chakshushya
  • Medhya
  • Dipana
  • Anulomana
  • Krimighna
  • Grahi
  • Shula prashamana
  • Sleshmanisaraka
  • Kasahara
  • Swedajanana
  • Twachya
  • Visphotaghna
  • Jwaraghna
  • Vishaghna
  • Raktapitta shamaka

Therapeutic Uses of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • The root bark of red flowered variety is useful in painful and rheumatic swelling and arthralgia.
  • Root is given with honey in catarrh.
  • The bark is astringent, cooling, bitter, tonic, antihelmentic and febrifuge.
  • Pounded bark is externally applied to cure scabies.
  • Juice of bark is good for dyspepsia, diarhoea and gastralgia.
  • Decoction of bark added with salt and asafoetida relieves colic.
  • Leaves are acrid, bitter, sweet, cooling, tonic, antipyretic and diuretic.
  • Leaf juice is useful in nasal catarrh, night blindness, epilepsy and headache.
  • Leaves are chewed to disinfect mouth and throat and are useful in leprous eruptions.
  • Flowers are cooling, bitter, astringent, acrid, emollient, laxative and antipyretic.
  • Juice of flowers is applied to eyes for night blindness.
  • Fruits are useful in flatulent, colic, anaemia and emaciation.

Prayoga (indications) Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

Bahya Prayoga (Externa Uses) –

  • Sandhi Vata
  • Vata rakta
  • Vrana
  • Visphota
  • Charma Vikara
  • Netravikara
  • Naktandhya
  • Drishtimandya
  • Pratisyaya
  • Pinasa
  • Shirahshula
  • Kaphaja jwara

 

Abhyantara prayoga (Internal Uses) –

  • Apasmara
  • Sangyanash
  • Mashtishka daubalya
  • Udara vikara
  • Krmi
  • Shula
  • Vibandha
  • Agnimandya
  • Atisara
  • Sangrahani
  • Kasa
  • Pratisyaya
  • Pinasa
  • Kshaya
  • Sveta pradar
  • Garbhashaya shotha
  • Puya meha
  • Mutra vikara
  • Twak vikara
  • Vaivarnya
  • Sannipataja Jwara

Vishista Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preaparations) Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

  • Grahanikapata rasa
  • Ratnagiri rasa
  • Pittakasantaka rasa
  • Agastya Rasayana
  • Agastya Haritaki

Photographs of Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora – 

(Click on image to enlarge)

Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora Agastya Sesbania Grandiflora Agastya Sesbania GrandifloraAgastya Sesbania Grandiflora

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Eranda – Ricinus communis

Introduction of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Botanical Name of Eranda is Ricinus communis.
  • Family name of Eranda is Euphorbiaceae.

Eranda Ricinus communisEranda is commonly found medicinal with wide use as purgative/ laxative and for Vata disorders (neuro-muscular). The root, leaves, flowers, root bark and seeds, almost whole plant is useful for curing many ailments. Eranda is a ever green glabrous shrub, leaves are palmatly 7-many lobed, oblong to lenear, acute or acuminate.  There are 2 type of Eranda plant, red type (Rakta Eranda) and white type (Shweta Eranda). The oil cake is good manure. Warmed castor oil on being applied relieves joint pains. The non medicinal purpose of oil is used in break fluids in automobile industry.

Literary Review of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Oil obtained from seeds and roots of eranda have been used medicinally by Hindus from a very remote period and is mentioned by Sushruta Samhita. It is Dutt, 1877 who 1st time mentioned in his Materia Medica of the Hindus that the roots of Ricinus communis and the oil obtained from the seeds have been used in medicine by the Hindus from a very remote period. They are mentioned by Sushruta.
  • The two varieties of the plant are referred on the Sushrutha samhitha, under their common names as Rakta eranda and shweta eranda. This plant is also mentioned in Charaka and in Nighantus like Dhanvanthari Nighantu, Madana pala Nighantu, Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Adarsha Nighantu, Bhavaprakasha Nighantu etc.

Types of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  1. Rakta Eranda (Red Variety)
  2. Shweta Eranda (White Variety)

Synonyms of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Eranda
  • Gandharvahastha
  • Panchangula
  • Vyagrapuccha
  • Rubuka
  • Urubuka
  • Chitra
  • Chitrabija
  • Chitraka
  • Vathari
  • Vyadambaka
  • Amanda
  • Vardhamana
  • Vyaghradhala
  • Uttanapathraka
  • Dheergha dhanda
  • Chanchu
  • Hasthikarna
  • Taruna
  • Vyaghra
  • Vyaghra thara
  • Laghu
  • Urabu
  • Vathavairy
  • Chunchula
  • Shukla
  • Rubu
  • Yaksha
  • Hasthaka
  • Gandharva
  • Hasthiparna
  • Lohitha
  • Sheershaka
  • Vyalamba
  • Dindaka
  • Dinda
  • Buka
  • Ribu
  • Vyaghra
  • Pushpa
  • Vyadambaka

Ganas (Ayurvedic Categorisations) of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • According to Charaka – Bhedaniya, Swedopaga, Angamarda Prashamana, Madhura Skandha.
  • According to Sushrua – Vidarigandhadi, Vata Samshamana, Adhobhaga hara.

