Ayurveda Basics

Last updated on: November 27th, 2018

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What is Dravya according to Ayurveda

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

The first mentioning of Dravyaguna is traceable from  the description of Charaka who defined Ayurveda as the science which deals with Dravyaguna (Ayurvedic pharmacology) and Karmas (actions of drugs or pharmaco-kinetics) of helpful and harmful material. (CH. SU. 30). Dravya Guna Shastra has been identified as a separate speciality by Narahari, the author of Raj Nighantu (17 A.D.)


Acharya Priyavrata Sharma defined Dravyaguna shastra as the branch which deals with the property action and therapeutic effects of various dravyas((drugs).

Actually, Ayurveda does not advocate the concept of pharmacology and therapeutics separately, it advocates the concept of pharmacotherapeutics and clinical pharmacology .

Dravyaguna does not agree with universal truth, but it is based on the principle of thesis truth.These principles have been derived through knowledge experience,repeated elucidation of findings.

The two main goals of Ayurveda are –

  1. To protect the health of a healthy person .
  2. To eradicate the disease.

These two goals will be achieved with the help of dravya.

  • The imbalance of the body can be treated with the help of panchabhouthika dravya. (Su su 42)
  • The versatile action of a drug can be explained as follow based on dosage. Even an acute poison can become an excellent drug if it is properly administrated. Even a drug if not administered properly can become a poison .

Sapta Padartha

Bhavamishra (16-17 AD) quoted about the five constituents of a dravya viz Rasa, Virya, Vipaka, Guna and Prabhava. Adding dravya and karma to the above five, Acharya Yadavji Trikamji mentioned about sapta padartha .

DRAVYA (Drug)-

A substance which possesses Guna (property) and Karma (action) with inheritance relation is known as Dravya.

  1. RASA (Taste)- The property perceived through the taste buds is known as  Rasa.
  2. GUNA (Physical property)

It is the property which will have an inherent reaction with dravya but remains inactive.


This may be considered as the pharmacologically active ingredient of the drug which performs pharmacological activities.

  • Read The Concept of Veerya in Ayurveda

VIPAKA (Drug Metabolism)-

It is a property of a drug which is responsible for the change in original taste on exposing to GIT enzymes.

  • Read The Concept of Vipaka in Ayurveda

PRABHAVA (Non-Specific Activity)-

When a drug produces an effect which is not in accordance with the constituent is called as prabhava.

KARMA (Pharmacological Action)-

The inseparable relation for association and dissociation of the drug in exhibiting its action is called as karma.


The properties and action have no identity or existence without the substance and the substance has no identification without the properties and action. In a broad sense, any substance or mixture of substance intended to be used internally or externally for the preservation of fortification of health and for the prevention mitigation or cure of disease either man or another animal is called as Dravya. (Ch.su. 9/3)

Chikitsa Chatuspada – The four aspects of Therapeutics are the physician, patient, medicament and attendee. They are responsible for the cure of disease.

According to Charaka, there is no any substance in the world which may not be used as a medicine.

The drugs (dravya) perform a certain action in the body by virtue of its properties (guna) which exists in a state of co-inherent. This uniformity of the drug on other hand form the basis of the principle of similar and dissimilar. These principles imply that the predominant proto-element of the drug will increase similar proto-element in the body dissimilar will decrease the dissimilarity.

Thus the six padharta gets a practical application in Dravya Guna Dravya holds the position of prominence in this six padharta of ayurveda .

Derivation of Dravya –

  • The word dravya is derived from “Dru Gato Dhatu”.
  • The word Dru means origin and Gato mean movement, knowledge.

Defination of Dravyas-

  • Dravya is having, function & qualities with samavaya sambandha. (vi & su )
  • Dravya is having a base for karma & guna. They both defined on dravya with samavaya sambandha. (Ch su 1 )
  • Dravya is one on which the rasa etc 5 factors depends. Ex. Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, parbhava. (Bhavamishra)
  • Five factors- Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, prabhava depends on dravyas. (Rasa vaisheshika )
  • The lakshana of dravya is that the guna & karma is on it with samvaya sambandha. (Yoga ratanakara).
  • Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, prabhava these all in a combination defined on dravya.   (Nagarjuna).
  • In this context, Chakarapani explained that guna term includes Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, prabhava etc. (Chakrapani).
  • The one in which guna & karma are present with is called as dravya. (Dr. gu. su.)

