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Mandura Preparations – How to prepare, purification & expiry date

Mandura preparations are a type of Ayurvedic medicine where Mandura Bhasma or Shuddha Mandura is the main ingredient added to other drugs. Usually, they are indicated in Pandu Roga (Anaemia), Pliha Roga (Splenic disease), Grahani (Malabsorption syndrome), shotha (Inflammation), Vishamajvara (Intermittent fever), Arsha (Haemorrhoids), Kushtha (Diseases of skin), Krimi (Helminthiasis/ Worm infestation) etc.

In this article, I will explain you in brief on below headings –

  1. Method of preparation
  2. Characteristics
  3. Preservation & expiration

Mandura Preparations

  1. Purified Mandura is used in all Mandura medicines.
  2. Mandura is purified by a special method by boiling it in Gomutra (cow’s urine) till it becomes a Rasakriya (a paste).
  3. In the above paste, the powders of herbs as mentioned in the formula are added and stirred well to make a thick paste.
  4. Tablets can be made from it while warm or this can be kept for cooling and then stored in powder form.


  1. Mandura medicines have a strong smell of Gomutra (cow’s urine) because it is used in for purification.
  2. They are dark, brownish in colour.

Preservation & Expiration

They should be preserved in glass or HDPE pet bottles away from moisture.

They keep their potency (shelf-life) for the indefinite time.


  • Punarnavadi Mandura – Used in liver diseases, anaemia, kidney diseases, swelling and inflammation, UTI, renal stone, indigestion, piles, hypothyroidism, obesity etc.
  • Mandura Vatakam – Useful in Anaemia, Tastelessness, Inflammation, Stiffness in thigh muscles, Urinary disorders, Haemorrhoids), Diseases of skin, Dyspepsia, Jaundice, Splenic diseases etc.
  • Triphaladi Mandura – Indicated in Amlapitta (dyspepsia and acidity)
  • Taramandura Guda – Indicated in deuodenal ulcer, jaundice, anaemia, inflammation, digestive impairement, piles, malabsorption syndrome (IBS), worm infestation, obesity etc.
  • Shothari Mandura – Anasarca (generalised oedema)

So, this is all about Mandura based medicines (Mandura preparations) in brief. Hope you understood the topic. Your comments and queries are highly appreciated.

Related: Bhasma – Preparation, Characteristics & Preservation

Lauha Preparations – How to prepare, characteristics & expiry date


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Lauha Preparations – How to prepare, characteristics & expiry date

Lauha preparations or Lauha Kalpa are one of the types of Ayurvedic medicine in which Lauha Bhasma (purified calcinated iron) is the main ingredient in addition to other drugs. In this article, I will explain you in brief about following points:

  1. Method of Preparation
  2. Characteristics
  3. Preservation & Expiry date (Shelf Life)
  4. Examples

Lauha Preparations – How to prepare?

  1. First, lauha bhasma is prepared by any one method mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics.
  2. The other ingredients as mentioned in the formula are made into fine powder.
  3. They are mixed with Lauha Bhasma according to the proportions mentioned in the formula.
  4. At the last, the powdered mixture is processed with prescribed liquids if mentioned and kept in sunlight for drying. This may be repeated for several times as mentioned. This process is termed as Bhavna.
  5. The final product is then made into tablets or kept in fine powder form.

Always remember, the final product in powder form should be very fine. The Lauha Bhasma should be prepared carefully and well prepared.


Lauha kalpas are generally clay coloured or brownish in colour. They may

Preservation and Expiration (shelf life)

They should be preserved in airtight glass or HDPE bottles, away from moisture and sunlight.

The expiry date of Lauha preparation is 2 yrs. But if they contain Parada (purified mercury) or its compounds, they do not lose their potency for an indefinite time.


Below are few examples of Lauha preparations, available in tablet and powder forms-

Navayasa Lauha- It is indicated in liver problems, anaemia, indigestion etc.

Dhatri Lauha- It is indicated in hair problems, headache, eye diseases, ulcers etc.

Saptamrit Lauha- Recommended in eyes diseases, headache, hair problems etc.

Tapyadi Lauha- It is generally used in liver problems like jaundice, hepatitis etc. It is also used in anaemia and indigestion.

Related: Bhasma – Preparation, Characteristics & Preservation

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Lepanam Preparations – How to prepare, preserve & their shelf life

Lepanam preparations (also spelt Lepa or Lepam) are a type of Ayurvedic Medicines in the form of a paste used for external application. It may be made of a single herb, poly-herbal or herbo-minerals. Lepanam may be applied to the affected part in slightly heated or cold form, depending on the condition or type of the problem. Generally, lepanam is indicated in wounds, joint pain, back pain, acne and pimples, burns, swelling etc.

In this article, I will explain in brief about following topics:

  1. Method of Preparation
  2. Characteristics
  3. Preservation & Expiry date

Lepanam Preparations – How to prepare

  1. The ingredients mentioned in the formula of Lepanam are made into a fine powder.
  2. They are mixed with a prescribed liquid or another medium to make a soft paste before use on the body. For this purpose, water, Gomutra (cow’s urine), oil, ghee, Dhanyamla etc. can be used as prescribed by the physician.
  3. It may be heated to lukewarm if indicated.
  4. It is then applied to the affected part. An outer cover or bandaging may be done if prescribed.


The lepanam is available in the churna (powder) form, but a freshly prepared lepanam is like a soft paste made from herbs.

Preservation & Expiry date (Shelf-life)

The Lepanam Churna should be stored in airtight glass or HDPE containers.

The Lepanam Churna made of single of multiple herbs preserves their potency for 30 days. Lepanam with mineral and metallic ingredients lasts for an indefinite time.

Hope you understood about lepanam in brief. Your comments and queries are highly appreciated.

Related: Bhasma – Preparation, Characteristics & Preservation

Ayurvedic Churna – How to Prepare, Preserve & Their Characteristics


Below are a few examples of Lepanam-

  • Nagaradi Lepa- for inflammation, pain, stiffness in joints and muscles.
  • Rasottamadi Lepa- for skin diseases, skin eruptions, itching etc.
  • Jatyadi Lepa- for skin diseases like wounds, ulcers, boils, itching, eczema etc.
  • Rasnadi Churna Lepa- for joint and muscular pain, headache etc.
  • Eladi Lepa- for pimples, acne, urticaria etc.
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Kupipakva Rasayana – How to Prepare, Preserve & their Characteristics

Kupipakva Rasayana (also spelt Kupipakwa Rasayana) is one of the types of Ayurvedic medicine. It is prepared by a special method called Kupi Paka. Some examples of Kupipakva Rasayana are Makardhwaj, Sameer Pannag Rasa, Shila Sindur, Taal Singur, Swarna Vanga, Rasa Sindur etc. In this article, we will explain about –

  1. How to prepare Kupipakva Rasayana
  2. Tests to ensure Paka (preparation) is perfect
  3. Characteristics of Kupipakva Rasayana
  4. Preservation and expiry date

How to prepare Kupipakva Rasayana?

  1. Rasa Aushadhis (drugs of mineral and metallic origin) are well mixed together in fine powder form.
  2. Take a Kanch Kupi (glass flask) and it is filled 1/3rd with the above-mixed Rasa aushadhis.
  3. The paste of clay smeared pieces of cloth is covered around the glass flask or bottle in seven consecutive layers. This is kept for drying.
  4. The flask is then buried in Baluka yantra (also spelt Valuka Yantra) up to the neck.
  5. Proper Agni (heating) in three stages is given gradually. The 3 stages of Agni are Mridvagni (mild flame), Madhyamagni (mid flame) and Tikshnaagni (high flame) for a specified period of time.
  6. There is a possibility of choking of flask opening by a thick coating of subliming sulphur (Gandhaka). Gandhaka is one of the main ingredients of almost all types of Kupipakva Rasayana. If the opening of the flask is choked completely, the pressure of the vapours generating during the process of heating may break the glass. To prevent this choking, a red hot iron rod (5mm in diameter) is inserted into the flask through its opening and stirred now and then.
  7. After a specified time, a cold iron rod is inserted into the bottom of the flask and removed. The material sticking to the iron rod when cool should be red in colour.
  8. The mouth of the bottle is sealed at this stage. For sealing, chalk or brick pieces wrapped with cloth strips. This cloth strip should be smeared with clay or a solution of jaggery and lime.
  9. The flask is removed carefully when it gets cooled.
  10. The material inside the flask gets separated and accumulated in upper and lower halves of the flask.
  11. The flask is broken in the middle to collect the separated materials.
  12. To break the glass flask, a string dipped in kerosene is wrapped around the bottle in the middle. Set the string fire. When the fire gets extinguished by self, remove the burnt string with a spatula. A wet piece of cloth is wrapped around the bottle. It then breaks into two pieces easily.
  13. The material deposited at the neck is scraped and collected. This is the final product and called Sindura (due to its red colour). Sindura is prepared by Kupi Paka hence it is termed as Kupipakva Rasayana.
  14. The bottom part material is discarded.
  15. Proper care should be maintained during this so that no part of the glass piece may mix with the Sindura.

Tests to ensure Paka (preparation) is perfect

Whether the process id Kupi Paka is completed properly or not is checked by following tests –

  1. The bottom of the flask becomes red at the time of completion of Paka.
  2. White coloured minute particles come out from the mouth of the flask. This can be checked by keeping a piece of broken earthen pot or thin piece of copper plate over the mouth of the flask. White coloured deposits may be seen inside the plate.
  3. A red hot iron rod is covered with smoke when inserted into the flask and removed.


All the Rasa preparations (where metals and minerals are main ingredients) have different characteristics depending on the drugs used. Generally, the Rasa preparations are red, yellow or dark in colour. They may have a specific odour according to the drugs used in their preparation or are odourless.

Preservation & Expiration (shelf-life)

Kupipakva Rasayan should be kept in well-stoppered bottles made up of glass or plastic pet bottles. It is suggested to use HDPE container in place of plastic pet bottles.

The Kupipakva Rasayana keeps their potency indefinitely. Hence, they do not have any expiry date.


  • Sameerpannaga Rasa
  • Rasa Sindura
  • Malla Sindura
  • Shila Sindura

Related: Bhasma – Preparation, Characteristics & Preservation

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Guggulu Preparations – How to Purify, Prepare & Preserve

Guggulu preparations are one of the types of Ayurvedic medicine in tablets or pills form. Generally, Guggulu word is used for niryasa (exudate) obtained from the plant. Its botanical name is Commiphora mukul. Hence, the preparations having this exudate as the main effective ingredient are known as Guggulu Kalpa.

In this article, we are going to explain about –

  1. Purification of raw Guggulu
  2. Guggulu preparations – How to prepare ?
  3. Characteristics of Guggulu & its preparations
  4. Preservation & expiry date (shelf-life)

There are 5 varieties of Guggulu mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Out of 5, 2 varieties namely Mahishaksha Guggulu and Kanaka Guggulu are usually preferred for medicinal preparations. Mahishaksha Guggulu is dark greenish brown. Mahishaksha is Sanskrit synonym used for buffalo’s eye. Kanaka Guggulu is yellowish brown in colour hence named Kanaka (Sanskrit synonym of gold).

Purification of raw Guggulu

As we said, Guggulu is an exudate of a plant. It is vegetative by nature. Before its oral intake, purification is necessary to make it more potent and consumable. Following steps are followed during its purification –

Following steps are followed during its purification –

  1. External impurities like sand, stone, glass, grass etc. are first removed manually.
  2. Guggulu is then broken into small pieces manually or semi-automated machine.
  3. Small pieced Guggulu is then bundled in a piece of cotton cloth to make its Pottali (linen bundle or bag).
  4. It is boiled in Dola Yantra filled with any one of the fluids like Gomutra (cow’s urine), Triphala kashaya (decoction), Vasa patra Kashaya (decoction of Adhtoda vasica leaves), Vasa patra Swarasa (leaves juice), Nirgundi patra Swarasa (leaf juice of Vitex negundo) with Haridra Churna and Dugdha (milk).
  5. The boiling of the pottali along with suitable fluid is continued till the Guggulu becomes a soft mass.
  6. The soft Guggulu is then taken out from the pottali and spread over a smooth wooden board or stainless steel tray which is smeared with ghee or oil.
  7. It is spread by pressing with fingers. By this, the sand and other remaining foreign impurities are easily removed.
  8. After removal of foreign impurities, it is again fried with ghee and ground in a Khalva Yantra (stone mortar) for a specified time.
  9. The final product is called Shodhita Guggulu (purified Guggulu).

There is a description of another method of boiling the bundle in Dola Yantra. In this, the boiling of Guggulu is carried on till all the Guggulu passes into the fluid through the cloth. The residual material inside the bundle is discarded.

The fluid is filtered through a fine sieve or cloth and again boiled directly. After a time span, the fluid starts thick and then becomes mass like. This mass is then dried in sunlight. The dried mass is pounded with Khalva Yantra (stone mortar pestle), adding ghee in small quantities till it becomes waxy. The final product is then collected and preserved.

In some practices, the Pottali containing impure Guggulu is not immersed into the fluid inside Dola Yantra. It is steamed instead of boiling in this case.

Guggulu Preparations – How to Prepare?

  1. According to the formula mentioned in any reference Ayurvedic text or Ayurvedic formulary of India, all the ingredients are collected separately.
  2. They are cleaned, dried and made into the fine powder separately.
  3. The powdered ingredients are then mixed one by one into the prescribed quantity of liquefied Shuddha Guggulu (purified Guggulu) and grounded with the help of Khalva Yantra.
  4. They are grounded till it the time when easy to make pills from them.