Vernacular Name of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Eranda is known differently in different language and locale. Followings are various names of Eranda-

  • Sanskrit – Erandah, Rubukah, urubukah, Tribijah, Hastikarnakah, Gaja karnakah, Maha patrab, Gandharva hasta, Panchanguli, Shweteranda, Chitra bija, Vatari, Rubu, Chitraka, Uttana patraka.
  • Assamese – Eri
  • Bengali – Bherenda, Rehri, Bhaerand, Bherenj
  • Bombay – Erendi, Gab
  • Gujarati – Diveligo, Diveli Erandi, Erandah, Divelo.Erandioh, Erandoh, Rendi
  • Hindi – Arand, Arend, Erend, Rendi, Erandah, Andih, Renda Erandih, Jaada
  • Kannada – Haralu, Harlu, Manda, Oudla.
  • Malayalam – Avanakku, Chittamanakku.
  • Marathi – Erandi, Yarandicha, Erandah, Rendi.
  • Nepali – Areta , Alha, Orer.
  • Odia – Gab.
  • Punjabi – Aneru, Arand, Arind.
  • Rajasthani – Edia, Arend.
  • Tamil – Amanakkam, Sittamunuk, Kattai muthu, Chittamant.
  • Telugu – Amadom, Amdi, Eranudapu, Erandama, Amudamu, Erandamu, Amudamuchettu.
  • Arabic – Khriva, khriba.
  • Egyptian – Kiki.
  • English – Castor oil plant, castor.
  • Persian – Ved Anjir.

Systemic Classification of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Phenerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledonae
  • Sub class – Archichlamydae
  • Family – Euphorbiaceae
  • Genus – Ricinus
  • Species – Communis

Useful Parts of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Root, leaves, fruit, seed, flower and oil.

Ayurvedic Properties of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Rasa – Madhura, Katu, Tikta
  • Guna –  Snigdha, Tikshna, Sukshma, Guru
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka – Madhura
  • Doshagnatha – Kapha Vata Shamaka, Pitta Vardhaka

Chemical Constituents of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Eranda contains fixed oil, Recin, ricinine, glyseroids, ricinolic acids, having purgative actions, stearic acid, hydroxy stearic acid, lipids, phosphatides, arachidic, chlorogenic, oleic, palmitic, hexa decanoic hydrocyanic and uric acids.

Actions of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Vedana sthapana, shoola hara, Angamarda prashamana, deepana, Bhedana, Rechana, Krimighna, hridya, shotha hara, vrishya, stanya janana, shukra shodhana, garbhashaya shodhana, vishaghna, kustaghna, sweda janana, jwaraghna, vataghna, udara rogaghna, Ama vataghna, Vataraktaghna, Udavartaghna, gulmaghna, Arshagna, Arshaghna, Vata Abhishyanda nashana, naktandhya nashana, sleepadaghna, karna shoolaghna, yanishoolagna, hamalaghna, parshwa shoolaghna, kasta baddata nashana, pleehagna, basti shoolaghna, katishoolaghna, kasaghna, swasaghna, Ashmarighna, Pramehaghna, Anahaghna, sthoulyaghna, vranaghna, mutra krichha har etc.

Indications of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Root bark has emetic and purgative action and cures lumbago skin diseases, dyspnoea, hydrocele, flatulence, piles, cough, head ache, leprosy, arthritis, renal calculus, dysuria, fever, swelling, mental diseases.

Eranda Seeds cure hepatitis. Tender leaves allay pain in the urinary bladder.

The roots of Eranda are sweet, acrid, astrigent, thermogenic, carmative, purgative, anti-helmintic, emollient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, galactagogue, sudorific and expectorant. It also cures gulma, constipation, inflammations, fever, ascitis, strangury, bronchities, cough, leprosy, skin diseases, vitiated conditions of vata, colic, tail bone pain and lumbago.

Leaves are diuretic, anti-helmintic, galactagogue and cures burns, vitiated conditions of Vata like rheumatoid arthritis, urodynia and musculo skeletal pain. Leaves externally applied to boils and sores in the farm of poultis.

Flowers cures urodynia and glandular tumors.

Oil obtained from seeds is slightly bitter, acrid, sweet, antipyretic, thermogenic and purgative.

 

Dosage of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Root powder –  10 – 20 gm

Purified Seed – 2-5 seeds.

Oil –  5 – 20 ml.

 

Purification of Eranda seeds – 

For purification of Eranda Seeds fomentation (in Dola Yantra) is done in coconut water for 3 hours and washed with water and dried under sunshine.

Therapeutic Uses of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • A poultice of the crushed seeds is used to reduce gouty and rheumatic swelling, inflammation of the breasts of women during lactation. Leaves have similar property but in lesser degree.
  • The root bark is used as a purgative.
  • Roots are administered in the form of a decoction (kwatha) for lumbago and allied complaints. It is also applied in the form of a paste for tooth ache. Root bark is reported to be a strong purgative.
  • Leaves are also used in the form of a poultice for fomentation on sores, boils and swellings.
  • Leaves coated with oil and warmed are commonly applied over the abdomen to give relief in flatulence in children.
  • Leaves are considered as galactogogue and are applied as poultice over the breasts or taken internally in the form of juice. An infusion of the leaves is used for stomach ache.
  • Crushed leaves are said to give relief in caries & are applied over guinea warm to extract the warm.
  • Castor oil is often given orally. It is also used as an abortifaciant & ricinolic acid present is used in contraceptive jellies & creams.
  • It is also applied externally as emollient in seborrhic dermatitis and other cutaneous infections.
  • Warmed castor oil is applied and gently massaged over joints to relieve pain.
  • Seeds are antidote for scorpion and fish poisoning.
  • Leaves are applied to the head to get relief from headache.
  • Decoction of the roots with other drugs is given in various conditions of nervine disorders, joints and muscular disorders.
  • Paste of the seeds first boiled in milk and water and then given orally in case of Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis), Gridhrasi (sciatica) and Vatarakta (gout).
  • In fever along with pravahika (diarrhea), Eranda moola (roots) is boiled in milk and reduced to one fourth to make its decoction is used internally.
  • In Shoola (abdominal colic), decoction made up of Eranda mula and shunti is prepared and hingu, souvarchala lavana is added. This decoction is given orally.
  • In Arsha (piles), eranda tail along with triphala kwathais used orally.