Charaka quotes an example that, “a drug is like a fabric material and its properties and action are like the yarn of the fabric.” Though the definition of dravya given by Charaka is intended for Karma dravyas the same is applicable to Karya dravya.

The drug will show different Gunas – Karmas when used in therapeutics.

Badhanta Nagarjuna defined dravya as a set of operation for the activates of rasa, guna, virya & vipaka.

Concept of Panchamahabhuta in Dravya

For Ayurveda, panchabhuta theory is important as chemistry is for modern medicine. There is evidence about five elements theory in the western medicine during ancient times.

  1. Bhuta is defined as the matter which proves its existence through certain characteristic feature or it is the factors which produce all the inorganic and organic material. (Ra.va.)
  2. Sushruta mentioned about the process of conversion of food into body constituents through the action of Agni. (Su.su 46/80)
  3. Charaka concludes that all the objects in the universe are composed of Panchabhutas. (Ch.su26/10)
  4. Here Chakarapani clarified that the karya dravyas are only panchbhoutika but not karana dravyas.
  5. With this background, Sushruta correctly defined that the treatment ultimately depends on Panchamahabutas. (Su.sa.1/9)
  6. The body will need a diet which in turn composed of mahabhutas. Therefore they will undergo & improves respective biochemical equivalent in the body. (Su.sa1/9)
  7. The main difference is that explains their concept on the basis of Paramanu (atom) & Trisrenu whereas Sankhya explains as Tanmatra & mahabhuta which is also accepted in Ayurveda. Text mention that 2 parmanu become dvayanuka & 3 dvayanuka will make a trisrenuka. However, it is accepted by both the philosophy about physical & chemical characteristic one by one..(Su.sa1/9)
  8. It is stated that the creation begins with Ayurveda or Prakriti which is imperceivable in nature. In biochemistry, it is known as cosmic energy coming from the galaxy. The inline energy of the universe in its results only. After we have ahankara with the fragments viz vikarika, tejas, bhutadi. These 3 will represent the move stable energy particles i.e. proton, Rough is electron & is neutron. These 3 together known as trividha ahankara. Since satva is a source of positive energy. Scientifically, in modern Physiology all the motor and sensory function are the results of +ve & -ve ions across a membrane either depolarization by means exchange of +ve charged Cu+, K+, Na+, etc. or negatively charge CL, O, etc. results in bodily activities. The same is the basis for considering Satva & Rajas for Ekaadasha Indriya (11 senses).
  9. Panchamahabhuta mainly indicates the physical properties of matter or atom while Panchatanmatras mainly indicate the chemical properties of the atom along with physical properties have a linear or vertical expansion like the group in the periodic table.
  10. These five elements in the form of five compounds are a major constituent of the body. They are CO2, CH3, PO3, H2O, & NH3.
  11. It is mentioned in the classics that all minutest level have their individual characteristic like Shabda etc. There features add one to another as the evolution of bhutas complete. This process of quantification is denoted as Anyonapravesha or Panchpanchi karana in Ayurveda & Vedanta respectively. (Ch.sh. 1/27-28)
  12. As Avayakta is inactive, activity is provided by Purusha. This may be compared to the kinetic energy of the atom.


The action of the drug is intimately related to its chemical structure in the form of the preponderance of one or two proto – elements in them. Even during digestion or metabolism, there is always a chemical reaction leading to conjugation of molecules in drug showing different action in different stages.

The drug will show its proper effect if it is used at the proper time and after taking into consideration of different factors. Some of the substance which is chemical to the body element tends to disagree with the system and will cause different side effects. So after appropriate consideration, only one should use the drug for getting the desired effects.