The colour of Shuddha Guggulu (purified Guggulu) is brown. It is soft and waxy in consistency.

The characteristics of Guggulu preparations may vary depending on the other ingredients added to them.

Preservation and Expiration

Purified Guggulu should be kept in glass vessels or porcelain jars free from moisture. It should be stored in a cool and dry place.

Its preparations may be kept in plastic pet bottles or HDPE containers.

Expiry date or shelf-life of purified Guggulu or its preparations is 2 years. The potency is maintained for an indefinite time when it is prepared with Rasa dravya (metals and minerals).

Hope you learnt the basics about Guggulu preparations. Your queries and comments are highly appreciated.


Kachnar Guggul

Yograja Guggul

Saptavimshati Guggul

Lakshadi Guggul

Read: Bhasma – Preparation, Characteristics & Preservation

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Ayurvedic Ghrita (Medicated Ghee) – How to prepare & Characteristics

Ghrita (medicated ghee) is the Ayurvedic medicinal preparation in which ghee is processed with some Kashaya (herbal decoctions) and kalka (fresh paste) of herbs. The choice of decoctions and paste of herbs are based on the formula mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts or Ayurvedic formulary of India.

Ghrita or ghee is a type of fat (sneha dravya); hence the fat-soluble active principles of the ingredients are properly dissolved in Ghee and ensures their absorption in the body. Also, only ghee is the medium, which crosses the blood-brain barrier, the drugs indicated for brain and nervous system disorders, when processed in ghee and used; acts best which no other dosage form can.

Highlights of this article

  1. Method of Preparation
  2. Characteristics
  3. Preservation & expiry date (shelf-life)
  4. Method of use

Method of Preparation of Ghrita (medicated ghee)

Before going to start the method of preparation of Ghrita, you should know some basics about Ghrita or Sneha kalpana.

In the preparation of medicated ghee, there are three essential components. These are Drava, Kalka and Sneha dravya.

  1. Drava is a liquid, which may be one or more in number as mentioned in the formula. This may be Kashaya (decoction), Swarasa (fresh juice extracted from crushed leaves or whole herb), Dugdha (milk), Mastu (curd water), Mamsa Rasa (meat soup) etc.
  2. Kalka is a fine paste of one or more drugs (either fresh or dried).
  3. Sneha dravya is the base material. Ghrita (ghee) and Taila (oil) are used for this purpose, either one or in combination (yamaka).

The quantity of above-mentioned component may or may not be described in the formula which we are going to prepare.

Now the question arises is, how much quantity of Drava, Kalka and Sneha dravya are taken for Ghrita preparation if not mentioned in the formula? The answer is – In that case, we follow some general rules described in Ayurvedic classics. These rules are –

  1. If the Kalka is one part by weight, Sneha Dravya should be four parts and the Drava dravya should be sixteen parts.
  2. If no Drava (liquid) is prescribed, the Kalka is 1 part by weight, Sneha Dravya should be 4 parts and 16 parts of water are added in the place of Drava Dravya.
  3. If Drava dravya (liquid) is Kwatha or Kashaya (decoction), 1 part Kalka and 6 parts Sneha dravya is taken.
  4. If the Drava dravya (liquid) is Swarasa (juice), Ksheera (milk), Takra (butter milk), Dadhi (curd) etc., 1 part Kalka, 8 parts Sneha Dravya is taken. 16 times water is also added to ensure proper processing and dissolution of active ingredients of drugs.
  5. If there are four or less than four number of Drava dravya (liquid) is mentioned in the formula, each Drava dravya (liquid) should be taken four times the weight of Sneha.
  6. If the Drava dravya (liquids) are 5 or more in number, each Drava (liquid) should be taken equal in weight to the Sneha.
  7. If there is no Kalka prescribed in the formula, then the drugs of the Kashaya (decoction) may be used as Kalka.

How to prepare Ghrita (medicated ghee)

Now coming to the main subject, generally following steps are followed in Ghrita preparation.

  1. The Kalka and the Drava mentioned in the formula are first mixed together in a vessel.
  2. Sneha dravya (ghee) is then added and boiled on mild fire. It is stirred well continuously so that the Kalka (solid part of the mixture) should not adhere to the vessel.

There is another method described in Ayurvedic text about adding liquids. The Drava dravyas (liquids) are directed to be added one after another when the previously added Drava dravya (liquid) has evaporated as the process of the boiling is continued.

  1. After a time span, the moisture content in the Kalka will begin to evaporate after when all the Drava dravyas (liquids) have evaporated. At this stage, we should take extra care to stir more often and carefully to ensure the Kalka should not be adhering to the vessel’s bottom.
  2. The small amount of Kalka is taken out time to time during the process with the help of a ladle and tested to know the condition and stage of the Paka.

There are three stages of Paka –

  1. Mridu Paka – In this stage, the Kalka is waxy in consistency and when rolled between the fingers, rolls like lac with slight sticking. When the rolled Kalka is put in fire, it burns with a cracking sound. It is used for Nasya Karma.
  2. Madhyama Paka – In this stage, the Kalka is soft, non-sticky and rolls between fingers. When it is put on fire, it burns without any cracking sound. It is used for Pana (Abhyantara sneha pan/ internal oleation therapy or oral intake) and Vasti Karma (therapeutic enema).
  3. Khara Paka – The next degree of heating is Khara paka, which is slightly hard. It is used only for Abhyanga (external oleation therapy/ massage).

Furthermore, heating will lead to Dagdha Paka and the Sneha becomes unfit for use.

5. After gaining the required stage of paka, the heating is stopped and the final product is kept for cooling naturally.

Points to be remembered:

  1. In the formula, if Sharkara (sugar) is mentioned, it is added to the final product when cool in fine powder form.
  2. When there are different types of Drava dravya like Kwatha (decoction), Swarasa (juice), Dugdha (milk), Mamsa rasa (meat soup), etc. is mentioned for Paka (heating), the heating should be done with these dravas separately in the above order only.
  3. The period of Paka (heating) with various dravyas should be as below:
    1. Kwatha (decoction), Aranala, Takra (buttermilk) etc. – 5 days
    2. Swarasa (juice) – 3 days
    3. Dugdha (milk) – 2 days
    4. Mamsa rasa (meat soup) – 1 day
  1. About heat- In the beginning and at the end of boiling, the material should be on mild fire (Mridvagni).
  2. Lavana (salt) and Kshara (alkali), if mentioned in the formula, are added to the Sneha dravya and then strained.

Patrapaka: Patrapaka is the process of flavouring of medicated ghee or oil. In this process, the Sneha is flavoured or augmented by certain soluble or mixable substances (flavouring agents or drugs). The powders of the flavouring agents or drugs are placed in the vessel, and then the fairly warm Sneha is filtered into it. These flavouring drugs get dissolved by the heat of Sneha and leave a soothing essence.


The Ghrita or medicated ghee has a tendency to solidify when cooled. It has the colour, odour and taste of the drugs used while processing it.

Preservation & Expiry Date

Ghrita should be preserved in glass vessels, polythene/ pet bottles or aluminium containers.

The shelf-life or expiry date of Ghrita for oral intake is 16 months.

However, there is a description of Purana Ghrita, which refers to pure cow ghee of more than 10 years or 100 years. It is experienced that the Purana Ghrita is more effective than new ghee to treat specific diseases.

Method of use

The Ghrita has to be taken after warming mildly or in liquefied state. Generally, the anupana (the adjuvants and after drinks) for internal use is warm water or warm milk if not mentioned. Ghrita is also taken with the medium of other liquids also.

So, that’s all about Ghrita (medicated ghee) in brief, hope you liked it. Your comments or queries are highly appreciated.


  • Brahmi Ghritam
  • Panchatiktaka Ghritam
  • Mahatiktakam Ghritam
  • Kalyanaka Ghritam
  • Sukumara Ghritam
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Dravaka – A unique Ayurvedic Medicinal Form

Dravaka is a unique form of medicinal preparation in Ayurveda. These are in liquid preparations obtained from Lavana (salt) and Kshara (alkali). In this article, In this article, you will learn following points –

  1. Method of preparation
  2. Characteristics and preservation
  3. Expiry date or shelf-life of Dravaka

Method of preparation of Dravaka

As I said above that it is prepared with Lavana (salt) and Kshara (alkali). The procedure which is chosen for this conversion is Tiryakpatana or distillation with or without any addition of fluids as mentioned in the text. The method of distillation is well explained here in the article- Do you know what are Arka Preparations in Ayurveda.

  1. The ingredients mentioned in the formula are taken in the 1st chamber or vessel of Tiryakapatana yantra (distillation instrument).
  2. Any liquid, if mentioned, is taken first. Rest of the ingredients are properly dissolved or mixed in the liquid and then taken in the 1st
  3. It is heated or boiled up to the required time. The vapours get evaporated from the 1st chamber and go into the 2nd chamber (collection unit) through a connecting pipe.
  4. The temperature of the 2nd unit is optimised to a minimum where these vapours get easily condensed and liquefied.
  5. The collected distillate is the Dravaka.

Characteristics and preservation

The physical quality of Dravaka is laghu (lightness), ushna (hot potency), and tikshna (sharp or fast acting).

It is preserved in glass vessel or bottle with child resistant cap. The cap should be air tight, as it has a tendency

to get evaporated at room temperature.

Expiration or shelf-life

These preparations do not deteriorate by lapse of time if preserved properly.


Shankha Dravaka – It is the commonly practised available medicine in this form. The main ingredients of Shankha Dravaka are Arka Kshara, Snuhi Kshara, Chincha Kshara, Tila Kshara, Aragvadha Kshara, Apamarga Kshara, Yava Kshara, Swarjika Kshara, Tankana, Saindhava Lavana, Samudra Lavana etc.

That’s all about brief introduction of Dravaka. Your comments or queries are highly appreciated.

Read: What is Vati or Gulika in Ayurveda

Read:Bhasma: How to Prepare Ayurvedic Bhasma

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Ayurvedic Churna – How to Prepare, Preserve & Their Characterstics

One of the simplest and basic forms of Ayurvedic medicine is Churna. Ayurvedic Churna is a fine powder of herbs or drugs. Churna may be made up of a single herb or it can be a polyherbal formulation.

In this article I will explain about following points related to Ayurvedic Churna:

  1. General Method of Preparation Churna
  2. Characteristics and preservation of Churna
  3. Expiry date or shelf-life of Churna

Method of preparation of Ayurvedic Churna

Ayurvedic Churna is the simplest form of Ayurvedic medicine which can be easily prepared. The Churna, which we are going to prepare, should be first referred from recognised Ayurvedic text or Ayurvedic formulary of India (AFI).

  1. All the ingredients of the Ayurvedic Churna should be clearly understood and identified.
  2. The ingredients or herbs mentioned in the Yoga (formula) are cleaned and dried properly either in shade or under the sun (as mentioned).
  3. Each ingredient is separately powdered finely and sieved.
  4. Each one of the powder is weighed separately, and well mixed together. As some of the herbs contain more fibrous matter, their weight may vary with each other. Also, their drying time may vary. Hence, this method of powdering and weighing them separately, and then mixing them together according to the formula, is preferred.
  5. Salt, sugar or camphor if mentioned in the formula should be mixed carefully at the end.

Now a day, there is new machinery have invented, the process of Churna preparation become a very easy task. All the required herbs are cleaned, dried and powdered together by disintegrators. Mechanical shifters are also used in this process.

Following points should be noted while preparing Churna-

  1. Salt, sugar, camphor etc., when mentioned in the formula, should be separately powdered and mixed with the rest of the ingredients at the end.
  2. Hingu (Asafoetida) and salt may also be roasted, powdered and then added into the mixture of mentioned formula.
  3. Some herbs like Shatavari and Guduchi etc. are used fresh. In this case, the herb is made into a paste and dried, and then added in the formula.

Characteristics and preservation

A properly prepared Churna should have following characteristics

  1. The Ayurvedic Churna (powder) is fine of at least 80 mesh sieves.
  2. It should not adhere or bind together or become moist.
  3. The finer the powder, the better is its therapeutic value.

Churna should be kept in air-tight containers to maintain their self-life.

Expiration or shelf-life

Ayurvedic Churna retains their potency for 1 year.

This is all about Ayurvedic Churna in brief. Your comments and queries are highly appreciated.

Examples of Churna

Amla Churna, Ashwagandha Churna, Triphala Churna, Hingwashtaka Churna, Sitopladi Churna, Vaishwanara Churna etc.

Read: How to prepare Ayurvedic tablets

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Ayurvedic Tablets (Vati or Gulika) – Introduction, how to prepare & preserve

Vati, gutika or gulika are synonyms to indicate pills or tablets in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Generally, the intake of Ayurvedic medicines is a big challenge for most of us due to its bitter and astringent taste. Most of the people accept this challenge to cure their diseases and some of them cannot. Vati or gulika (Ayurvedic tablets) are the most important and most palatable form of Ayurvedic medicine and are very easy to consume without making our taste buds unpleasurable.

This post covers-

  1. Introduction to Vati or Gulika
  2. Method of preparation
  3. Preservation and expiration
  4. Examples of vati

What does Vati (Ayurvedic tablets) mean

The Ayurvedic medicines which are prepared in the form of tablet or pills are known as Vati and Gutika. These are made by a single herb, multi-herbal combination, with or without some purified minerals and/ or purified material of animal origin.