Pharmaceutical Preparations of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

  • Eranda paka
  • Eranda Muladi kwatha
  • Eranda Saptaka kwatha
  • Rasna Erandadi kwatha
  • Erandadi kwatha
  • Gandharva hastadi erandam tail
  • Eranda tail

Adulterants of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Castor oil is some times adulterated with rosin oil, blown oils and other oils like ground nut, coconut oil, sesame oil, Cotton seed oil and poppy seed oils. Commercial oils such as ground nut, sesame and linseed seeds are some times adulterated with the comparatively cheaper castor oil, has been occasionally found as an adulterant in essential oils such as those of vetiver, clove, eucalyptus and lemon.

Photographs of Eranda – Ricinus communis – 

Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis Eranda Ricinus communis

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Bhanga – Cannabis sativa

Introduction to Bhanga (Cannabis sativa)-

  • Botanical Name of Bhanga is Cannabis sativa.
  • Family of Bhanga is cannabinacae.

Ayurveda, science of life needs basically the knowledge of drugs comprehensively for the purpose of therapeutics, Pharmaceutics and the objects of preservation of health, prevention of diseases and curative measures. Works on the particular medical plants are going on for the consolidation, compilation and presentation of material that is related to the particular drugs in the English medicine, by combining the Sanskrit explanation of the drug with the modern pharmacognosy.

bhanga - cannabis sativaHere is an article on medicinal plant Bhanga (cannabis sativa) is presented to you. The drug has been mentioned from the Vedic period itself in the name of “Vijaya” in therapeutics. Recent studies on this drug have proved its role in the therapeutic as antispasmodic, anesthetic, aphrodisiac, appetizer, expectorant etc. Also, the plant carries Ethno-botanical importance, which also included its use in religion purpose like in the worship of lord Shiva.

Cultivation and import and export of the drug and related products are under the license of Govt. of India, as per legislative procedures.

 

Literary Review of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) is the drug famous for its Narcotic resin. In classics this drug is famous by the name Bhanga, Vijaya etc. There is no exact reference told in Samhitas like Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridayam does not include in the therapeutics but the use of the drug beings from the Nighantu period.

  • Bhavaprakasha mentions the therapeutic effect of the drug in Atisaradhikara chapter.
  • Raja nighantu gives the effects and therapeutic uses of Bhanga.
  • In the Shodala nighantu, there is a reference of Bhanga.
  • In Nasadhikara, Bhavaprakasha mentioned the therapeutic use of Bhanga.
  • Chakradatta mentioned in the kushtha chikitsa, it is having the property of removing the external germs.
  • In modern texts of medicinal plants there is a wide explanation of drug (cannabis sativa) for its narcotic utilities.

Systemic Classification of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Sub kingdom – Phenerogamae
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledon
  • Subclass – Monochlamydeae
  • Series – Unisexuales
  • Order – urticales
  • Family – Cannabinaceae
  • Genus – Cannabis
  • Species – Sativa

Vernacular Names of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga (cannabis sativa) has different name in different locale and language, have a look below –

  • Arabic – Hinab, Kanab, Kinnab, Naba tulqunenals
  • Assami – Dai ma
  • Bengal – Bhang, Ganja, Sidhi
  • Burma – Ben, Bin, Sechaub, Sejarbim
  • Kannada – Bhangi, Bhangigida, Bhangisoppu
  • Chinese – Fuma, ma , Tama, Tang ma
  • Deccan – Ganja, Sidhi
  • Dutch – Hennip, Indische hennepkrid , Kennip
  • English – Indian hemp
  • French – Cannibis, Canaban, Candi, Caneba, Cannab, Chambric, Chamust, Canvre indien, chauvetion
  • German – Hanf, Indischer
  • Greek – Kannabis
  • Gujrati – Bhang, Ganja
  • Hindi – Bhang, Charas, Ganja, Ganjaekaper, Gur
  • Hungarian – Indiai Kinder
  • Italian – Canapa, Canape, Canape Indiana
  • Kashmir – Bhangi
  • Konkani – Bhang
  • Madagascar – Jea Sarama
  • Malaya – Foh Mah
  • Malayalam – Cherukam hava, Ginjinachilachi, Kanecharachetto
  • Marathi – Bhang, Bhanga, chajmada
  • Mexican – Maerihuana
  • Morocco – Hutchis
  • Rumanian – Canipa
  • Russian – Konaplya
  • Spanish – Bhangane de la India, Cannamo, Canamo Indiana
  • Swedish – tlamp
  • Tamil – Bhangi, Ganjam , Kalpam, Korkkamuchi
  • Telugu – Bhagiaku, Ganjachettu, kalpa mechettu
  • Turkish – Hint heneviri

Distributions and Habitat of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga is distributed throughout India, wild variety in the west Himalayas and Central Asia. It is cultivated in tropical and temperate regions, in warm valleys of Himalayas, in Himachal Pradesh, and in adjoining plains from Kashmir eastwards to Assam. It is also grown in Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. Some wild variety growth is reported from Tamil Nadu, Rajastan, Bihar and Kerala. Bhanga usually grows almost in all parts of India, Pakistan, Iran and Iraq.

Parts Used of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Tender Leaves
  • Seeds
  • Resin

Tender leaves and seeds in a tender branch is called ‘Bhang’

Female cluster flower containing resin is called ‘Ganja’

A substance resembling resin derived from this plant is called ‘Charas’.