The knowledge of dravya is very important, not only in Ahara (food) aspect but also in the Aushadha (drug) aspect because of its pancha bhoutikta. If the drug is not known then it can be compared with poision, fire, and thunderbolt. But if anyone knows about it then it acts like a nectar. (Raj nighantu)

A drug acts by its potency. Different drug has different arrangement of five proto elements in terms of weight, number and configuration. The drug shows different action at a different stage. But sometimes, the action of a substance cannot be explained and for them, we will give the name of Prabhava of substance. eg; effect of different stones on Graha (planets).

The drug mentioned by Charaka in Gana produces similar action individually and also in combination. But it is not in the case as explained by Sushruta. These drugs cannot give individually similar effect what is given by them in combination. This is the beauty of Dravya and Ayurveda.

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How to collect and preserve Ayurvedic raw material

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Dravya Sangrahana (collection) and Samrakshana (preservation)

Collection and preservation of Ayurvedic raw material is well explained in Ayurvedic texts. Ayurveda is a science of life and art of living the knowledge of life science bestowed health and longevity in the form of preventive and curative measures. Dravyaguna is a branch of science which deals with all drugs used in the treatment of diseases, their source, collection, preservation, preparation dosages and uses.

ayurvedic raw material

Collection of specific drugs played utmost role in Ayurveda.  In Ayurveda has considered that all the drugs are made up of pancha mahabhoota.  Therefore, due consideration should be given to the type of land, soil, direction, users, etc.  The herbs should also have some characters, not affected by smoke, rain, air or water and also collected in respective season.  Drugs must have single predominant taste, well developed, strong such drug may be collected preserve for therapeutic utility.

After collection of the drugs as mentioned above, preservation and protection is equally important.  Otherwise the drugs once spoiled cannot be used in treatment. Drugs are maintained in a sound condition by adopting proper storage and a study of the causes of deterioration enables one to perceive the general principle which must govern the condition of storage.  Drugs need preservation for future use in treatment.

Optimal timing for usage

There is a limitation for the development of every food and medicinal plant.  Time consideration is important for plants.  Any plant unless fully grown and completely developed does not acquire its attributes of properties and actions mentioned in the books are those of the mature plants, immature plants, if used, do not show the desired effects.  Some drugs matue in summer, some in winter and rest in the rainy season, flowering and fruiting makes the plant rich in its properties.

Latex of a plant should be collected before sunrise.  Milky juice of cactus is never collected before the plant is two to three years old.  Consideration of time for such collection method is important.  To observe the effect of a drug on the body, every second, minute, hour, morning, afternoon, evening, month, year, etc. ae considered.  Similarly, in the patient, various stages of digestion like aam, semi-digestion, full digestion, prerigor sage, pyretic stage, etc. are also important.

Drugs – their collection & preservation

Ayurveda has considered that all the drugs are made up of Panchamahabhootas.

Substances of any use, medicinal or dietary are intimately related to the type of land in which they are produced.  Therefore, due consideration should be given to the type of land, i.e., soil, land, which ultimately determines the Gunakarma of Dravyas,  produced in it, it is classified into 5 types.  Though soil is Panchamahabhoota, its composition in relation to individual Mahabhoota varies at different places, hence the change in properties and action.

Parthiv – This type of soil containing stones, is hard, black, with tall tries and grass.

Aapya  – This soil is of different colours, full of small stones, brownish white coloured and grassy.

Tejas    – Dry, ash coloured, trees scatered dry, hollow and grassy.

Vavyaveeya    – This soil is soft but uneven, water tasteless, trees of useless varities, large mountains and blackish colour.

Soil & water are responsible for the formation of Rasa just as Panchamahabhootas forms various dravyas, herbs, shrubs and climbers continuously ingest water.  Water is devoid of Rasa but it is expressed in climbers and plants because of contact with the soil.  Therefore, soil and environment become important factor while considering the dravyas.

As all the medicinal dravyas from various sources are related to soil, its study for fertility and usefulness becomes essential.