Method of preparation of Vati (Ayurvedic tablets)

The Vati or gulika are usually prepared on the basis of Ayurvedic principles and methods described in the classical Ayurvedic text and Ayurvedic formulary of India (AFI). The steps of Vati (Ayurvedic tablets) preparation can be summed up as below-

  1. The mentioned material of plant origin is first dried and made into fine powders, separately. The minerals, if mentioned in the formula are made into Bhasma or Sindura (purified forms of minerals).
  2. In cases of any formula, where Parada (mercury) and Gandhaka (sulphur) are mentioned, Kajjali (purified and consumable form of mercury and sulphur) is made first and other drugs are added to it, one by one.
  3. The above ingredients- herbs, bhasma or kajjali are put into a khalva (mortar and pastel) and ground to a soft paste by adding prescribed fluids.
  4. In some formula, there is more than one liquid are mentioned. In that case, they are used in succession.
  5. After the properly grounding of the material, the mass starts becoming a soft paste and is in a condition when it can be made into pills, Sugandha Dravyas (aromatic and flavouring materials) like Kasturi, Karpura, or any other which are mentioned in the formula, are added and grounded again.
  6. Then, the paste when becomes non-sticky while rolled to the fingers; pills of required sized are made by hand (manually) or by pills making machine or tablet punching machine (automatic)
  7. If specified in reference text, pills may be dried either in shade or under the sun.
  8. In some formula, sugar or jaggery (Guda) or Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) or Babool (Acacia arabica) gum resin is mentioned as binding material. In that case, these should be processed or liquefied over the mild fire and removed from the fire. Then the powders of the ingredients are added to the liquid and briskly mixed. The pills are made from the paste and dried in the shade.

Preservation & Expiry date (shelf-life)

  • The Vati or gulika which are made of herbal raw materials when kept in airtight containers can be used for two years.
  • Vati or gulika which contains minerals can be used for an indefinite period if preserved properly means they do not have any expiry date.
  • Vati or Ayurvedic tablets should not lose their original colour, smell, taste and form.
  • When sugar, jaggery, salt or Kshara is an ingredient, the Vati or Ayurvedic tablets should be kept away from moisture.

Examples of Vati (Ayurvedic tablets)

  1. Chandraprabha Vati
  2. Eladi Gulika
  3. Dhanwantaram Pills
  4. Arogyavardhini Vati
  5. Pushpadhanva Rasa etc.


Vati or gulika are nothing but an Ayurvedic medicine in the tablet or pills form. These are palatable and easily consumable. Vati is also easy to carry and preserve.

Similar: Asava Arishta – Characteristics and Method of Preparation | Guggulu Preparations – How to Purify, Prepare & Preserve

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Syllabus of Medical Statistics 1st Year MD in Ayurveda

1. Definition of Statistics : Concepts, relevance and general applications of Biostatistics in Ayurveda
2. Collection, classification, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data (Definition, utility and methods)
3. Scales of Measurements – nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales.
Types of variables – Continuous, discrete, dependent and independent variables.
Type of series – Simple, Continuous and Discrete
4. Measures of Central tendency – Mean, Median and Mode.
5. Variability: Types and measures of variability – Range, Quartile deviation, Percentile, Mean deviation and Standard deviation
6. Probability: Definitions, types and laws of probability,
7. Normal distribution: Concept and Properties, Sampling distribution, Standard Error, Confidence Interval and its application in interpretation of results and normal probability curve.
8. Fundamentals of testing of hypotheses:
Null and alternate hypotheses, type I and type 2 errors.
Tests of significance: Parametric and Non-Parametric tests, level of significance and power of the test, ‘P’ value and its interpretation, statistical significance and clinical significance
9. Univariate analysis of categorical data:
Confidence interval of incidence and prevalence, Odds ratio, relative risk and Risk difference, and their confidence intervals
10. Parametric tests: ‘Z’ test, Student’s ‘t’ test: paired and unpaired, ‘F’ test, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, repeated measures analysis of variance
11. Non parametric methods: Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, McNemar’s test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskall – Wallis with relevant post hoc tests (Dunn)
12. Correlation and regression analysis:
Concept, properties, computation and applications of correlation, Simple linear correlation, Karl Pearson’s correlation co-efficient, Spearman’s rank correlation.
Regression- simple and multiple.
13. Sampling and Sample size computation for Ayurvedic research:
Population and sample. Advantages of sampling, Random (Probability) and non random (Non-probability) sampling. Merits of random sampling. Random sampling methods- simple random, stratified, systematic, cluster and multiphase sampling. Concept, logic and requirement of sample size computation, computation of sample size for comparing two means, two proportions, estimating mean and proportions.
14. Vital statistics and Demography: computation and applications – Rate, Ratio, Proportion, Mortality and fertility rates, Attack rate and hospital-related statistics
15. Familiarization with the use of Statistical software like SPSS/Graph Pad

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Syllabus of Research Methodology MD Ayurveda 1st Year

  1. Introduction to Research

    1. Definition  of the term research
    2. Definition of the term anusandhan
    3. Need of research in the field of Ayurveda
  2. General guidelines and steps in the research process

    1. Selection of the research problem
    2. Literature review: different methods (including computer database) with their advantages and limitations
    3. Defining research problem and  formulation of hypothesis
    4. Defining general and specific objectives
    5. Research design: observational and interventional, descriptive and analytical, preclinical and clinical, qualitative and quantitative
    6. Sample design
    7. Collection of the data
    8. Analysis of data.
    9. Generalization and interpretation, evaluation and assessment of hypothesis.
    10. Ethical aspects related to human and animal experimentation.
    11. Information about Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) and Animal Ethics Committee (AEC) and their functions. Procedure to obtain clearance from respective committees, including filling up of the consent forms and information sheets and publication ethics.
  3. Preparation of research proposals in different disciplines for submission to funding agencies taking EMR-AYUSH scheme as a model.

  4. Scientific writing and publication skills.

    1. Familiarization with publication guidelines- Journal specific and CONSORT guidelines.
    2. Different types of referencing and bibliography.
    3. Thesis/Dissertation: contents and structure
    4. Research articles structuring: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussions (IMRAD)
  5. Classical Methods of Research.

    1. Classical Methods of Research.
    2. Concept of Pratyakshadi Pramana Pariksha, their types and application for Research in Ayurveda.
    3. Dravya-, Guna-, Karma-Parikshana Paddhati
    4. Aushadhi-yog Parikshana Paddhati
    5. Swastha, Atura Pariksha Paddhati
    6. Dashvidha Parikshya Bhava
    7. Tadvidya sambhasha, vadmarga and tantrayukti
  6. Comparison between methods of research in Ayurveda (Pratigya, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya, Nigaman) and contemporary methods in health sciences.

  7. Different fields of Research in Ayurveda

    1. Fundamental research on concepts of Ayurveda
    2. Panchamahabhuta and tridosha.
    3. Concepts of rasa, guna, virya, vipak, prabhav and karma
    4. Concept of prakriti-saradi bhava, ojas, srotas, agni, aam and koshtha.
  8. Literary Research

    Introduction to manuscriptology: Definition and scope. Collection, conservation, cataloguing.
    Data mining techniques, searching methods for new literature; search of new concepts in the available literature. Methods for searching internal and external evidences about authors, concepts and development of particular body of knowledge.

  9. Drug Research (Laboratory-based)- Basic knowledge of the following:

    Drug sources: plant, animal and mineral. Methods of drug identification.
    Quality control and standardization aspects: Basic knowledge of Pharmacopoeial standards and parameters as set by Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.
    Information on WHO guidelines for standardization of herbal preparations. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP).

  10. Safety aspects: Protocols for assessing acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity studies. Familiarization with AYUSH guidelines (Rule 170), CDCSO and OECD guidelines.
  11. Introduction to latest Trends in Drug Discovery and Drug Development
    -Brief information on the traditional drug discovery process
    -Brief information on the latest trends in the Drug Discovery process through employment of rational approach techniques; anti-sense approach, use of micro and macro-arrays, cell culture based assays, use of concepts of systems biology and network physiology
    -Brief introduction to the process of Drug development
  12. Clinical research:
    Introduction to Clinical Research Methodology identifying the priority areas of Ayurveda
    Basic knowledge of the following:-
    Observational and Interventional studies
    Descriptive & Analytical studies
    Longitudinal & Cross sectional studies
    Prospective & Retrospectives studies
    Cohort studies
    Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) & their types
    Single-case design, case control studies, ethnographic studies, black box design, cross-over design, factorial design.
    Errors and bias in research.
    New concepts in clinical trial- Adaptive clinical trials/ Good clinical practices (GCP)
    Phases of Clinical studies: 0,1,2,3, and 4.
    Survey studies –
    Methodology, types, utility and analysis of Qualitative Research methods. Concepts of in-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion.
  13. Pharmacovigilance for ASU drugs. Need, scope and aims & objectives. National Pharmacovigilance Programme for ASU drugs.
  14. Introduction to bioinformatics, scope of bioinformatics, role of computers in biology. Introduction to Database- Pub med, Medlar and Scopus. Accession of databases.
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Syllabus of Rasa Shastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana MD 1st Year

1st Year MD in Ayurved (Rasashastra Bhaishajya Kalpana)


  1. Fundamental principles of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, introduction to Rasachikitsa, Ashuddha and Apakwa Bhasma- sevan Dosha and its management, introduction to Aushadha Sevan Kaal and Prayoga Marga (routes of administration).
  2. Introduction to basic principles of Aushadha Yoga (formulations).
  3. Classification of Rasa Dravya – concept and relevance.
  4. Introduction to principles of Aushadha Nirmana, concept of Shodhan, Marana, Jarana, Murcchhana, Sattvapatan and Amritikarana.
  5. Concept of Kashaya, Panchavidha Kashaya and other Kalpana.
  6. Concept of Rasashala, Rasa Mandapa with introduction to pharmacy in accordance with the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
  7. Critical study of Rasa Ratnasamuchchaya, Rasendra Chintamani, Rasa Tarangini, Sharngadhara Samhita, Chakradutta and Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakara with special reference to Aushadha-Nirmana.


  1. Introduction to methods of analytical, toxicity, experimental and clinical validation of classical and proprietary Ayurvedic formulations.
  2. Introduction to new dosage forms.
  3. Introduction to advance instruments of analysis like XRD, XRF, SEM-E-Dax, ICP analysis, Chromatography: TLC, gas chromatography, HPTLC, concept of Nanotechnology and its relevance to Aushadha-Nirman.
  4. Concept of Pharmacopoeia and Formulary with introduction of ‘The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India’ (API) and ‘The Ayurvedic Formulary of India’ (AFI).
  5. Introduction to databases of medicinal plants published by CCRAS, ICMR and others.

2nd Year MD in Ayurved (Rasashastra Bhaishajya Kalpana)

Paper I Rasa Shastra

Part A

  1. History and Chronological evolution of Rasashastra, concept of Raseshwara darshan.

Fundamental Principles of Rasashastra Technical terminologies (Paribhasha) used in Rasa shastra.

  1. Detailed knowledge of ancient and contemporary Yantropakarana and their accessories used in aushadhikaran and their contemporary modification such as yantras, mushas, putas, Koshthis, bhrashtris, muffle furnaces and other heating appliances, ovens, driers etc. used in manufacturing of Rasaushadhis in small scale and large scale along with their applications.
  1. Study of Samskara, Role of agni (Heat), jala and other dravas (water and other processing liquids), kala (Time span), paatra (container) etc. and their significance in aushadhikarana.
  1. Concept of Bhavana, study of Mardana and its significance and knowledge of ancient and contemporary grinding techniques.
  1. Detailed Knowledge of different procedures of Shodhana, Jarana Murchana and Marana, concept of Puta, definition, types and specifications of different Putas. Significance of different Putas in relation to Bhasmikarana and therapeutic efficacy of dravya under process. Bhasma pariksha vidhi and its significance in relation to contemporary testing procedures. Amritikaran and Lohitikarana.
  1. Detailed knowledge of Satva and Druti, Satva shodhan, mrudukaran and Maran of Satva, its significance, in relation to therapeutic efficacy of dravya under process.
  1. Concept of Pratinidhi dravya and discussion on controversial drugs.


  1. Detailed ancient and contemporary knowledge of Parada and its compounds with reference to source, occurrence, physico-chemical characterization, graahya agraahyatva, Parada dosha, Parada gati, Parada shodhan, Study of Ashta sanskara, ashtadasha sanskara etc., Hingulottha Parada. Concept of Parada jaran, moorcchana, bandhan, pakshaccheda and marana etc. Therapeutic properties and uses of Parada.
  1. Detailed ancient & contemporary knowledge with Geochemical / mineralogical / biological identification, source, occurrence, physico-chemical characterization, graahya-agraahyatva, Shodhan Maranadi vidhi and therapeutic properties and uses of dravyas etc. included in Maharasa, Uparasa, Sadharana rasa, Dhatu, Upadhatu, Ratna, Uparatna, Visha, Upavisha, Sudha varga, Lavana varga, Kshara varga, Sikata varga and other miscellaneous drugs used in Rasashastra.
  1. Detailed knowledge of manufacturing, pharmacopeial standards, storage, shelf life, therapeutic efficacy, dose, anupana, vikarashanti upaya and development of technology with Standard Operating Procedures of processing, standardization, quality control of Bhasmas and Pishtis.

Bhasma – Abhraka Bhasma, Svarnamakshika Bhasma, Kasis Bhasma, Svarna Bhasma, Rajata Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma, Loha Bhasma, Mandur Bhasma, Naga Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma, Yashad Bhasma, Trivanga Bhasma, Pittala, Kamsya and Varthaloha Bhasma, Shankha Bhasma, Shukti Bhasma, Kapardika Bhasma, Godanti Bhasma, Praval Bhasma, Mrigashringa Bhasma, Mayurpiccha Bhasma, Kukkutand twak Bhasma, Hiraka Bhasma, Manikya Bhasma.