Chemical Composition of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Following chemical constituents are found in Bhanga (cannabis sativa) – Cannabinoids, resinous exudates, cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannatrichomere, cannabicitran, canbicyclol Cannabispiran, iso cannabrispiran, dehydro cannabispiran, tetrahydrocannabinol, 1-dehydro cannabidiol and other phinolic compounds along with eugenol, guacol, amino acids c-glycosy – favamaids.

Ayurvedic Properties of of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Rasa – Tikta
  • Guna – Laghu , Ruksha, Theekshna, Vyavayi
  • Veerya- Ushna
  • Vipaka- Katu
  • Prabhava – Madaka, Nidrajanaka, Mohakara.
  • Doshaghnata – Vata Kapha Shamaka

Purification of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga is purified by giving Swedana in Dola Yantra, using Ksheera as drava dravya for one Prahara (3 hours). After swedana, it is washed, dried and roasted with Ghee on a low flame.

Actions of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Sangyahara (Anesthetic/ sedative)
  • Vrishya (Aphrodisiac)
  • Deepaka (Appetizer)
  • Stambaka
  • Pitta rechaka (Purgative)
  • Pralapaka (Convulsing)
  • Pachaka (Digestive)
  • Mutrala (diuretic)
  • Nadi Uttejaka (nerve stimulant)
  • Kapha Nissaraka (expectorant)
  • Swedya (causes perspiration)
  • Nidra Janaka (sedative)

Indications of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Akshepaka (convulsions)
  • Mootra krichha (dysuria)
  • Nidranasha (Insomnia)
  • Agnimandya (loss of appetite)
  • Jwara (fever)
  • Kasa(cough) and shwasa (asthma)
  • Atisaara (diarrhea and dysentery)

Dosage of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Bhanga Patra (leaves) – 2-4 grains
  • Ganja – 1-2 grain
  • Charas – ½ grain

Bhanga is a poisonous herb and used as narcotic. It is not recommended for minors and should not be taken without doctor’s advice.

Bad Effects of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

After oral administration, within ½ an hour, the toxic symptom appears. It occurs in 2 stages –

  1. Primary Stage

In this stage the symptoms are like –

  • Vertigo
  • Excessive laughing
  • Incoherent Speech
  • Delirium
  • Tingling Sensation in skin
  • Numbness in skin
  • Feeling laxity
  • Drowsiness

Also, in this stage the person sometime becomes violent. After drowsiness, patient enters into secondary stage.

  1. Secondary stage

The intoxication becomes more severe and the person passes into a stage of deep sleep. Generally this doesn’t cause death of patient. But if patient dies, it is due to respiratory arrest. Emergency treatment is necessary, so hospitalization is required.

Therapeutic Uses of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga is a poisonous herb. It is not recommended for minors and should not be taken without doctor’s advice.

  1. Bhanga and ganja are used as appetizer, nervous stimulate and in bowel complaints.
  2. Seeds are roasted and eaten along with food to increase taste and appetite.
  3. Leaves are used as snuff and given internally to relieve pain and smelling orchitis, leaf juice destroys worms.
  4. Syrup prepared from cannabis indica is given in small doses during convalescent stage after diarrhoaea.
  5. Seed and seed oil is diuretic, anti diarrhoeal, beneficial in chronic rheumatism and has action like ergot in delivery cases.
  6. Plant is used as tonic, analgesic, anti septic useful in gonorrhoea, meanorrhagia and Cholera.
  7. Decoction of plant is also used in dysentery.

Vishitha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations) of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

  • Jatiphaladi choorna
  • Vijaya vatika
  • Madanananda modaka
  • Indrasara choorna
  • Vedanantaka rasa
  • Kameshwara modaka

Photographs of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa) –

Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa Bhanga - cannabis sativa bhanga - cannabis sativa

Image source- Theferns.info 

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Shankhapushpi – Convolvulus pluricaulis

Introduction of Shankhapushpi – Convolvulus pluricaulis – 

  • Botanical Name of Shankhapushpi is Convolvulus pluricaulis.
  • Family of Shankhapushpi is Convolvulaceae.

The sankrit word Shankhapushpi literally means that the flowers of which are in shape of a conch or sankha which is considered to be auspicious. It is one of the controversial drug in Indian Medicine. It is not having any classical categorization by  Brihatrayis. But the Medhya property of Shankhapushpi is delineated in ancient texts. Charaka explained it as the best example of Medhya-Rasayana. Bhavamishra  quoted 2 varieties- Shweta (white) and Neela (blue) of Shankhapushpi.

Shankapushpi is a small prostrate plant covered with white hairs, with white or blue flowers. It is grown as an ornamental plant as its flowers are beautiful and auspicious. The whole plant is used for medicinal purposes. Main action of this drug includes Kushthaghna, Shoolaghna and Krimighna. It is a good brain tonic and siddha taila (processed oil) prepared out of it is good for hair growth.

PHOTOGRAPHS OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

Shankhapushpi Convolvulus pluricaulis
Convolvulus tricolor
Convolvulus arvensis
Convolvulus arvensis

shankhapushpi1

Convolvulus sabatius
Convolvulus sabatius

(image source – ayurvedicdrugs.com, wikipedia.org)

LITERARY REVIEW OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • It is quoted to be Soubhagya karana (lucky) and Vashikarana (hypnotic) in vedic literature. The Medhya property of Shankapushpi is also mentioned in ancient texts.
  • Charaka explained Shankhapushpi as the best Medhya Rasayana. Brihatrayi quoted Shankhapushpi for a limited number of times and they did not include it under any Gana or Varga.
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu mentioned one variety of Shankhapushpi.
  • Shodhala Nighantu described Rakta Pushpika and Nila Pushpa varieties of Shankhapushpi.
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu mentioned two varieties- Shankhapuspi and Sarpakshi. However it appears that Shodhala had given the Sarpaksi synonymn to the Raktapuspika.
  • Bhavamishra quoted 2 varieties viz. Shweta and Nila Shankapushpi. Bhavamishra described it as an Ushna Virya Dravya.