Infertile land, uneven pits, deep trenches, collection of dirty and waste water, heaps of ant hills, funeral place, temples and desert land are indicative of infertile land.

Fertile land – land having even surface, salt less near pond or late, where grass grows, soft black, white or red color without cultivation containing only medicinal plants and no other vegetation, jungle and sadharan land is considered to be fertile.

The possibility of underground gold, silver, iron or copper can be judged by the habitat and growth of plants in that region.  It is also rational to think that the same Guna  acquired from the metals into the plants would be useful as medicine.

Irrespective of the type of the crude drug and the area of collection, these can be two options that the drug should be collected when they contain maximum concentration of active constituents.  The advantage of the environmental conditions is also taken into consideration while collecting the crude drugs.  The drug which constitute leaf and the flowering tops are collected just before they reach flowering stage (maturity).

eg; Senna digitalis, vinca, belladonna, etc., the leaves of the aloe are collected when they are sufficiently thick, flowers need to be collected just before pollen or before their full blooming.

eg; saffron, clove buds, chamomite, etc. the barks are generally collected in the spring or early summer when the combium is active as it is easy to detach them from the stem.  Sometimes, they are collected in autumn (wild cherry) or in rainy season (cinnamon), fruits are collected just before their dehiscence of bael and tamarind after their fully maturity while caraway, fennel and coriander are collected when they are fully ripe.  Rhizomes are collected after full vegetative growth of plants, ginger and turmeric.  The roots are collected in spring.  Before the vegetative procedure stops, Rhizomes and roots are collected when they store ample of reserve food material and maximum contents of chemical constituent.  The unorganized drug such are resins, gums and lattices are collected as soon as they ooze out of the plant.  The general opinion is that the time of collection should coincide with the time when the active ingredients are at their maximum level.  They should also be free from insect infestation.

Drugs  preservation

Drugs need preservation for future use in treatment.  The should be easily available.  A drug used as medicine should not come in contact with bacteria, insects, poison, instruments, smoke, sunshine, air, fire and water.  Plants with deep and thick rooks, fulfilling the essential properties of rasa, guna, colour, smell and proportion and plants grown in favourable season are suitable for proper preservation and treatment of diseases.

In India, the Himalayas lie towards the north and there is a belief that moon which is the guardian of the north is the ruler of plant kingdom.  Therefore, plants gown in the Himalayas and in the northern region, are considered of the best quality and their use is advocated.

The use of Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus and Herpestis moniera are advocated in fresh form and therefore should not be preserved.

Honey, piper longum and embelia ribes should be used after preserving these for one year.  The time is required for their maximum efficacy.

Method of drug preservation

For collecting the plants grown in suitable soil as mentioned above, a person should pluck or uproot the plant after a bath wearing white clothes, mind stabilized by reciting shlokas, praying to gods, Ashwinikumaras, cow, brahmin and faithfully facing the north or east direction.  East indicates vitalizing the plant energy through the sun and north is the symbol of the moon, the ruler of plants.  Similarly, regarding time, pushya nakshatra, ashwin nakshatra and mriga nakshatra are considered to be superior.  Moon being the ruler of pushya and mriga nakshatra, it (moon) transferred its properties into the plant during these nakshatra.  This must be related to aptopadesha.

Just as man is controlled by cosmos, plants ae also under the influence of the cosmos.  Therefore, the study of environment for their preservation is essential.  Plants collected in the rainy season always tend to perish, therefore rainy season is unsuitable for preservation.  Also perennial plants are immature in their Rasas during rainy season.  Generally some are plucked at the end of winter and some at the end of autumn since they are fully enriched with their Rasas.

Specific period of preservation

While preserving the plant, its useful parts should also be given due importance.  Generally, the part or the specific portion which is considered for use, must grow full – maturity.

According to Rajagnighantu, Tuber – Hemant, Root – Shishir, Flower – Vasant, Leaves – Greeshma & Panchang Sharad.

According to some other acharyas, root – pravrutt, leaves – varsha, bark – sharad, latex – hemant, juice vasant, fruit greeshama.