Dravaka – Shankha Dravaka

Pishti – Praval pishti, Manikya Pishti, Mukta pishti, Jahara mohara pishti,Trinakanta mani pishti etc.

  1. Detailed knowledge of manufacturing, storage, shelf life, pharmacopeial standards, therapeutic efficacy, dose, anupana and development of technology with Standard. Operating Procedures of processing, standardization and quality control of Kharaliya rasa, Parpati, Kupipakva rasa and Pottali rasa.
  1. Study of classical texts with respective commentaries and special emphasis on Rasarnava, Rasahridaya tantra, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Rasendra Chintamani, Rasendra Chudamani, Rasa Ratnakara, Rasadhyaya, Rasa Kamdhenu, Anandkanda, Siddha Bheshaja Manimala, Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Rasamritam etc. and the books mentioned in the Schedule I of D & C Act – 1940. Relevant portions of Brihatrayi.

Paper II Bhaishajya Kalpana

Part A

  1. History and Chronological evolution of Bhaishajya Kalpana, Concept of Bheshaja and Aushadh, fundamental principles of Bhaishajya Kalpana. Technical terminologies (Paribhasha) used in Bhaishajya Kalpana.
  1. Classical and Contemporary concepts of Collection, storage, Saviryata Avadhi and preservation methods of different fresh and dry Aushadhi dravyas and their graahya agraahyatva.
  1. Detailed knowledge of routes of drug administration, Aushadha matra, Anupana, Sahapana, Aushadha Sevana Kala, Kala Avadhi, Pathya, Apathya (Posology).
  1. Detailed knowledge of manufacturing, standardization, quality control, pharmacopeial standards, storage, shelf life and development of innovative technology with Standard manufacturing Operating Procedures of following dosage forms

i) Panchavidha Kashaya, Churna, Rasakriya, Ghana, Avaleha, Pramathya, Mantha, Panaka, Sarkara, Kshirapaka, Ushnodaka, Aushadha Siddha Udaka, Sadangodaka, Tandulodaka, Laksharasa, Arka, Satva, Kshara, Lavana, Masi, Gutika, Vatika, Modaka, Guggulu and Varti etc.

ii) Sneha Kalpana: Concept of accha sneha and sneha pravicharana and Murchhana. Sneha paka, types of sneha paka and sneha siddhi lakshana, Avartana. Sneha kalpa karmukata (Pharmacokinetics and dynamics of sneha kalpa). Role of Sneha in relation to absorption of drug.

iii) Kritanna and Bheshaja Siddha Anna Kalpana, Aharopayogi varga, concept of medicinal and functional food, dietary supplements and neutraceuticals etc.

iv) Sandhana kalpana: Madya varga and Shukta varga. Asava yoni. Alcoholic and acidic fermentation. Sandhana kalpa karmukata (Pharmacokinetics and dynamics). Advancements in fermentation technology. Knowledge of regulations in relation to alcoholic drug preparations.

v) Bahya Prayogartha Kalpana : Lepa, Upanaha, Udvartan, Avachurnana/ Avadhulana, Abhyanga, Dhupana, Malahara.

vi) Mukha, Karna, Nasa, Netropacharartha Kalpana

vii) Basti Kalpana: Basti Yantra Nirmana, Types of basti. Anuvasana and Asthapana basti. Karma, kala and yoga basti etc. Basti Kalpa (Madhutailika, Piccha basti etc.), Comparison of Asthapana and Anuvasana basti with evacuation and retention enema.

Part B

All the following procedures are to be studied in relevance to Ayurvedic Bhaishajya Kalpas.

  1. Methods of Expression and Extraction: Maceration, percolation, distillation, infusion

and decoction.

  1. Liquids: Clarified liquid, syrup, elixir, filtration techniques
  2. Solid dosage Forms: Powders: Size reduction, separation techniques, particle size determination, principles of mixing. Tablets: Methods of tableting, suppositories, pessaries and capsules, sustained release dosage forms.
  3. Semisolid dosage forms, emulsions, suspensions, creams and ointments, sterilization of ophthalmic preparations.
  4. An introduction to various cosmetic preparations.
  5. Drying, open and closed air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying and other drying methods pharmaceutical excipients.
  6. Study of classical texts with special emphasis on Chakradatta, Sharangadhara Samhita, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Bhava Prakasha, Yogaratnakara, relevant portions of Brihatrayi, Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Ayurvedic Formulary of India.

Paper III Rasa Chikitsa & Aushadha Yoga Vigyana


  1. Rasachikitsa, Kshetrikaran, Rasajirna, Lohajirna, Aushadhi Sevana Vikarashanti Upaya. Ashuddha, Apakva, Avidhi Rasadravya Sevanajanya Vikara evam Vikara shanti upaya.
  1. Detailed knowledge of Aushadhi patha Nischiti and sanyojan (formulation composition), dose, anupana and method of administration, therapeutic efficacy and uses (indications and contra-indications), probable mode of action etc. of the following Aushadhi yogas-

i. Kharaliya Rasa : Shwasa kuthara Rasa, Tribhuvana kirti Rasa, Higuleshwara Rasa, Ananda bhairava Rasa, Maha Lakshmivilasa Rasa, Vasnata kusumakara Rasa, Vasanta malti Rasa, Brihat vata chintamani Rasa, Laghu suta shekhar Rasa, Suta shekhara Rasa, Ram ban Rasa, Chandra kala Rasa, Yogendra Rasa, Hridyarnava rasa, Grahani kapata Rasa, Garbha pala Rasa, Jalodarari Rasa, Mrityunjaya Rasa, Madhumalini vasanta Rasa, Arsha kuthara Rasa, Krimi mudgara Rasa, Suchika bharana Rasa, Tri netra Rasa, Smruti sagara Rasa, Vata gajankusha Rasa, Agni kumar Rasa, Ekangavir Rasa, Kama dugha Rasa, Purna chandrodaya Rasa, Pratap lankeshwara Rasa, Maha vata vidhwansaka Rasa, Kasturi bhairava Rasa, Ashwa kanchuki Rasa, Gulma kuthara Rasa, Maha jwarankusha Rasa, Chandra mrita Rasa, Kapha ketu Rasa, Prabhakara Vati, Pravala Panchamrita, Gandhaka Rasayana, Chaturbhuj rasa, Navajivan rasa, Shonitargal rasa, Raktapitta kulakandan rasa, Amavatari Rasa, Kravyada Rasa, Garbha chintamani Rasa, Chintamani Rasa, Trilokya chintamani Rasa, Pradarantaka Rasa, Vangeshwara Rasa, Brihat vangeshwara Rasa, Shwasakasa Chintamani Rasa, Arogya vardhini Vati, Chandra prabha Vati, Agni tundi vati, Shankha Vati.

ii. Kupipakva Rasa: Rasa Sindura, Makaradhwaja, Sidha makaradhwaja, Samira pannaga Swarnavanga, Malla sindura, Rasa karpura, Rasa pushpa, Manikya Rasa.

iii. Parpati Rasa : Rasa Parpati, Loha Parpati, Tamra Parpati, Suwarna Parpati, Gagana Parpati, Vijay Parpati, Panchamrit Parpati, Shwet Parpati, Bola Parpati

iv. Pottali Rasa: Rasagarbha pottali, Hemagarbha pottali, Mallagarbha pottali, Hiranyagarbha pottali, Shankagarbha pottali, Lokanatha rasa, Mriganka Pottali

v. Loha evam Mandura Kalpa: Ayaskriti, Loha Rasayana, Amla pittantaka loha, Chandanadi loha, Dhatri loha, Navayasa loha, Putapakva vishama jwarantaka loha, Shilajatwadi loha, Tapyadi loha, Saptamrita loha, Dhatri loha Amritasara Loha, Shankaramat loha, Pradarantaka loha, Rohitaka loha. Punarnava Mandura, Shatavari Mandura, Tara Mandura, Triphala Mandura, Mandura Vataka etc.

Part B

Detailed knowledge of Aushadhi patha Nischiti and sanyojan (formulation composition), dose, anupana and method of administration, therapeutic efficacy and uses (indications and contra-indications), probable mode of action etc. of the following Aushadhi yogas-

  1. Panchavidha Kashayas and their Upakalpa: Ardraka swarasa, Tulasi swarasa, Vasa putapaka swarasa, Nimba kalka, Rasona kalka, Kulattha Kwath, Punarnavasthaka kwatha, Rasna saptaka kwatha, Dhanyak hima, Sarivadi hima, Panchakola phanta, Tandulodaka, Mustadi pramathya, Kharjuradi mantha, Shadanga paniya, Laksha rasa, Arjuna kshirapaka, Rasona kshirapaka, Chincha panaka, Candana panaka, Banapsha sharkara, Nimbu sharkara, Amrita satva, Ardraka satva, Ajamoda arka, Yavanyadi arka.
  2. Kritanna and Bheshaja Siddha Ahara Kalpana: Yavagu, (Krita and Akrita), Ashtaguna manda, Laja manda, Peya, Vilepi, Krishara, Yusha, Mudga yusha, Kulattha yusha, Saptamushtika yusha, Khada, Kambalika, Raga, Shadava, Mamsarasa, Veshavara, Dadhi, Katvar Dadhi, Dadhi Mastu, Takra, Ghola, Udasvita, Mathita, Chhacchika etc.
  3. Churna: Sitopaladi Churna, Talisadi Churna, Triphala Churna, Hingvashtaka Churna, Avipattikara Churna, Swadishta Virechana Churna, Bhaskar Lavana Churna, Sudarshana Churna, Maha Sudarshana Churna, Gandharva Haritaki Churna, Pushyanuga Churna, Ajamodadi Churna, Hingvadi Churna, Eladi Churna, Dadimashtaka Churna, Trikatu Churna, Vaishwanara Churna, Gangadhara Churna, Jati phaladi Churna, Narayana Churna etc.
  4. Gutika: Arogya vardhani vati, Chandra prabha vati, Chitrakadi Gutika, Sanjivani Vati, Lasunadi vati, Lavangadi Vati, Vyoshadi vati, Khadiradi Vati, Kankayana Vati, Abhayadi modaka, Marichyadi gutika, Amalakyadi gutika, Samshamini Vati, Kutaja Ghana vati, Amarasundari Vati, Shiva Gutika, Eladi Vati, Kasturyadi Gutika, Arshoghni Vati.
  5. Guggulu: Yogaraja Guggulu, Maha yogaraja Guggulu, Trayodashanga Guggulu, Kanchanara Guggulu, Rasnadi Guggulu, Triphala Guggulu, Simhanada Guggulu, Gokshuradi Guggulu, Kaishora Guggulu, Panchatikta Guggulu, Amritadi Guggulu, Vatari Guggulu, Lakshadi Guggulu, Abha Guggulu, Navaka Guggulu, Nava Karshika Guggulu
  6. Sneha Kalpa- Sneha Moorchhana – Ghrita Murchana, Taila Murchhana;
  7. Siddha Ghrita – Shatavari Ghrita, Jatyadi Ghrita, Phala Ghrita, Dadimadi Ghrita, Kshirashatpala Ghrita, Mahatriphala Ghrita, Dhanvantari Ghrita, Amritaprasha Ghrita, Kalyanaka Ghrita, Brahmi Ghrita, Changeri Ghrita, Panchatikta Ghrita, Sukumara Ghrita, Panchagavya Ghrita
  8. Siddha Taila – Maha Narayana Taila, Maha Masha Taila, Bala Taila, Nirgundi Taila, Shadbindu Taila, Vishagarbha Taila, Sahacharadi Taila, Jatyadi Taila, Apamarga Kshara Taila, Tuvaraka Taila, Kshirabala Taila (Avartita), Lakshadi Taila, Anu Taila, Kumkumadi Taila, Hingutriguna Taila, Kottumchukadi Taila, Prasarinyadi Taila, Dhanwantari Taila, Balashwagandhadi Taila, Balaguduchyadi Taila, Nilibhringyadi Taila, Brihadavadi Taila, Irimedadi Taila, Chandanadi Taila, Panchaguna taila, Arka taila, Pinda Taila, Kasisadya Taila
  9. Rasakriya, Avaleha, Khanda etc.: Darvi Rasakriya, Vasa Avaleha, Brahma rasayana, Chyavanprasha Avaleha, Kushmanda Avaleha, Dadima Avaleha, Bilvadi Avaleha, Kantakaryavaleha, Haridra Khanda, Narikela khanda, Saubhagya shunthi paka, Amrita Bhallataka, Kamsa Haritaki, Chitraka Haritaki, Vyaghri Haritaki, Bahushala Guda, Kalyana Guda
  10. Sandhana Kalpa: Lodhrasava, Kumaryasava, Ushirasava, Chandanasava, Kanakasava, Sarivadyasava, Pippalyasava, Lohasava, Vasakasava, Kutajarishta, Draksharishta, Raktamitrarka, Dashamularishta, Abhayarishta, Amritarishta, Ashokarishta, Sarasvatarishta, Arjunarishta, Khadirarishta, Ashwagandha Arishta, Vidangarishta, Takrarishta, Mahadrakshasava, Mritasanjivani sura, Maireya, Varuni, Sidhu, Kanji, Dhanyamla, Madhu Shukta, Pindasava.
  11. Anya Kalpa : Phala varti, Chandrodaya varti, Arka lavana, Narikela lavana, Triphala masi, Apamarga kshara, Snuhi kshara, Ksharasutra, Atasi upanaha, Sarjarasa malahara, Gandhaka malahara, Sindhuradi Malahara, Shatadhouta Ghrita, Sahasra Dhouta Ghrita, Siktha taila, Dashanga lepa, Doshaghna lepa, Bhallataka taila patana, Jyotishmati Taila, Bakuchi Taila, Dashanga dhupa, Arshoghna dhupa, Nishadi Netra bindu, Madhutailika Basti, Piccha Basti, Yapana Basti.