CONTROVERSIES OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

The plant which has flowers like a conch is Shankhapushpi. At present the following plants are being used for Shankhapushpi rather than convolvulus pluricaulis.

  • Evolvulus alsinoides Linn (Convolvulaceae)
  • Canscora diffusa (Gentianaceae)
  • Clitoria ternatea Linn (Papilionaceae)
  • Lavandula stoechas (Labiateae)
  • Dr. Gananatha Sen was using Lavandula as a Pratinidhi dravya (substitute) for Shankhapushpi.                        .

SYNONYMS OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Kusum- Seeing the flower is auspicious
  • Mangalyakusuma- Seeing the flower is auspicious
  • Supushpa- Flowers are attractive and pleasant appearance
  • Medhya- Intellect promoter
  • Smritihita- Memory enhancer
  • Kshirapushpi- Milky white flowers
  • Shankhahva- Flowers resemble the shape of shell
  • Shankakusuma
  • Shankhamalini- Flowers resembles shankha
  • Shoolaghna- good for curing pain
  • Shankhapushpi- bears flowers like shell shape
  • Malavilasini
  • Varnavilasini
  • Vanavilasini
  • Chirindi
  • Bhoolaghni
  • Manorama
  • Shivabhrami
  • Kambupushpi

VERNACULAR NAMES OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Sanskrit- Sankhapuspi
  • English – Canscora
  • Kannada – Sankinisoppu
  • Malayalam  – Sankhapushpi
  • Telugu – Kanapa, Shankhapushpi
  • Gujarati – Sankhavali
  • Marathi- Sankhavel
  • Bengali- Dankani
  • Hindi- Shankhaphooli
  • Punjabi- Dodaic

SYSTEMIC CLASSIFICATION OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Kingdom- Plantae
  • Sub Kingdom- Spermatophytae
  • Division- Angiospermeae
  • Class- Dicotyledons
  • Subclass- Gamopetalae
  • Genus- Convolvulus
  • Species- Pluricaulis

PRAYOJYA ANGA (USEFUL PARTS)OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Panchanga (Whole plant)
  • Moola (Roots)
  • Beeja (Seeds)
  • Bhasma (Ash)
  • Dried leaves are used for smoking (useful in chronic cough & asthma)

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • The Shankhapushpi plant contains an alkaloid – shankhapushpine.
  • It’s fresh samples yield a volatile oil and potassium chloride.
  • Shankhapushpi also contains a yellow neutral fat and organic and a saline substances.
  • 2 crystalline substance sterol I and sterol II.
  • n- hexacosanol
  • Beta- silosterol is also found in Shankhapushpi

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES (PHARMACODYNAMICS) OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Rasa- Tikta, Katu, Kashaya
  • Guna- Snigdha, Picchhila
  • Virya- Shita
  • Vipaka- Madhura
  • Doshakarma- Tridosha hara, Vatapitta shamaka.

Snigdha, pichhila, guru guna and madhura vipaka make it Vatashamaka; Shitavirya- Pittashamaka and katu, tikta, kashaya rasa makes it Khaphashamaka.

KARMA (Actions) OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Medhya
  • Mastishka nadi balya
  • Nidra janana
  • Rasayana- medhya rasayana
  • Anulomana
  • Kushthaghna, kesha vavardhana
  • Hrid- balya
  • Rakta stambhaka
  • Rakta Vata shamaka
  • Kapha Nissaraka
  • Svarya
  • Mutra virechaniya
  • Vrishya
  • Pragyasthapana

PRAYOGA (Indications) OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Mastishka Dourbalya, mastishka roga
  • Smriti bhramsha
  • Unmada, Apasmara, Anidhra, Bhrama
  • Gulma
  • Arsha, vibandha
  • Vata vikara
  • Hrid roga
  • Raktapitta
  • Raktabharadhikya
  • Kapha paithika kasa, Swarabheda
  • Mutrakrichha
  • Dhaha, Jwara
  • Thridoshaja Jwara
  • Santapa
  • Dourbalya

THERAPEUTIC  USES OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • The drug Shankhapushpi is Medhya (intellect- promoting) herbal agent. It is bitter brain tonic. It is a remedy for treatment of mental disorder .
  • Ghee processed with three times juice of Shankhapushpi along with milk is useful to make mind sharp and intelligent.
  • The drug is used in insanity, insomnia, epilepsy and other mental disorders.
  • It has become a drug of choice for brain disorders and also in combination with other similar drugs like Brahmi, Jyotismati etc. which is frequently recommended as memory promoter, brain tonic, anti stress, hypotensive and also in other various disorders related to nervous and other system of body.
  • Nervous system- as brain tonic, sedative, epilepsy, giddiness etc. Fresh juice of Shankhapushpi in a dose of 5- 20 ml overcomes schizophrenia.
  • Digestive System- Katu and Tikta rasa improves appetite and is good for digestion. Pichchhila Guna and Madhura vipaka helps to improve peristalsis of intestine. In this way Shankhapushpi is best for loss of appetite, flatulence and other Vata conditions of bowel. It’s effect on peristaltic movement of intestine helps to eliminate intestinal toxins and constipation.
  • Circulatory System- Cardio tonic, haemostatic, useful in heart diseases, haemoptysis, haemetemesis and hypertension.
  • Respiratory System- It is an optimum expectorant by virtue of Katu, Tikta and Snigdha property. It is used in cough caused by Vata pitta and hoarseness of voice.
  • Urinary System- It is diuretic due to Shita virya, used in dysuria and urinary tract infection.
  • Reproductive System- It is a good Vajikarak (aphrodisiac), increases semen density due to snigdha, pichchhil guna and madhur vipaka.
  • Skin- Many skin diseases are cured due to Pittashamak action and also due blood purifying action. It is used in syphilis.
  • Temperature- Sheeta virya reduces burning sensation and fever accompanied by burning sensation. Syrup of sankhapushpi is used in summer to overcome burning micturation.
  • External uses- Kushthaghna and hair tonic. It is used in the form of paste in skin diseases and siddha taila (processed oil) for hair growth.