Useful parts- Period

Branches- Rainy season or autumn

Leaves- Rainy season or autumn

Root- Summer or winter

Bark, Tuber & Latex- End of summer or the beginning of winter, latex of calotropies procera to be collected at the beginning of summer and End of winter.

Flower, fruit- Blossom and fruiting period of the specific plants.

Veerya in drug procurement

Above mentioned seasonal view may not be useful while considering veerya.  Instead of considering specific parts in specific season for drug collection due importance should be given to its veerya.  Sheeta veerya drugs which possess madhur snigdha & sheeta gunas should be collected during visargakala while ushna veerya drug which possess tikta, ruksha & ushna, properties must be collected in adan kala.

Consideration of  karma in drug procurement

Similar to veerya, consideration of the action of drug is also important.  To bring about effective purgation, the drug must be collected from the soil containing prithvi & jala mahabhootas which have a tendency to move downwards.  Similarly, for emesis, the drug should be collected from soil predominantly containing agni and vayu mahabhootaswhich tend to move downwards.  Drug acting for both the purposes must be collected from soil containing akash Mahabhoota so that the expected action is achieved.

Sharangdhar mentions that for emetic and purgative action drug should be collected at the end of vasant ritu and for rest of the action in the sharad rutu but the best period is when they are enriched with their Rasa.

Collection of dietary item

Food contains different part of plants like fruit, tuber, seed, panchang, etc. – Sushruta has laid down the following guidelines:

Fruit – Only ripe (not raw or over ripe), fruit are collected.  the exception is Aegle marredes which is collected in a raw form which is very effective fruits which are diseased, insect affected, untimely grown, affected by fire or cold or artificially ripened ae not to be collected.

Vegetables – over ripe, worms and insect affected, spoilt, grown in dirty soil, untimely tasteless and dried vegeable should not be collected (exception is raddish).  Vegetables which are soft, maatue, unspoilt, grown in proper season and soil are wet are advocated for consumption.

Kanda – Tuber which are raw, untimely grown, old, diseased and eaten by insects should be discarded.  They should be well nourished, timely grown and pest-free.

Cereals – Cereals which are affected by too much heat or cold fire, poisonous gases, insect affected, wet grown in unsuitable soil, untimely, with other cereals and valueless should be discarded and those of suitable quantity must be collected.

Collection of drugs of animal origin

Similar consideration must be given to the collection of drugs of animal origin.  Animals from whom blood, hair or nails are to be collected, must be fully grown.  (These animals mature at ¼ th the age of the total life span of the species..  this span varies with different species.)  Similarly, milk, urine, etc. of animals should be collected after complete digestion of their food.

Preservation of drugs

After collection of the drug as mentioned above, preservation and protection is equally important, otherwise the drugs once spoiled cannot be used in treatment for this season, the drugs in the store room must be protected from wet soil, dust, water, fire, smoke, dirt, vapour, rats, cockroaches, ants, flies, etc.  Even the containers like vessels, jars, drum, etc. must be such that they will not affect the rasa, properties and action of drugs.

Efficacy of sheeta veerya drugs increases if kept in cold storage or refrigerator.  At least it will not decrease.  In olden days, such medicines were kept in earthen pots, coconut kernel, covering of hard fruits and brass vessels.  But now many varieties of containers are available where it can be protected in a better way.

Potency period of the drug

The main aim of collection and preservation of the drug is to maintain its potency by conserving its properties and action.  Even the best selected and protected medicine loses its effectiveness after a certain period.  Generally they are potent for one year.  Therefore, a proper label giving the date of manufacture, batch number and the expiry date must be attached.

The successful preservation of drug depends on air, changing seasons, container and packaging.  Then the potency of a drug will be preserved for a longer period.  Sunshine, humid air, rainy season, torn or open container immediately depotentiate the drug, making it ineffective.

Preservation of fresh and dried specimens

Different methods are followed for preserving dry and green plants.  This is useful for identification.