PAPER – IV Pharmacology and Pharmacy Management


  1. General Pharmacology:

a) Principles of Pharmacology, Pharmcodynamics & Pharmacokinetics: Absorption, distribution, Metabolism & excretion, mechanism of action, dose determination and dose response, structure activity relationship.

b) Routes of drug administration

c) Factors modifying drug effect, Bioavailability and Bioequivalence, drug interactions, adverse drug reaction and drug toxicity

d) Preclinical evaluation: experimental pharmacology [bioassay, in vitro, in vivo, cell line studies] animal ethics.

  1. Clinical pharmacology: Evaluation of New Chemical Entity – phases and methods of clinical research. Ethics involved in human research.
  2. Elemental constituents of human body and its physiological importance. Deficiencies and excess of various elements (micro-nutrients).
  1. Toxicity of heavy metals and chelation therapy.
  2. Knowledge of toxicity and pharmacological activities of herbo-mineral compounds.
  3. Detailed Knowledge of Pharmacovigilance – National and International Scenario. Pharmacovigilance of Ayurvedic Drugs

Part B

  1. Scope and evolution of pharmacy. Information resources in pharmacy and pharmaceutical Science.
  1. Pharmaceutical dosage form design (Pre-formulation)
  2. Packaging materials and Labeling
  3. Management of pharmacy, store and inventory management, personnel management, Good Manufacturing Practices related to Ayurvedic drug industry.
  4. Pharmaceutical Marketing, product release and withdrawals.
  5. Hospital, Dispensing and Community pharmacy.
  6. Patenting and Intellectual Property Rights.
  7. Laws Governing Ayurvedic drugs
  8. Relevant regulatory provisions of Ayurvedic drugs in Drug and Cosmetics Act- 1940 and Rules – 1945
  9. Laws pertaining to Drugs and Magic remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act – 1954.
  10. Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) act.
  11. Food Standards and Safety Act – 2006
  12. Laws pertaining to Narcotics
  13. Factory and Pharmacy Acts
  14. Consumer Protection Act -1986
  15. Regulatory Affairs related to International Trade and Practices of Ayurvedic Drugs
  16. Introduction to Ayurvedic Pharmacoepia of India, Ayurvedic Formulary of India.
  17. Introduction to Indian Pharmacoepia, British and United States Pharmacoepia, Pharamcoepial Codex
  18. Introduction to Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
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Bhasma – Preparation, Characteristics & Preservation

Bhasma is an Ayurvedic medicine. It is in the form of powder made from a substance obtained by calcination (Bhasmikarana). Bhasma is usually applied to calcinated metals, minerals and animal products which are, by special Ayurvedic processes, calcined in closed cruibles in pits and with cow dung cakes (Puta). Now a days modern bast furnace are used by many big pharmacies to prepare Bhasma.

Bhasma 2

Method of preparation

Bhasma is prepared by in two stages viz. Shodhana and Marana.

First stage – Shodhana (Purification)

Bhasmas are prepared from minerals, metals, marine and animal products only after purification as described in Ayurvedic texts. In Ayurveda, the process of purification is called Shodhana. There are two types of purification in general – Chemical and Medicinal. For making Bhasma we do Medicinal purification. Medicinal purification is different from chemical purification as follows –

  • In chemical purification it is only elimination of foreign matters.
  • In medicinal purification, following objects are aimed –
    • Elimination of harmful matter from the Dravya (drug).
    • Modification of undesirable physical properties (Guna) of the Dravya (drug).
    • Conversion of some of the characteristics of the Dravya (drugs).
    • The enhancement of the therapeutic action, thereby potentizing the drug.

Read: What is Dravya according to Ayurveda

Read: The Concept of Guna in Ayurveda

There are two kinds of Shodhana (purification)

  1. Samanya Shodhana (general purification) – This is applicable to a large number of Dhatu (metals) or minerals. This is performed by only heating the thin sheets of the Dhatu (metals) and Nirvapana (immersing) them in any specified liquid like Taila (oil), Takra (butter milk), Gomutra (cow’s urine) etc.
  2. Vishishta Shodhana (special purification) – This is applicable only to certain Dravyas (drugs) and in certain preparations. Vishishta Shodhana consists of 4 steps viz. –Bhavana, Swedana, Nirvapana and Mardana.

Read: Gomutra (Cow’s Urine)- Ayurvedic Properties, Benefits & Uses

Second stage (Marana)

After Shodhana (purification), the second stage is preparation of Bhasma. This stage is perfomed in following steps –

  1. The Shodhit Dravya (purified drug) is put into an Ayurvedic instrument called Khalva Yantra (stone mortar and pestle).
  2. Mardana (ground) with Swarasa (juices) of the specified plants or Kwatha (decoction) of drugs mentioned for a particular mineral or metal. It is ground (Mardana) for the specified period of time.
  3. Small Chakrikas (cakes) are made. Here one point is to be noted that the size and thickness of the cakes varies for different Dravya (drugs) which depend on the heaviness of the drug. The heavier the Dravya (drug), the thinner are the Chakrikas (cakes).
  4. These Chakrikas (cakes) are then dried well under sunlight and placed in one single layer in a shallow earthen plate called Sharava.
  5. This Sharava is then closed with another Sharava. The edge of both sharava is then sealed with clay-smeared cloth in seven consecutive layers and dried. This sealing is termed as Sandhibandhana.
  6. A pit is dug in an open place. Like size of Chakrikas (cakes) are different for different drugs, the diameter and the depth of the pit depend on the Dhatu (metal) or mineral that is to be calcinated.
  7. Then the pit is filled with Gobar ke Uple (dried cow dung) up to half of its depth.
  8. The Sandhibandhit Sharava (sealed earthen container), which is filled with Shodhit Dravya Chakrikas (purified cakes of drug) is placed in it.
  9. The remaining space is completely filled with more cow dung cakes.
  10. Fire is put on from all four sides of the pit and also in the middle.
  11. It is allowed to cool itself completely when the burning is over.
  12. The Sharava (earthen container) is removed carefully.
  13. The seal of Sharava is opened and the contents are taken out.
  14. The medicine is ground (mardana) into Churna (a fine powder) in a khalva (stone mortar and pastle).
  15. The process of triturating (mardana) with swarasa (juice), making chakrikas (cakes) and giving Putas (a term given for the process which include the selection of proper size of pit and number of cow dung), is repeated as many times as prescribed in the texts or till the proper fineness and quality Bhasma are obtained.

Maha Puta, Gaja Puta, Varah Puta, Kukkuta Puta, Kapota Puta and Bhanda Puta are different names of Puta which is described to indicate the size of the pit and the number of cow dung cakes to be used. They also indicate the amount of heat required and the period of burning.

Characteristics and preservation

Properly prepared Bhasma is first undergo following tests before using therapeutically –

  1. Nishchandrika – There should be no Chandrika (metallic lustre) in the Bhasma. This ensures that it is properly purified and processed well and harmful characters of heavy metals are destroyed.
  2. Rekha Purita – A small quantity of Bhasma is taken between the Tarjani (index finger) and Angushtha (thumb) and spread, it should be so fine as to get easily into the finger lines. This ensures its nano level processing.
  3. Varitara – A small quantity of Bhasma is spread on cold and still water, it should float on the surface to ensure that it is properly processed and safe to consume. This also indicates lightness of Bhasma.
  4. Apunarbhava – The Bhasma should not revert to the original state when re processed.
  • Colors of Bhasmas are generally yellowish, black, pure white, grey, and reddish black or red; depending upon the predominant Dhatu or Dravya (drug) as well as the other Dravyas (drugs) which are used in the process of Marana.
  • Bhasmas can be well preserved in air tight containers made up of glass or earthen pot. It is also said that they do not have any expiry date. They maintain their potency indefinitely. Also, Bhasma have no characteristic taste.

View some photographs collected from different sources of making Bhasma –

Bhasma preparation from Swarna (Gold)
Bhasma preparation from Swarna (Gold)


Bhasma Mardana
Mardana in Khalva (mortar and pastel)


Bhasma Mardana
Mardana in Khalva (kharala) Stone


Sharava and Chakrika (Cakes)
Sharava (earthen plate) and Chakrika (Cakes)


Sharava and Chakrika (Cakes)
Sharava and Chakrika (Cakes)


Sharava and Chakrika (Cakes)
Sharava and Chakrika (Cakes)


Bhasma Puta
Completely filled Puta


Bhasma Puta
Fire in cow dung (Puta)


Bhasma Puta
Bhasma Puta after self cooling
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Avaleha or Lehyam – Introduction, Preparation & Preservation


Avaleha or Lehyam is one of the forms of Ayurvedic medicine which is semi-solid in consistency. It is prepared from mentioned drugs or herbs with the addition of Gur (jaggery), Sharkara (sugar or sugar candy) and boiled with prescribed Swarasa (drug juice) or Kwatha/ Kashayam (decoction). Avaleha is also termed as Modaka, Guda, Khanda, Rasayana, Leha, Lehyam etc.

Read: Do you know what are Arka Preparations in Ayurveda

Method of preparation of Avaleha

In all types of Avaleha preparations, there generally have following ingredients –

  1. Kashaya (decoctions or other liquids)
  2. Gur/ Guda/ Sharkara (Jaggery, sugar or sugar candy)
  3. Churna (Powders or pulps of certain drugs)
  4. Ghrita (Ghee) or Tailam (oil)
  5. Madhu (honey).
  • First, Gur/ Guda/ Sharkara (Jaggery, sugar or sugar candy) is dissolved well in the decoction or liquid and strained to remove the foreign particles.
  • This solution is then boiled over a moderate fire.
  • When the Paka (Phanita) is tantuvat (thread like) when pressed between thumb and index finger or when it sinks down in a glass of water without getting easily dissolved, it should be removed from the fire.
  • Churna (fine powders) of herbs are then added in small quantities and stirred continuously and vigorously to form a homogenous mixture.
  • Ghita (Ghee) or Taila (oil), if mentioned, is added while the preparation is somewhat hot and mixed well.
  • Madhu (honey), if mentioned is added at the last when the mixture or preparation is cool and mixed well.



  • The Avaleha or Lehyam should neither be hard nor be a thick fluid.
  • When pulp of the raw herbs is added and ghee or oil is present in the preparation, this can be rolled between the fingers.
  • The growth of fungus over it or fermentation is signs of deterioration.
  • When metals are mentioned in the formula, the bhasmas of the metals are used.
  • In the case of specific drugs like Bhallataka, Vatsanabha etc. purified drugs alone are included in the preparation.
  • The colour and smell of the prepared Avaleha depend on the drugs or herbs used as ingredients.

Preservation and Storage

The Avaleha or Lehyam should be kept in glass or porcelain jars. It can also be kept in a metal container or pet bottles which do not react with it.

Read: How to collect and preserve Ayurvedic raw material

Expiry or Best before date

Normally, Avalehas should be used within one year for best efficacy. Afterwards, its potency gets reduced.


  • Chyavanprash
  • Dhashmoola Rasayan
  • Agastya Haritaki
  • Manibhadra Gudam
  • Madananda Modaka
  • Ashwagandhadi Lehyam
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Asava Arishta – Characteristics and Method of Preparation

Asava Arishta is special Ayurvedic medicine made by soaking herbs (the drugs), either in the form of dry powder or decoction – liquid (Kashaya/ kwatha), in a solution of jaggery or sugar. It is kept such for a specified period of time so that it undergoes a process called Sandhana kriya (fermentation) This fermentation generates alcohol which facilitates the extraction of the active principles contained in the herbs or drugs. The alcohol is self-generated and acts as a preservative. The alcoholic content is limited to a maximum of 11% as per the standardization.

Watch the video of step by step method of Preparation of Arishtam:

Method of preparation of Arishta (Arishtam)

To prepare Arishta, the mentioned herbs or drugs are coarsely powdered (Yavakuta churna) and then decoction (Kashaya/ kwatha) is prepared from them. The prepared decoction (Kashaya) is then strained and kept in a safe place in the fermentation vessel, pot, or barrel. Jaggery (gud), sugar or honey, according to the formula, is separately dissolved, boiled, filtered and added in the fermentation vessel where decoction is kept. Mentioned Prakshepa Dravyas are made into fine powder and added to that vessel. In the end, a herb called Dhataki Pushpa, (if included in the formula) is added. The mouth of the vessel is completely covered with an earthen lid. The edges of the lid are sealed with clay-smeared cloth in seven consecutive layers. The container is then kept in a heap of paddy. Use of paddy is to ensure a constant temperature during the period of fermentation and also it accelerate the fermentation process.

After the specified period, the earthen lid is removed carefully, and the contents of the vessel are examined to ascertain the process of fermentation (Sandhana karma) has been completed or not. The content or fluid is then decanted and strained and kept as it is for two to three days. It is again strained to mix sediments properly and packed in a glass or pet bottles.