MATRA (Dosage) OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Churna (Powder)- 3-6 gm
  • Swarasa (juice)- 20- 30 ml
  • Sheeta (Cold infusion)- 12-50 ml
  • Panchanga Kalka (paste)- 10-20 gm
  • Kshara- 1- 3 gm

VISHISHTHA YOGA (Pharmaceutical Preparation) OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Shankhapushpi Rasayana
  • Shankhapushpi Taila
  • Shankhapushpi panaka
  • Medhya kashaya
  • Shankhapushpi Ghrita
  • Brahmi rasayana
  • Indra rasayana
  • Medhya rasayana
  • Saraswata Choorna
  • Amritadi rasayana
  • Sankhapushpi Syrup

ADULTERANTS AND SUBSTITUTES OF SHANKHAPUSHPI (Convolvulus pluricaulis)-

  • Gananath Sen mentioned Lavandula as a substitute for Shankhapushpi.
  • Cansora diffusa which is distributed throughout India is used as a substitute of Shankhapushpi.
  • Evolvulus alsinoides Linn is also used as a substitute for Convolvulus pluricaulis.
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Kiratatikta – Swertia chirata

Introduction of Kiratatikta – Swertia chirata – 

  • Botanical Name of Kirata Tikta is Swertia chirata.
  • Family of Kirata Tikta is Gentianaceae.

The Kirata Tikta is one such drug which is not available commonly. It is found at a altitude of 4,000-5000 ft. Kirata Tikta plants grow widely in Himalayan region between 1208- 3046 m elevation from Kashmir to Bhutan. In Folklore medicine and in rural areas the Kalamegha or Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) is considered as Kirata Tikta and it is used in place of Kirata Tikta because of its similar morphology and properties. It is a bitter plant of Kiratas or north India.

Kirata Tikta is mentioned in earlier period by Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhatta and also in Vedas itself.   It is used by Hindu physicians. It is a tonic, stomachic & febrifuge and prescribed in Kashaya or infusion of small tea-cup full twice a day.  On large dose it oppresses the stomach and causes nausea.

Photographs OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

Kiratatikta - Swertia chirata Kiratatikta - Swertia chirata

Kiratatikta - Swertia chirata

(Image Source- 1 2 3 )

LITERARY REVIEWS OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Kirata Tikta has long has been an important article of Hindu materia medica.
  • It is mentioned in Samhita like Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Vagbhatta’s Ashtangahridayam, Bhavaprakasha, Sharangdhar Samhita and others under the name of Kirata Tikta.
  • In Harita Samhita, it is mentioned to be used in the treatment of scorpion bite with other drugs.
  • It is also mentioned in the Nighantu like Yoga Rathnakara, Raja Nighantu, Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Adarsha  Nighantu, Shodhala Nighantu and Dhanwanthari Nighantu. Also there is mention of Kirata Tikta in Bhaishajya Ratnavali and in Chakradatta, Amarkosha, Shabda Kalpa Drooma.
  • It is used as a tea in a quantity of one tea-cup full twice a day. It is a tonic in a dyspepsia and functional inactivity of liver. Chiretta is much praised in India as a powerful tonic. It does not constipate the bowel but causes easy movement of bile (A chemical investigation of the plant was carried out by Janaki Ram).

CONTROVERSIES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

Kirata Tikta has a synonym Bhu-nimba.

It is also a synonym of Kalamegha/ Kalmegh – Andrographis paniculata. In Folklore medicine and in rural areas people consider and call Kalamegha has Vighata Tikta because of its similar morphology and properties and action.

In Kerala in place of Kirata Tikta two drugs are used, they are:

  1. Kalamedha – Androgrophis paniculata Ness.
  2. Bruhathi – Solanum indicum. Linn

TYPES AND VARIETIES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

There are three types of Kirata Tikta-

  1. Swertia Chirata – Kirata Tikta
  2. Swertia angustifolia – Meetha Chirayata
  3. Swertia alata

SYNONYMS OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Bhunimba – It is a small neem herb.
  • Ramasenak
  • Kanda tikta – Stem is bitter in taste.
  • Bhutikta
  • Anaryatikta – It is not found in “Aryan” regions
  • Ardhatikta
  • Chiratikta
  • Haima – It is having golden coloured patches
  • Jwarantak – It destroys Jwara
  • Naipal – Found abundant in Nepal
  • Nidrari
  • Tikta – It is having Tikta rasa
  • Chirayata
  • Kairata – It is present in Kirata Desh (Desha means place, region, country).
  • Kairat tikta – It is tikta plant present in Kirata Desh
  • Kiratak – It destroys all diseases
  • Nepal nimba – It is found abundantly in Nepal.
  • Truna nimba – It is small neem plant
  • Nidiga tikta
  • Sannipatah- useful in sannipat jwara
  • Katu tikta – It is having tikta ras and katu vipak
  • Vikataka
  • Su tiktak – It is having tikta rasa.