Leaves of the plant in intact condition must be pressed between two sheets of blotting paper to absorb humidity.  Then they must be stuck or stitched to the paper, treated with liquid hydrogen perchloride or clipped in gelatine and then dried.  This process helps preservation for a longer period.

Better than this method is the preparation of mega slides.  It maintains the natural colour, appearance and shape of the specimen and hence it is more suitable.

Method of preserving the specimen of plants in natural state

(Dr. Mrs. Shyamalatai Chitale’s technique)

  1. Branch of a tree or a creeper bearing leaves and flowers or small sprout with the primary root is collected and immediately dipped for 5 minutes in the mixture mentioned below.  If the flowers and leaves are too delicate for the mixture then the sample must be sprinkled with the mixture and then spread on blotting paper for 1-2 hours under pressure.  The mixture is prepared by 5 to 1- gms. of tannin powder dissolved in 500 ml of water boiled and filtered and preserved in glass or stainless steel container or jar with a tight lid.
  2. 10 gm. of camphor & 10 gm. of menthol are mixed with equal quantity of castor oil and kerosene to make up to one litre.  Camphor & menthol take 10-15 minutes to dissolve uniformly in the mixture.  The solution should be applied to a paper with help of a brush and then spread over the sample.  Another paper is kept on the sample after spreading it with the mixture.  Then the sample is wrapped between the two papers.  A hot iron is used to dry the sample by pressing the upper paper which is removed repeatedly to test the dryness of sample.  Then it is transferred between the cloth fold and again a hot iron press is used to absorb the remaining moisture by the cloth.  Left over solution makes the sealing of the sample in a polythene bag , difficult.
  3. A sample prepared in the manner described above is scaled in a polythene bag for the process, a sample is kept between two polythene sheets of required thickness and then transferred between the fold of the cloth bag.  A hot iron press is applied over the cloth.  The two polythene paper stick together because of the pressure and heat applied.  While sealing the polythene bag it is repeatedly observed that excess of heat is prevented which may burn or wrinkle the polythene bags.  Practice, experience and a use of proper hot press makes the sealing optimum. Principles of this method and its advantages – Tannic acid is the best preservative of the colour even then excess of acid may change the colour, for example,  Hibiscus rosa sinesis change from red to voilet many times. Citric acid is used along with tannic acid to preserve the red colour.  Application of lemon juice over the hibiscus flower for 3-4 minutes induces dehydration and pressure the rend colour of the flowers.
  4. Pressure and artificial heat of the hot press dehydrates the sample rapidly.  Infiltration of this oily mixture helps to preserve and protect the colour of the plants.  Oily mixture also makes the sample transparent for examination of the internal structure as well as protect it from insects and fungi.
  5. Oil mixture makes the sample soft and elastic sealed polythene bag protects it from becoming friable and also makes it easier to observe the sample from both dorsal and ventral surfaces.  This transparent sample can be better studied under the microscope.  Overall, it helps to identify the sample in an easy way.

Chitale’s technique is the best modern preservative method to study plants.  Even then the old method of preservation should be known and was as follows:-

Collected fresh and wet leaves after cleaning and drying were kept between two sheets of blotting paper under pressure in a frame.  Humidity is absorbed by the blotting paper and the required aeration is given by opening the press intermittently.  Wet paper is also changed frequently.  By this process, the sample dries subsequently it can be glued or tied to drawing paper before this process it is treated with a solution of 1:1000 hydrogen perchloride to protect it from insects, mites and fungus.

In this method, even after following all the precautions, the natural colour fades and gets spoiled by air after some days.  Rainy season is not suitable for preservation by this method as no precaution can prevent fungal growth in this season.  Best season is between October & June.

The process of preservation of fresh plants

Green wet plants dipped in 5-10% formalin in an air tight jar remains for many years in the original form which can be used for identification of the plant.  For medicinal use, these plants are incorporated in formulations which are based on honey oil or ghee, fruits and vegetables are preserved in air tight jars, wet plants can be preserved in polythene bags for a long duration (needs scientific research).