Method of preparation of Asava (Asavam)

The Asava is prepared same as that of Arishta, but the difference is here we do not prepare decoction (kashaya/ kwatha) from the herbs or finely powdered drugs. Jaggery or honey as mentioned in the formula is dissolved, boiled and filtered. Then this is poured into the fermentation pot, vessel or barrel. The mentioned fine powders of the herbs (drugs) are added in the solution of jaggery. The vessel is covered with a lid and its edges are sealed with clay-smeared cloth in seven consecutive layers as described in Arishta preparation method. And then the rest process is same as that of Arishta.

General precautions during the preparation of Asava Arishta

  • If you are going to use an earthen fermentation vessel, it should not be new. This is because, in a new earthen pot, some quantity of the liquid get leaked by osmosis process.
  • Before using any vessel, first water should be boiled in it. This ensures proper cleaning of the vessel and unwanted microorganisms are destroyed after boiling.
  • Absolute cleanliness is required during the process.
  • Each time when we use the fermentation vessel, it’s inner surface should be fumigated with Pippali Churna and smeared with cow ghee before the liquids poured into it.

Wooden pot, porcelain jars or metal vessels are used in place of earthen vessels in large manufacturing units.

Characteristics of Asava Arishta

  • The filtered Asava or Arishta should be very clear. There should be no froth at the top.
  • Asava or Arishta should not become sour (chukra).
  • The preparation or Asava Arishta has the characteristic of aromatic alcoholic odour.

Preservation of Asava Arishta

It is mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics that well prepared Asava and Arishta do not have an expiry date, means they can be kept and used for indefinitely. They should be kept in a sealed (well-stoppered) bottles or jars.


  • Honey, whenever or wherever mentioned, should be not be dissolved or boiled. It should be used as such in natural form.
  • As Asava Arishta contains jaggery, sugar or honey, it is not recommended for diabetic patients. Doctor’s advise is a must before using any medicine or herb.

Related: Ayurvedic Ghrita (Medicated Ghee) – How to prepare & Characteristics

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Do you know what are Arka Preparations in Ayurveda

In Ayurveda, drug manufacturing is done by various methods and every process has their unique qualities and properties. In this article you will know a brief information of Arka, how they are prepared and what are characteristics of arka.

Arka is an Ayurvedic preparation/ medicine in liquid form. Arka is obtained by distillation method. This very interesting that in that era (5000 yrs ago), Ayurveda was so much advanced in manufacturing medicines. Arka is an Ayurvedic medicine which is prepared by one of the advanced method in which distillation of certain liquids or herbs soaked in water using a special equipment called Arkayantra or any convenient modern distillation apparatus is performed.


Method of preparation of Arka- 

  1. First, you have to clean herbs, keep it for drying and then make it coarsely powdered.
  2. Add some quantity of water to the powdered herbs for soaking and keep it over-night. By soaking herbs over night makes them soft and releases the essential volatile principles easily when boiled.
  3. Pour soaked herbs along with remaining water in to Arka yantra or distillation apparatus. Add some more water (around 4 times of herbs, for example- if you are taking 1 kg of herbs, add 4 liters of water).
  4. When it starts boiling, the vapors get condensed and collected in a receiver.
  5. Keep collected essence (Arka) for cooling and then collect in bottle. Ensure its cork should be air tight so that volatile extract will not get evaporated and potency of Arka remains for a longer period.

Important Note- It is found that, in the beginning, the vapors consists of only steam and may not contain the essential principles of the herbs. So it is better to discard that part. The last portion also may not contain therapeutically essential substance and should be discarded.
Characteristics of Arka-

Arka is a suspension of the distillate in water.

  1. Arka has slight turbidity.
  2. The color of the Arka will be according to the nature of the herbs used.
  3. The smell of the Arka will be according to predominant drug.

arka preparations  distillation-apparatus

I think, now you are very much aware of Arka (Ayurvedic medicine). Due its light weight in nature (Laghu Guna), it is highly potent herbal medicine which acts very fast. Some of the common Arka available in market are- Pudina Arka (Dabur Pudina Hara), Punarnava Arka, Tulasi Arka etc.

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What is Panchakarma

Panchakarma is a Sanskrit word which means Five Procedures of Purification or Detoxification. These procedures are- Vamana, Virechana, Vasti (Anuvasana and Nirooha), Nasya and Raktamokshana. Now I am going to introduce these procedures one by one.


Vamana1This is one of the Panchakarma therapy indicated for Kapha disorders. It is done by oral administration of powders or decoction of emetic drugs along with large quantity of specific liquid, by which the impurities and toxins are expelled through mouth. This is a procedure that needs utmost care and should be under strict medical supervision.

Indications of Vamana are Asthma, Cough, Psoriasis, Diabetes etc. You may also read article Virechana Karma- Purgation Therapy for more details.


virechana2 virechana1In Virechana, purgation done by oral administration of specific purgative drugs. Before Vamana and Virechana, sneha pana is done as a preoperative procedure (Purvakarma) followed by Abhyangam and Swedanam.

Indications of Virechana are Pitta and Vata predominant diseases, skin diseases, urinary disorders, diabetes, fissure in ano, hemorrhoids, flatulence, arthritis, hemiplegia etc. You may also read article Virechana Karma- Purgation Therapy for more details.


vasti1Vasti is a therapy undertaken by the administration of medicaments duly in the form of liquids through rectum (usually) or vagina or urethra (disease specific). It is the most important therapy of Vata disorders. There are many varieties of Vasti. Principally Vasti is of two kinds viz- Anuvasana (Oil enema) and Nirooha (Decoction enema), also spelled as Niruha vasti.

Anuvasana Vasti

Anuvasa Vasti is named such because it is administered just after intake of food. It is usually given with medicated oils or medicated ghee using specially designed equipment called Vasti Yantra. Due use of oil or ghee, Anuvasana Vasti is also known as Sneha Vasti. Anuvasana Vasti, Matra Vasti and Sneha Vasti are usually distinguished on the basis of quantity of oil or ghee. In Sneha, its quantity is 240 ml, in Anuvasana it is 120 and in Matra Vasti quantity of oil or ghee is 60 ml.

Indications of Anuvasana Vasti are Vata predominant diseases, flatulence, arthritis, constipation, urinary stone, lower back pain, sciatica, fistula in ano, amenorrhea, hemiplegia, some skin disorder, infertility, PCOD etc.

Niruha Vasti

Niruha Vasti is always given only after anuvasana vasti, means in between two anuvasana vastis. Niruha Vasti is also known as Asthapana Vasti and Kashaya Vasti. Decoction of herbs is the major proportion in the mixture (Vasti dravya- medicine which is going to be administered by Vasti) hence it is named as Kashaya Vasti. This Vasti is superior as compared to Anuvasana Vasti in respect of quantity, efficacy and absorption. The mode of application and indications are same as Anuvasana Vasti. Usually Niruha Vasti is given empty stomach or after very light meal/ breakfast. You may also read article Vasti Karma- Therapeutic Enema for details.


nasya1Nasya is also spelled as Nasyam. It is one of the Panchakarma specially employed to remove the doshas from the region above the clavicle (urdhva jatru gat), by means of instilling medicaments in the form of oil, juices, powder in to the nostrils. Medicated oils are widely used than others.

Indications of Nasyam are headache, brachial neuralgia, earache, chronic sinusitis, facial palsy, hemiplegia etc. You may also read article Nasya Karma  for details.



raktamokshanaRaktamokshana is a para-surgical procedure of Ayurveda system where Jalouka (leeches) or needle or scalpel/ blade is used for venupuncture for removal of impure blood.

Indications of Raktamokshana are vericose veins, filariasis, eczema, non healing wounds etc. Please read article Raktamokshana- Therapeutic Bloodletting for more details.

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The Concept of Rasa in Ayurveda – Therapeutic Utility

rasa in ayurveda

Introduction of Rasa in Ayurveda – 

Rasa in Ayurveda means the particular sense object, which is perceived by the tongue, is called rasa, which can be perceived by the rasanendriya, is called rasa. The word rasa means taste, but it also have other meanings also like rasa dhatu, parada (mercury) etc.

Types of Rasa

Rasa are basically divided into six type based on its perception that is- Madhura rasa, amla rasa, lavana rasa, katu rasa, tikta rasa, kasaya rasa.

Once again, based on the actions of rasa the rasas are divided into two types i.e., soumya rasa and agneya rasa,

Characteristics of Rasa

Rasa Mouth and tongueSenses BodyChest and throat
MadhuraIt smearsPleases the sensesPleases the body—–
AmlaStimulates and increases salivationCauses contraction of eyes and eyebrowsProduces thrill even looking by itProduces burning sensation
LavanaCauses overflowProduces appetite—-Produces burning sensation
KatuProduces irritation and burning sensation on mouth &tongueInduces secretion from eyes and noseProduces burning sensation——-
TitkaClears the mouth and tongueProduces numbness in tongue——-Cleanses throat
KasayaProduces numbness, heaviness of the tongue—–——Pain inches region& choking sensation

Pancha mahabhoota of Rasa

RasaRelation with Pancha Mahabhootas
MadhuraPrithvi +jala

Regarding composition of amla and lavana rasas there is difference of opinion between Charaka and Surshruta, the composition given in above table proposed by Charaka. According to Sushruta amla is composed of jala and tejas and lavana is of prithvi and tejas.

Even though rasa is having above mentioned mahabhootas predominantly the other mahabhootas are also possible to see in little extent.

Rasa and its gunas (Ayurvedic properties)

RasaGuna (properties)
MadhuraSnigdha, sheeta, guru
AmlaSnigdha, ushna, guru
LavanaSnigdha, ushna, guru
KatuRuksha, ushna, laghu
TiktaRuksha, sheeta, laghu
KashayaRuksha, sheeta, laghu

Action of Rasas on Doshas (Ayurvedic humors/ energy)

The action of rasas on doshas is essential because rasa is one which has gunas (Ayurvedic properties) in it and which are favorable or unfavorable for the dosha and it will be mainly applicable in the treatment aspect because in Ayurveda we are treating only on basis of doshas by using different recipes.

DoshaUsed rasa in sequences

In these order rasas are used in treatment.

The  Perception of Rasas

According to Indian Darshana shashtra knowledge rasa can be acquired  through three Pramanas i.e., Pratyaksha, Anumana and Aptopadesha.

Rasas can be known through all these three modes of knowledge yet, direct demonstrable knowledge is more widely used. If the dravya comes in contact with the tongue then only the direct perception of rasa is possible. This is rasana pratyaksha.

Some rasa can perceivable by Anumana only like, madhura rasa of Swarna, Rajata and Naga (sweetness of gold, silver and lead), & tikta rasa of Lauha (bitter taste of iron) have all been ascertained through inference after carefully observing the effects of these dravyas on the body.

Similarly avyakta rasa or anurasa has to be specially understood through Aptopadesha. And this knowledge is endorsed through anumana pramana.

According to some, a general knowledge of rasa is obtained through Pratyaksha, Anumana provides specific knowledge, where Aptopadesha provides experimental knowledge.


The rasa of any dravya is never permanent, it always keeps on changing subtler proportions.

The factors which are responsible for rasantara (variability in taste) is-

  1. Patra:- the dravya keeping on long time in specific Patra (vessel), it changes its rasa.
  2. Kala:- long keeping of dravya leads to change of rasa.
  3. Samyoga:- combination of 2 different dravyas leads to change of rasa.
  4. Paka:- on ripening of some dravyas like fruits changes its rasas.
  5. Surya:- due to sunlight rasa will be changed.
  6. Bhavana:- by trituration the rasas will change.
  7. Desha:- environmental factors also leads to change of rasa.
  8. Kalapaka:- by allowing some time interval.
  9. Parinama:-  by transformation.
  10. Upasarga:- by decaying of dravya.
  11. Vikriya: by some special procedures.

Actions of Rasa:

The action of rasa is brought in accordance with samanya vishesha siddhantha. Similar dravya-guna-karma increase similar dravya-guna-karma and dosha-dhathu-mala. Whereas dissimilar dravya, guna, karma bring about decrease. The action described as the action are in fact the actions of gunas belonging the dravyas having the particular rasa.


The one which is directly perceived is called rasa, whereas some rasas which are not perceptible at first but it will found at the last, are called as anurasa.

Characteristics of anurasa:

  • Anurasa is either unmanifested or is manifested in small proportion.
  • Anurasa doesn’t remain in dravya inits dry state. For eg. The sweet anurasa of dry pippali will not persists.

Comparision between Rasa and Anurasa:

Is manifestedEither is non manifested or is manifested.
Remains intact even after dravya is driedDoesn’t remain intact after drying.
Manifested at firstManifested later or in end

Rasa panchaka is a term which includes five factors of dravya i.e., rasa, guna,Veerya, vipaka. These five are always the factors of dravya and these are having inseparable relation with dravya.

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Shada Padartha – Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

shada padartha

Superiority among Shada  Padartha

Shada Padartha is a term given to collectively 6 factors or materials viz. Dravya, Guna, Karma, Rasa, Veerya and Vipaka. Rasa panchaka is a term which includes five factors of dravya i.e., rasa, guna,Veerya, vipaka. These five are always the factors of dravya and these are having inseparable relation with dravya. The actions of these five factors depends on dravya only because these five are the fractions of dravya and some of interrelated while performing the karma.


Among these rasa panchakas Charaka mentioned vipaka as the first because of its wide spread actions over the body. But the recent authers mentioned in the order of rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka, prabhava.

Some are mentioned that rasa is more dominant than guna, guna is dominant than veerya, is this sequence till prabhava, but all these factors reside in dravya only for the propagation of actions of  components and dravya is the seat for all these five components. Every matters in the world are studied under the concept of dravya only.