GANA OR VARGA (Ayurvedic Categorization) OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

In ancient Ayurvedic treatise drugs have been grouped under either Gana or Varga. This grouping was based on the pharmacological properties as well as dietary use. Etymologically Varga or Gana will provide the forms meaning:

  1. Varga is a group of limited number of herbs having similar pharmacological properties.
  2. Gana is a group of large number of herbs having similar pharmacological properties.
  • According to Charaka Kirata Tikta is included under Tikta skanda, Stanya Shodhana, Trishna Nigrahana.
  • According to Sushruta it is mentioned under Argawadhadi Gana.
  • According to Bhavaprakasha it is included under Harithakyathi Varga.
  • According to Dhanwanthari Nigantu it is included under Guduchyadi Varga.
  • According to Raja Nigantu it is included under Prabhadradi Varga.

VERNACULAR NAMES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Arabic- Qusa Buzzaraioh
  • Assamese- Chireta
  • Bengali – Chireta
  • Bombay – Chiraita/Kirata
  • Burma – Se Khagi
  • Deccan – Charayat
  • English – Chiritta, Brown Chiritta
  • Gujarati – Chirayat
  • Hindi – Chirayata
  • Kannada – Nela Bevu
  • Kashmir – Lose Chiraita
  • Malyalam – Nelaveppu, Kiriyattu
  • Marati – Chirayita
  • Nepal – Cherota
  • Orissa – Chirito
  • Patna – Cherayta
  • Persian – Nemilawandi
  • Sanskrit – Kiratatikta
  • Tamil – Nilavebu
  • Telugu – Nilavemu
  • Urdu – Cheriyota

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

The Swertia chirata plant occurs in eastern temperate Himalaya’s at 1500- 3000 m altitude. It is found in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir. Plants grow wild in Himalayan region between 1208- 3046 m elevation from Kashmir to Bhuthan and it is found in nature in Kosi hills at 1204-1525 m in north eastern Himalayan region. Some other species of Swertia are found frequently than Swertia Chirata.

SYSTEMIC CLASSIFICATION OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Division- Angiosperm
  • Sub Division- Dicotyledon
  • Class- Gamopetallae
  • Sub Class- Bicarpellotai
  • Order- Gentionale
  • Family- Gentianaceae

 

USEFUL PARTS OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

Pachanga (whole plant) of Kirata Tikta is used for medicinal purpose, but most potent part is the moola (roots).

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Kirata Tikta contains cheratin, ophelic acid and true bitter principle. It does not contain tannin.
  • It also contains Swertinin, Swertianin, Swerchinin, decussolin, bellidifoten, friedelin, β sitosterol,  Anginin, lucine, methwmini, threomine, trypliphan aspantic acid and glutamic acid.
  • Chiratin is a chief bitter active constituent which is very bitter and amorphous glycosides.
  • Opholic acid is yellowish brown which is soluble in water and alcohol.

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Rasa – Thikta
  • Guna – Laghu, Ruksha
  • Veerya – Sheetha
  • Vipak – Katu
  • Doshaghnata- Tridosha shamaka, especially Kapha Pitta shamaka

ACTIONS (KARMA) OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Jwaraghna
  • Katu paushtika
  • Daha prashamana
  • Rakta Shodhak
  • Kandughna
  • Kushthaghna
  • Sweda janana
  • Stanya Shodhana
  • Kaphaghna
  • Shwasa hara
  • Hridya
  • Sheetahara
  • Trishna Nigrahana
  • Deepana
  • Pachana, Amapachana
  • Pitta saraka
  • Anulomana
  • Krimighna
  • Vrana ropana
  • Vrana Shodhana

THERAPEUTIC USES OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Jwara, Jeernajwara, Vishamajwara
  • Kushtha, Kandu, Charma Roga, Rakta shudhikarnartha, Visarpa, Visphota.
  • Kamala, Yakrithvikara, Agnimandya, Ajeerna, Vibandha, Trushna / Trishna, Atisara, Grahani
  • Dhaha
  • Krimi
  • Kasa, Shwasa
  • Hrit Daurbalya
  • Vrana, Shotha,
  • Upadansha
  • Stanya Dusthi
  • Chhardi
  • Prameha

VISHISHTHA YOGA (Pharmaceutical Preparations) OF KIRATA TIKTA (Swertia chirata) – 

  • Sudarshan Choorna
  • Kiratadi Kwatha
  • Bhunimbadi Kwatha
  • Tikta Panchaka Kwatha
  • Kiratadi Taila
  • Chandraprabha Vati
  • Shathyadi Kwatha
  • Pachabhadra Kwatha
  • Sarva Jwarahara Taila
  • Phalatrikadi Kwatha
  • Madhwasaava
  • Tikta shadpalaka Ghrita
  • Chandanadi Ghrita
  • Mahatikta Ghrita
  • Chandraprabha Vati
  • Maha Manjishthadi Kwatha
  • Sudharshan Kwatha
  • Chandanasava
  • Ushirasava
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Lodhra – Symplocos racemosa

Lodhra Symplocos racemosa

Introduction of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Botanical Name of Lodhra is- Symplocos racemosa.
  • The family of Lodhra is- Symplocaceae.

Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa) is a medium tree which grows up to 6 meters. It’s bark is dark grey in colour and rough. It evolved with Kasaya and Tikta Rasa, Laghu and Ruksha Guna, Shita Virya, Katu Vipaka, and Kapha Pittaghana in action. Here we will discuss valuable information regarding the drug, its identification, distribution, morphology, various synonyms, characters and properties.