While preserving fresh power or tablets the old ones must be discarded completely to prevent the danger of using non-effective drugs.  Wet & fresh vegetables can be preserved for 7-8 days in air tight plastic bags.

Ref: Sushruta sutra 37/12-13

Drugs whether fresh or old and emitting a contrary smell or in any way affected as regards their natural sap or juice should not be used for pharmaceutical purposed.  The virtues of such medicinal drugs and substance such as vidanga, pippali, madhu improve (after a year).  Accordingly, all drugs and medicinal herbs excepting the preceding ones should be used fresh and unsoiled or uninjured by insects.

Guidelines regarding collection of individual plant parts

1. Stem – This is ideally collected when the plant has reached maturity and full growth.  The special period for the harvesting of stem is when the interior part is collected after 20 years.  Guduchi should be at least 2 years old before collected.

2. Stem bark – should be collected in Sharad rutu.

3. Fruit – are collected according to yielding season and when they achieve full growth and maturity. Eg: Amalaki fruits which can be dried and preserved.  those which are used fresh.

4. Branches – should be collected when the tree is shedding its leaves as in cold season.  eg: Teja patra.

5. Root – Grishma  season

6. Flowers – should be collected during vasantha ruthu since this is the flowering season.  However, there are many exceptions like Kutaja tree flowers during the Varsha rutu and jasmine flowers during Grishma rutu.

Generally speaking, flowers should be collected according to the season when they bloom.

7. Leaves – tender leaves should be collectd during vasantha ruthu and well grown mature leaves should be collected during vasantha ruthu.  Generally the leaves should be collected before the following season:

Special direction for collection

When the roots are very big and thick the roots bark should be collected.  eg., Brahat panchamula are to be collected the innermost part of the stem, i.e. the sara has to be collected.

Collection of herb according to their potency

Collection schedule of different part of the drug

  1. Underground parts should be collected after shedding to facilitate regeneration.
  2. Generally collected in autumn in 1st year of growth or in spring before the beginning of 2nd year growth as root and other underground parts are the storage organ and accumulate active principle during the summer.
  3. Do least cligging for the collection of underground parts.
  4. Tubers/bulbs should be collected during flowering because this aids in identification of the species.
  5. Bark should be harvested from mature plants during spring or autumn because this time when the flow of sap is at maximum and bark radically detached from the wood.
  6. Collected from the branches instead of main trunk.
  7. Do not harvest when plant is sprouting.
  8. Do not peel whole bark of plant.
  9. Strip the bark longitudinally and not all over the circumference to trunk / branches.
  10. Cut into small pieces to facilitate complete drying .
  11. Do not remove all the branches of plant.
  12. Harvest only mature branches for stem.
  13. Dry the herbs properly before packing and storing.
  14. Leaves, flowers, fruit seeds and floral should be harvested when they are mature.


A preservative is a substance which is added to pharmaceutical formulations to prevent or inhibit the growth of micro organism in the preparations.  They are added to all formulations which are to be stored for long period of time and the ingredients of which support microbial growth.  The emulsions and suspensions (eg., Phanta, Kvatha) containing H2O and carbohydrates as emulsifying and suspending agents respectively must be suitably preserved because water and carbohydrates provide very good medium for the multiplication of bacteria and molds.

A preservative is unnecessary in multi dose containers prepared by heating with bactericide because they already contain a lethal substance, nor they are necessary in preparations which contain medicament having bactericidal properties.

Choice of preservative

  • It should be effective against a wide rage of microorganisms.
  • It should be compatible with other ingredients of the formation.
  • It should be soluble in aqueous phase when used in emulsion.
  • It should be non-toxic.
  • It should be free from odour and taste.
  • It should preserve the preparation and remain stable for the shelf life of the products.