For the fulfillment of treatment in Ayurvedic science the knowledge of dravya is must. So for the knowledge of dravya the knowledge of these five factors is important.

Lastly  whatever the opinion about the superiority of these five factors, as per the concern to application. The knowledge of whole five factors carrying equal weight age.


“ Due to its presence and combination the substance acquires a distinct activity that is called Prabhava.”

Prabhava- one which is of beyond to the normal effect even though two dravyas having same rasa, guna, beerya and vipaka, are shown for an definite action but finally it gives different action, this action of difference is due prabhava. This prabhva is also called achintya.

Characteristics of Prabhava:

If both the plants are having same rasa, guna, etc. its karma is different. This is due to the prabhava. For eg: milk and ghee both are sweet and cold but ghee is agni deepana but milk is not. This is due to prabhava.

When dravya, rasa, guna, vipaka cannot explain any effect, then it should be assumed to be attributed by prabhava.

Prabhava is the unique property of dravya which is unconvinced by other properties, its effect is seen but one cannot establish a casual relationship.

By ancient scriptures prabhava is considered as superior one.

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The Concept of Vipaka in Ayurveda

The word Vipaka in Ayurveda is originated from “vi-puch” (वि-पच) which means pachana. The synonyms are parinama, durgati, swadhu, nayati and ayu.

Transformation of rasas after food is digested completely in the koshtanga (digestive system) by the help of Jatharagni (digestive fire) is called vipaka. When Ahara (ingested food) undergo digestion the Ahara rasa (chyle) is divided into Sara bhaga (useful parts/ nutrients) and Kitta bhaga (waste).

Classification of  vipaka in Ayurveda:

Vipaka is classified into 2 types- a) Prapaka; b) Vipaka.

Prapaka :- It is the first stage of digestion. Here the Ahara (food) undergoes Paka (digestion) in Koshthanga levels (alimentary canal), nourishes the Tridoshas (Ayurvedic humour- Vata, Pitta and Kapha) respectively. It is also called Awasthapaka. It is of three types-

i). Madhura avastha paka: It takes place from mouth to Amashaya (stomach) and nourishes Kapha dosha.

ii). Amla avastha paka: It takes place at Amapakwashaya madhya (between the stomach and large intestine means duodenum and small intestine) and nourishes Pitta dosha.

iii). Katu avastha paka: It takes place at Pakwashya (large intestine) and nourishes Vata dosha.

Sushruta mentioned two types of prapaka i.e, Guru prapaka which does kapha vardhana (nourishes and increases  Kapha) and Vata Pitta shamana (pacify) and second Laghu prapaka which does Vata Pitta vardhana and Kapha shamana.

Vipaka :-  It is done by bhootagni and dhathu agni. It is the final stage of Rasa which nourishes the respective Dosha, Mala and Dhatu by doing Ahara Rasa Paka by its respective Agni.

Vipaka and its Guna and effect on Doshas:

VipakaGunaEffects on Dosha
MadhuraSnigdha, GuruKapha vardhaka
AmlaSnigdha, LaguPitta vardhaka
KatuRuksha, LaguVata vardhaka

Karmas of Vipaka on Dosha, Dhatu and Mala:

MadhuraKapaha vardhakaShukra vardhakaLaxative
AmlaPitta vardhkaShukra nashakaLaxative
KatuVata vardhakaShukra nashakaMay cause Constipation

General rule of Vipaka in Ayurveda:

Always Madhura Rasa Dravyas undergo Amla vipaka and katu, tikta and kashaya rasas undergo Katu vipaka. But Maharishi Parashara opines that Madhura, lavana, tikta and kashaya rasas undergo Madhura vipaka, Amla rasa to Amla vipaka and Katu rasa to Katu vipaka.

Perception of vipaka:

Vipaka of the dravya is ascertained by Anumana. When food undergoes vipaka it shows an effect, by this we can infer the vipaka of the food/ drug but in Pratyaksha, it can not be possible to ascertain.

Importance of vipaka:

Vipaka is one in which the Ahara (food) or Aushadhi (medicinal drugs) will attain the last stage of the homologous stage and nourishes the definite Dosha, Dhatu, Mala etc. respectively.

  • Even though it is not possible to see directly we can elicit by inference.
  • Even though it is of different Rasa, Guna etc. due to the Vipaka it undergoes to nourish Tridosha specifically by its action.
  • It is a micro-digested particle of food and medicine.
  • Vipaka is important among all other qualities like Rasa within Dravya, because Guna or dosha of Dravya depend on proper and improper digestion.

Gunas are evolved due to the proper digestion of Dravya by balanced digestive fire and Doshas due to incorrect digestion.

Vipaka  is more important because both aggravation and alleviation of Doshas are due to vipaka.

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The Concept of Veerya in Ayurveda

The word Veerya is derived from ‘veer’ that means a dynamic property of a substance which brings about the action. Veerya in Ayurveda is a unique concept which is very important to understand the pharmacodynamics and action of a drug.

The actions of Rasa are already described in my previous posts, the remaining actions are due to Veerya.

Characteristics of Veerya in Ayurveda

It is observed that drugs which effectively act on Dosha, Dhatu and Mala at a particular time become ineffective after sometimes. This is so because the potency of a substances or the Veerya which is responsible for the effective action, is lost when old.

For this reason, all Samhitas (Ayurvedic classics) advise to use fresh Dravyas instead of old.

A drug works through Veerya. If its Veerya gets depleted due to the effect of adverse conditions, it looses its dynamic potency because of which it becomes ineffective. Action only takes place if the drug possesses Veerya, if it doesn’t, actions are not seen.

Different opinions exists regarding the form of Veerya. Some ancient Acharya mentions Veerya as a substances, some as Guna and Karma. Some describes Veerya as a dynamic potency and therefore consider it as a part of Guna. Modern scholars consider Veerya as ‘active principle’ and hence a part of special substances.

Types of Veerya

Veeryas are mainly divided into two types based on Charaka Samhita and Vagbhatta Samhita (Ashtangahridayam). i.e.,

  • Innumerable(Charaka)
  • Numerable (Vagbhata)

⇒ Astavidha Veerya (8 types of Veerya)- Guru, Laghu, Sheeta, Ushna, Snigdha, Ruksha, Mridu, Tikshna

⇒ Dvividha Veerya (2 types of Veerya)- Sheeta, Ushna

Dvividha Veerya and its Mahabhoota, Karma/ effect on Dosha

VeeryaMahabhoothaKarmaKarma on dosha
SheetaPrithvi+ JalaPleasurable, stabilizing, cleaning,life givingPitta shamaka, Kapha- Vata vardhaka
UshnaAgniBurning, fainting, loss of senses, sweating, emesis, purgationVata- Kapha shamaka, Pitta vardhaka

Asthavidha Veerya and its Mahabhoota, Karma/ effect on dosha

VeeryaMahabhoothaKarmaEffect on dosha
SheetaPrithvi + JalaPleasurable, stabilizing, cleaning,life giving, heavyPitta shamaka, Kapha- Vata vardhaka
UshnaAgniBurning, digestion, fainting, loss of senses, sweating and emesisVata- Kapha shamaka, Pitta vardhaka
SnigdhaJalaSnehana, restorative, anti aging, aphrodisiacVata hara
RukshaVayuConstipative, drying, heating, painfulVata vardhaka, Kapha shamaka
GuruAgni+ VayuApplicative, promotive, aphrodisiacVata hara
LaguAgni+ VayuScrapping, absorption, drying, healingKapha hara
MriduJala+ AkashaBlood & muscle promotingPitta shamaka
TikshnaAgniCollective, aspiration, drying, oozingKapha hara

According to some Acharyas, Vishada replaces the Lagu and Pichchhila replaces Guru Veerya.

Relations between rasa and Veerya

Generally dravyas having Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya rasas are Sheeta Veerya and those having Amla, Lavana and Katu rasa, are Ushna Veerya. All these rasas which are related to Agni mahabhoota are Ushna Veerya, and rest are Sheeta Veerya. But there is a exception, even though Rasa is useful in arriving at an inference about Veerya , Vipaka, Guna. So it is wrong to decide the Veerya.

Importance of Veerya in Ayurveda

  • Drug contains different entities like Rasa, Veerya, Vipaka etc. among all these Veerya is predominant because it brings about action of Dravya.
  • Only Dravyas which are predominant in Veerya are used in Chikitsa (treatment/ therapeutic purpose).
  • Action of Dravya is due to Veerya.
  • Veerya supersedes Rasa, Vipaka and Guna, therefore even when Rasa, Vipaka and Guna of a Dravya act in accordance with each other. Veerya brings about total action difference.

Veerya is mentioned as extremely importance even by Aptavachas in literatures.

Read: Shada Padartha & Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

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The Concept of Guna in Ayurveda

Guna in Ayurveda is one which is located in Dravya (a drug) inherently, acts as a causative agent and devoid of property and action. It means Guna itself has no action but it is a responsible agent in Dravya for such action.

Characteristics of Guna in Ayurveda

|| samavayee tu nischesthaha ||

Here the word nischestha has been intentionally added to the characteristic of Guna in order to differentiate it from Karma. If only the word Samavayee would have been used, it might have been transgressed the characters of Gunas, since Karma also has a non-separable relationship to Dravyas and resides in Dravyas.

Dravya sustains Guna, Karma, but Guna can’t sustain Guna and Karma. Karma also resides in Dravya and it is a non-essential cause as well. Yet, it is the cause of aggregation and segregation at the same time.

The author of text “Rasa vaisheshika” describes Gunas as “ Vishwa lakshana Gunah”. As these are responsible for the presence of various characteristics of Padarthas.

Gunas acts as a medium for understanding the peculiarities of Dravyas. It is an acceptable principle that every Guna has a definite action a single Dravya  may have many Gunas and single specific Guna may be present in many Dravyas.

Classification of Gunas

Guna in Ayurveda is classified mainly into three types i.e., vaisheshika Guna, Samanya Gunas, and Atma Gunas. The Vaisheshika Gunas are- a) Shabda; b) Sparsha; c) Roopa; d) Rasa; e) Gandha.

The Samanya Gunas (general Ayurvedic properties of material/ object) are 30 in number. They are divided into Guruvadhi and Paradi Guna.

Guruvadi GunaParadi Guna
Guru- LaghuPara
Manda- TikshanaApara
Hima- UshnaYukti
Snigdha- RukshaSamyoga
Shlakshna- KharaVibhaga
Sandra- DravaPruthakatva
Mridu- KathinaAbhyasa
Sthira- SaraSamskara
Sookshma- SthoolaParimana
Vishada- PichchhilaSankhya

Atma Gunas are 6 in number. They are- Ichchha, Dwesh, Sukha, Dukha, Prayatna and Buddhi. In total 41 Gunas are considered.

Significance of Guna

The references for Guna in Ayurveda are available in all the classics.

In the definition of sharira- “dosha dhatu mala  mulam he shariram”, three factors dosha, dhatu and mala are exhibited through Gunas.

In chikitsa aspects samanya vishesha siddhantha, samanya Guna will increases the dhatus etc. and  Vishesha Gunas will decreases the dhatus etc.

Importance of Guna

The importance of Guna in Ayurveda may be summed up as below-

  1. Rasabibhavata :- Actions of rasa that are present in Dravya are super seated by Guna.
  2. Rasanugraha :- The Gunas of Dravyas are cohesive to rasas only.
  3. Vipakakarantvata :- The vipaka super seats the rasas, but this vipaka is transformed mainly due to the Gunas.
  4. Sankyabahulyata :- In number also it is more.
  5. Prayogabahulyata :- In the aspect of usage the Gunas are widely used in clinical application.
  6. Karmabahulyata :- Guna is associated with and helps to bring action in various manner.
  7. Upadesha :- Many of granthas (Indian scriptures) explained about Gunas.
  8. Apadeshath :- It means description while describing an object we mentions its Gunas only.
  9. Anumanat :- The inference is also by Gunas

Doshas and its Gunas

Tridosha viz. Vata, Pitta and Kapha also have Guna (physical properties). See below-

  • Vata dosha :- ruksha , laghu, sheeta, khara, sukshma, chala.
  • Pitta dosha :- sneha, tikshna, ushna,laghu, visra, sara, drava.
  • Kapha dosha :- snigdha, sheeta, guru, manda, slakshana, sandra, mridu.

This is all about Guna in Ayurveda in brief.

Read: Shada Padartha & Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

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The Concept of Prabhava in Ayurveda

Prabhava in Ayurveda is an important topic every Ayurveda expert should know. It is the factor or power which changes the pharmacodynamics of a herb or drug. Generally, the drug shows their effects on the body by the virtue of their properties and active potent constituents. But, the Prabhava is a factor which changes the effects or action of the drug generally shows. This article will explain in brief about Prabhava, it’s characteristics and why it is very important to understand the drug action.

Prabhava in Ayurveda

Dravya (Aushadha or medicine) the important tool in the physician performance and one of the four limbs of treatment should be known by name form, properties and actions.

Read: What is Dravya according to Ayurveda

Read: Shada Padartha: Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

Prabhava is the non-specific activity or specific power which is one among Dravya sapta padarthas.


  1. Prabhava in Ayurveda is the one which is specific and special power of the Dravya.
  2. The property which is responsible for the special or peculiar action of Dravya is known as prabhava.
  3. The prabhava is the non-specific effect of a Dravya.
  4. Prabhava may be defined as the special property which produces actions which are different from and contrary to those attributed to rasa, guna, veerya and vipaka.