 

Literary View of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Vedic period- In Rigveda, Lodhra is described as Lodra.

Samhita-

  • Charaka described this tree with name Rodhra only twice (C.S.Su ¾ and 9).  But he extensively quoted Lodhra for chhardi effect and sandhana effects.
  • Sushrutha and Vagbhatta have quoted the two varieties of Rodra (Rodra Yuggma and Rodradveya). Red variety termed as Rodhraka and white variety as Suta Rodhra. (S.S.Ci 17 and 22, A.H.Su. 15/41 and A.H.Ci 8/109).
  • Vagbhatta specifically indicated the white variety of Rodhra for the treatment of eye diseases (A.H.Ut 34/4).

Nighantu-

  • In Dhanwantari Nighantu, Lodhra is mentioned for treatment of shotha, rakta shrava, atisar,  raktapitta.
  • In Raja Nighantu, Lodhra is mentioned under pippalayadi varga, synonyms mentioned are rodhra, thirada, savara.
  • Acc. to Priya Nighantu, Lodhra is useful in rakta shrava and atisar.
  • Bhava Prakash Nighantu mentioned Lodhra under haritakyadi varga and used in rakta shrava and atisar.

Modern Books- 

  • Handbook of Medicinal plants (S. K. Bhattacharjee)- mentioned that Lodhra is used to treat excessive bleeding during menstruation, and also used to cure digestive disorders.
  • Indian Medicinal plants (Kiritikar K.R.)- Lodhra is used in the treatment of snake bite and scorpion sting.
  • Indian plants and drugs (Nadkarni)- The bark of the tree is used in dyeing red. It is found to contain alkaloids viz. Loturine, collaturne and kinovine.

Synonyms of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Kramuka- It is very astringent in taste.
  • Galvaha- Its taste produces tears.
  • Tireda- It cures diseases like jwara, sotha
  • Tilvaka-It produces smoothness to different organs of the body.
  • Rodhra- It stops bleeding.
  • Marjana- It cleans the body.
  • Lakshapradhan- Its yields Lakh (a gum resin).

Gana (Classical Categorisation) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Charaka- Shonitasthapana, Sandhaniya, Purisha Sangrahaniya, Kashaya Skandha.
  • Sushruta- Lodhradi, Nyagrodhadi.
  • Vagbhatta- Rodhradi, Nyagrodhadi.
  • Priya Nighantu- Haritakyadi Varga.
  • Raja Nighantu- Pippalayadi Varga.

Varieties of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

There are two varieties of Lodhra- Savara Lodhra and Pattika Lodhra. The second variety is described with synonyms like Krimka, Jirna, Brihat parna, Laksha, Prasadana, Tivita, Marjana, and Pattika. Thakurji reported Savara Lodhra as Symplocos racemose roxb and Pattika Lodhra as Symplocos crataegoids. Prof. P.V Sharma described about another species of Symplocos viz. Symplocos laurina,  Symplocos paniculata and Symplocos summuntia are also used under the name Lodhra.

Vernacular Names of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Hindi- Lodhra
  • Bengali- Lodhra
  • Marathi- Lodhra
  • English- Symplocos Tree (Lodh Tree)
  • Telugu- Lodduga
  • Tamil- Bellilotti
  • Gujarathi- Lodhara
  • Kannada- Pachettu
  • Malayalam- Pachotti
  • Oriya- Lodho

Prayojya Anga (Parts used) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Tvak- Stem bark (bark is used mostly)
  • Flower

Chemical Constituents of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Bark contains Loutrine-0.06%, Colloturine-0.02%, Loturidine.
  • Bark ash contain-18%(soda bicarb), Quinovine.

Ayrvedic Properties of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • RASA- Kashaya, Tikta
  • GUNA- Laghu, Ruksha
  • VIRYA- Sheeta
  • VIPAKA- Katu
  • DOSHAGHNATA- Kapha Pittaghna

Karma (Actions) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Grahee, Chakshushya, Kapha- Pittaghna, Garbhashaya shotha, Shravahara, Stambhana, Rakta stambhana, Sothahara, Kushthaghna, Sankochaka, Kaphaghna, Vishaghna, Kandughna.

Indications of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Pradara, Rakta pitta, Pravahika, Atisara, Netra roga, Jwara, Shotha, Kustha, Shwet pradara, Haemorrhage, Acne, Pimples, Leucorrhea, Vrana, Udara roga, Mukha Paka, Swarabheda, Yakrit Vikhara.

Therapeutic Uses of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • PRADARA- Bark of Lodhra is given orally with the decoction of Nyagradha (banyan tree) bark.
  • PRAVAHIKA- Bark paste is administered.
  • KUSHTHA- Bark paste is used externally.
  • LEUCORRHOEA- Paste of Lodhra with a decoction of Nyagradha bark (banyan tree) is recommended. (C.H-25\67-68)
  • NETRA ROGA- Useful for eye diseases.
  • VRANA- The paste is prepared with Lodhra and Nyagradha.
  • TARUNYA PIDIKA- The paste of Lodhra and sphatika should be applied in acne.
  • HAEMORRHAGE- Lodhra powder is recommended for external application which acts as a haemostatic remedy.

The dosage of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Bark Powder-  1- 5 gm
  • Lodhrasava- 10- 15 ml
  • Kwatha- 20- 60 ml

Vishishtha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa 

  • Lodhrasava
  • Lodhradi Kwatha
  • Lodhradi Choorna

Photographs of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa 

The high-quality images may found at these links: 1 2 3 )