Synonyms of Vipaka in Ayurveda

  1. Shakti
  2. Vichitra pratyarabdhatwa
  3. Vikriti Vishama samaveta
  4. Achinthya virya
  5. Achinthya
  6. Anavadharaniya
  7. Swabhava


Prabhava in Ayurveda is the property which is characterised by specific actions of substances which can not be explained in terms of the pharmacological actions of various constituents of Dravya when they are considered individually in relation to each other.

Even though rasa, virya, vipaka are equal karma is mentioned especially because of one specific power. That specific property is known as Prabhava.

Prabhava in Ayurveda is the unimaginable effect of the drugs as it happens in the case of Mani (precious stones). Manthra (sacred chanting) and celestial herbs. They act in a manner entirely different from the expected action without depending on taste, potency, quality and digested taste existing in them. The term shakti or prabhava indicates the special or extreme capability of a drug this is always explained comparing two drugs, one with prabhava and one without.

Concept of Prabhava

Prabhava in Ayurveda has been explained while describing virya like, Dravya gat shakti of 2 types

  1. Chintya
  2. Achintya

Chintya is one which has got the base of karya karanabhava, hence it is called as chintya other one is Achintya. It is told that due to sahaja dravya swabhava. i.e., Yuktipratipadya  but not Buddhigamya. Swabhava is Achintya hence prabhava also dravya- swabhavagata hence that is Achintya. But it can not be considered under the base of karyakaranabhava action of the Dravyagata rasadi padartha’s will be changing because of prabhava and cause of this variation can not be predicted hence it is Achintya.

Prabhava as Achintya (unpredictable) generally from the constituents of a Dravya. It is also told the virya as Achintya and chintya. The ‘Achintya virya’ is considered as prabhava in Ayurveda.

Prabhava can be explained through the concept of ‘Achintya virya’ Prabhava janya karma is Achintya (unpredictable) and unquestionable.

On the basis of Panchabhoutika composition dravya are divided into 2 groups-

    1. Samanya pratyarabdha dravya
    2. Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya
    • Samanya pratyarabdha dravya are which exhibit structure related pharmacological activities and therapeutic effects.
    • Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya are which do not have structural similarity among the constituents.

    There is another classification:

    1. Prakritisama samaveta
    2. Vikrit vishama samaveta

    Basically, there is no difference between samanya prathyarabdha dravya and prakritisama samveta dravya but vikriti vishama samaveta differs from vichitra prathyarabdha dravyas. Vikriti vishama samaveta dravya will have similarity among the constituents but exhibits the special therapeutic effect independent of constituents. Thus prabhava may be tentatively divided into two categories.

    1. Vikriti- vishama samaveta: structurally similar but functionally dissimilar
    2. Vichitra pratyarabdha: structurally dissimilar but functionally similar.


    Sl. No.






    b) Yava


    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura, guru

    Madhura, guru




    b) Matsya

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura, guru

    Madhura, guru

    Sheetha virya

    Ushna virya


    b) Simha

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura, guru

    Madhura guru

    Madhura vipaka

    Katu vipaka


    b) Paravata

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Samana prathyarabdha





    5a) Kapitha

    b) Dadima

    c) Dhathri

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Amla rasa

    Amla rasa

    Amla rasa




    6a) Dhataki

    b) Haritaki

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Kashaya rasa

    Kashaya rasa

    Sheetha,virya grahi

    Ushna, virya rachana

    7a) Masha

    b) Gruta

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura vipaka

    Madhura vipaka

    Pitta vardhaka


    8MadyaVichitra prathyarabdhaKatu vipakaPitta shamaka
    9VasaVichitra prathyarabdhaUshna viryaAgni sadana
    10PhanithaVichitra prathyarabdhaGuru, snigdha ushnaVatakara
    11a) Danthi

    b) Chitraka

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Katu, vipaka, ushna virya

    Katu, vipaka ushna virya




    1Mahat PanchamulaMadhura, kashaya, TikthaUshna
    2Anupa mamsaMadhura, kashaya, TikthaUshna
    3Saindhava lavanaLavanaSheetha
    4AmalakiAmla rasaSheetha

    Other examples of Prabhava in Ayurveda

    1. Mani dharana :Diamond which is a C5- isotope emits certain radiations which may help in various disease condition including cancer.
    2. Pumsavana karma: Human foetus is bisexual till 2-3 months of Intra-uterine life. Though sex is genetically predictable a substance called “ Differentiator” is finally deciding the sex of the human foetus before the third month.
    3. Virechanopaga: These are the prodrugs and analogues prodrugs are used to improve pharmacological or biological properties. Analogies are used to increase potency and to achieve specificity of action.
    4. Ubhaya bhagahara: The dosage of virechana dravyas and vamana dravyas is different therefore their actions, emesis and purgation are dose dependent.
    5. Bhallataka: When Bhallataka applied externally produces blisters because of its ushna virya. Same results virya subsides the Kapha and also results in Rasayana property, when Bhallataka is applied or used internally. The former utility is the examples of Nipatha or Adhishava and the later utility is the examples of Adhivasha. The invisible effects which are the outcome of Nipata might have been quoted as Achintya virya or prabhava.
    6. Kshira and grita are shamana pratyarabdha dravyas but the kshira reduces appetite while the gruta is an appetiser.
    7. Loshuna which has katu rasa, snigdha, guru guna, katu vipaka, it acts as kaphavatahara instead of increasing it.
    8. Raktashali and yavaka have similar properties but the former is Doshahara while the later is Doshavardhaka.
    9. Shirisha etc. acts as antidotes.
    10. Sometimes exposing the individual suffering from poisoning to the antidote. May yield a good result.

    Prabhava janya karma

    Prabhavajanya karma is of 3 types.

    1. Dravya prabhava: Drug action independent of the constitution. Example-  Some of the drugs which are Dosha prashamana, dhatu pradushana, swastahitha.
    2. Guna prabhava : Drug action depends on upon the constituents.
    3. Dravya-guna prabhava: Drug action depending upon the Dravya as well as guna.

    The following actions are exhibited through Prabhava.

    1. Agadiya karma ( antidote activity)- eg- Shirisha.
    2. Virechana karma  ( Purgative property)- eg- Danthi
    3. Rakshoghna karma  ( Antimicrobial property)- eg- Guggulu, jatamamsi
    4. Manasa karma  (Psychological activity)- eg- Kushta, Raktachitraka
    5. Bhowtika karma ( Physical activity).

    Prabhava – Acc. to modern pharmacology

    According to Modern Pharmacology Prabhava can be explained in following ways-

    Prabhava is considered as a non-specific activity of drugs. There are many pharmacological properties mentioned in Modern pharmacology which results in non-specific activity. Usually, it is believed that drugs with similar chemical structure will have similar pharmacological actions. But it is not possible to predict their activity on the basis of chemical structure alone.

    Sometimes drugs with similar chemical structure may have entirely different actions. Exapmle- Morphine and papaverine are structurally similar but their pharmacological action is different, the former is narcotic and CNS depressant while the later is non-narcotic and muscle relaxant. There are certain drugs like phenobarbitone chloral hydrate paraldehyde etc, which are structurally different but all are CNS depressants.

    In pharmacology, the drug activity can be classified as

    1. Structurally non-specific
    2. Structurally specific
    1. Structurally Non- specific: This activity is dependent on physical properties like solubility partition coefficients and vapour pressure and not on the presence or absence of some chemical group. Substances such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols amides, ethers, ketones & chlorinated hydrocarbons exhibit narcotic activity and potency of each substance is related to its partition coefficient structurally non-specific action results from the accumulation of a drug in some vital part of a cell with lipid characteristics.
    2. Structurally specific: This activity is dependent upon the factors such as the presence or absence of certain functional groups, intra-molecular distance and shape of the molecule.

    Activity is not easily correlated with any physical property and small changes in structure often lead to changes in activity structurally specific activity is dependent upon the interaction of the drug with a cellular receptor.


    Sl. No.
    13JatamamsiMadakariBhutaghna (Manasadoshahara)
    20ParaseekayavaniVedanastapanaMadaka and Vedanastapana
    54KebukaGarbhashaya- sankochakaGarbhashaya Sankochaka
    59ShalaAshmaribhedanaVedana stapana

    Superiority of Prabhava in Ayurveda

    The drug action is ultimately controlled by prabhava because that is the special or specific power of drug and it is superior among the drug constituents.

    The different factors which highlight the superiority of Achintya virya i.e., Prabhava are as follows

    1. Achintya ( Unpredictable): Its effects are quite unpredictable and therefore it is considered as superior.
    2. Daiva pratighata( Supernatural power): It exhibits supernatural power. Hence it is important.
    3. Visha pratighata ( Antidote effects): It helps in antidote activity irrespective of drug constituents hence it is superior.
    4. Darshana ( Practically visible) : Its extraordinary effects are practically seen.
    5. Shravana( praise): Many scholars praise its efficacy and superiority.
    6. Tulya-rasa-guna vishesha ( non-specificity): it will exhibit very special action independent of other drug constituents.
    7. Adhbhuta karma ( Magic effects): using precious stones hypnotism hymns chanting etc, will yield some magic effects. Hence prabhava is superior.
    8. Agama ( classical treatise): All the classical texts highlighted prabhava as the main quality of a dravya.

    Therefore, prabhava in Ayurveda is considered as superior among sapta padarthas.

    Discussion & Conclusion

    Prabhava in Ayurveda is the Non-specific effect of the Dravya. It includes both internal usage and external usage of drugs like Manidharana etc.

    Prabhava is the unimaginable effect of the drugs as it happens in case of Mani, Mantra Dravyas. They act entirely different from other padarthas. It is the term i.e., shakthi or prabhava indicates the special or extreme capability of a drug. This is always explained by comparing 2 drugs, one with prabhava and one without.

    Normally, the drug action basing on the predominance i.e., if rasa is powerful, the drug action in an accordance with rasa even if the guna, karma etc are different from rasa.

    Ex: Guduchi is tikta in taste and in spite of its ushna virya it acts as pittahara ( pitta) which means Rasa, the taste is more active in this drug Brahat panchamoola drugs though have kashaya rasa which increases vata acts as a palliative of vata by virtue of ushna virya. Shunti( dry ginger) has tikta rasa which has to increase vata but it is palliated vata by the virtue of madhura vipaka. The action of a drug which is not corresponding to any of first 4 pharmacological entities like Rasa, guna, virya vipaka is known as shakthi or prabhava, the special effect.

    Dravya, guna, karma will have similarity is genesis usually due to panchamahabhootha configuration. This is because similar will produce similarly. However, it need not be compulsory always. When there is equality or similarity there will be sajatheeya karma will occur ( samana prathyarabdha) otherwise vijatheeya karma will occur ( vidhitra prathyarabdha).

    If we consider prabhava as karma; karma  can not produce another karma so it is not possible to consider prabhava as karma. Hence it is concluded that prabhava is shakthi. It is sadhana for particular karma. Totally it can be considered as Dravya swabhava which is Achintya ( unpredictable) and vishista karma or specific or special action of the Dravya.


    Totally the prabhava in Ayurveda, can be considered as specific and special power of the Dravya it is also called a shakthi, Achinthya virya swabhava of the dravya. The prabhava can be considered as the property which is responsible for the specific or peculiar action of dravya which is unpredictable. This is the total concept of prabhava which is nothing but a special or specific property or power of the dravya.

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    Ayurvedic Treatments/ therapies

    What are Ayurvedic Treatments and Therapies – An Introduction

    ayurvedic treatments

    The main aim of Ayurveda is the preservation of Swasthya (health) and cure of ailments. The object of Ayurvedic treatments is to restore the patient’s natural balance of doshas. The main discipline in the practice of Ayurvedic medicine consists of two primary procedures- Brimhana and Langhana. Brimhana is nourishing and Langhana is reducing the body. Most of the diseases need langhana type of management. Langhana is of two types- Shamana (palliation) and Shodhana (purification).


    When aggravation of doshas and accumulation of doshas are mild, they can be pacified by appropriate Samana medicines or treatment procedures. These comprise of Deepana-pachana drugs (Amapachana), Trit (restriction of fluid intake), Maruta sevana (exposure to fresh air), Atapa sevana (sunbath), Upavas (fasting), Vyayama (proper exercise). Since the elimination of root cause is not completely possible by these methods, the chances of recurrence are more.


    The elimination therapy is employed when the vitiated doshas are more, or in other words the accumulation of impurities at an extreme level. Different methods are described for elimination, which suit to different disease conditions- Vamana (emesis), Virechana (purgation), Nasya (nasal medication), Vasti (medicated enema), and Raktamokshana (blood letting).


    The group of five purification measures comprising of Vamana, Virechana, Vasti, Nasya and Raktamokshana are technically termed as Panchakarma in Ayurveda. Pancha means five and Karma means action. These are bio cleansing procedures used in Ayurveda. By these methods the toxins accumulated and adhered to the body channels (shrotas), due to derangement of doshas are expelled through the natural orifices of the body. (By Vamana through mouth, by Virechana and Vasti through anus and by Nasya through nostrils).

    Since these are major operations (Pradhana karma), they require preoperative and post-operative procedures. The preoperative procedures are known as poorvakarmas. Snehana (oleation) and Svedana (sudation) are the two major preoperative measures. By snehana vitiated doshas adhere to the channels (Shrotas), tissues (Dhatus) and organs are moisturized and transformed in to a form suitable for elimination. Svedana is intended to liquefy the doshas and lead them to the gastro intestinal tract (Mahashrotas). After this, by administering appropriate Panchakarma, doshas are expelled through the nearest natural orifice of the body.

    Then by using specific post operative measures, prescribed for each karmas, the body regains normalcy.