No single preservative possess all the qualities, therefore it becomes necessary to use a combination of preservatives to prevent the growth of microorganisms.  The most commonly used preservatives are as follows:-

  1. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate 0.1 to 0.2%
  2. Salicylic acid 0.1%
  3. Phenol 0.2 – 0.5%
  4. Chlorocresol 0.05 – 0.1%
  5. Alcohol 15 – 20%
  6. Chlorobutanol 0.5%
  7. Phenylmercuric nitrate 0.002 – 0.005%
  8. Scorbic acid & its salt 0.05 – 0.2%
  9. Benzalkonium chloride 0.004 – 0.02%
  10. Methyl paraben & propyl paraben 0.1 – 0.2%
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Shastrokta Rasa shala – Classical Ayurvedic pharmacy set up

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Rasa shala= Bheshajgara= Ayurvedic Pharmacy


In Ayurvedic pharmacology, pharmacy is a well advanced branch.  Crude drugs are rarely administered, various formulations ranging from simple distillates (arka), decoctions (Kwatha), linctus (leha, avaleha) and powders (churna) to elaborate pharmaceutical preparations like pills of different sizes and medicated oils are available.  In liquid formulation too a wide range exists.  These are swarara kwatha, phanta and alcoholic extracts.  The potency is highest in fresh juice and lowest in cold water.

ayurvedic pharmacyBefore entering into the selection and processing of aushadhi for therapeutic purpose, it is necessary to get acquainted about the selection of place and construction of the pharmacy.

Construction of Ayurvedic Pharmacy

While selecting a place for the establishment of a pharmacy and during construction, following points should be kept in view:

1. It should be free from impediments – both man-made and providential.

2. Green & dried herbs should be available in the campus or nearby or they can be cultivated and stored inside.

3. It should look beautiful and be located near the sources of water like well, ponds and river.

4. The area should be surrounded by a boundary wall.

5. The statue of Rasa Bhairava should be located in the eastern side.

6. In agni kona (south-east direction) fire place should be located in the southern side.

7. Equipment for trituration, making paste, etc., should be located in the southern side.

8. Nairutya kona (place in the south-east direction) should be used for manufacturing and storing yantra (cooking equipment).

9. The place in western side should be used for washing.

10. Green herbs and freshly prepared medicines should be dried in the vayuvya kona.

11. The place in the northern side should be used for processing mercury and other metals as well as minerals.

12. Bhasma (processed fine powders of mercury, metals and minerals) tablets, medicated oils, medicated ghee, linctus should be stored in the house located in the ishana kona (north eastern direction).

Equipment & raw drugs used in Ayurvedic pharmacy

The following equipment and raw drugs which are frequently required should be stored in the pharmaceutical laboratory:

1. Pestles &  mortars of  different size and shape.  These are made of either stone or iron or crystals.

2. Bottles, pots, cups, plates, utensils & jars made of glass, mud, wood as well as metals for storing raw drugs and finished products.

3. Equipment like forceps, spatula, spoon, knife, scissors, sieves, crucibles & yantras.

4. Weighing machines and balances of different capacity & shape.

5. Different types of fuel like wood, cow-dung cake, coal, charcoal & husk.

6. Mercury, other metals, minerals, drugs of vegetable origin, animal products, poisons of vegetable origin, salts, alkalies, gems & jewels.

Plan for pharmacy

According to modern pharmaceutics, the pharmacy should be constructed near to hospital.  The space and equipment required for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals depends on the number and type of products to be prepared and the processes involved in the production.  Since each dosage from required specialized production equipment and techniques, there may be separate areas of production for tablets, capsules, liquids, ointments and parenteral preparation, etc.  In the manufacture of all sorts of preparations, various steps are involved which require space and special equipment.  The total pharmacy is planned in the form of square shape, it will be divided into two parts the space is allowed for the passage.  In one part, the total area is divided into three divisions, first division is meant for sterilization purpose which is called aseptic section.  Second division contains different machines related with manufacturing of medicines.  The next division is divided further into three parts in one part raw material is stored, in second part, the semi processed raw materials will be stored and on the third part the finished products will be stored.

The second major division of the pharmacy is again further divided into one small part and large part in small part the administrative unit is arranged , the large part contains different types of counters meant for dispense different types of medicines this part also includes reception.

Factory premises

1. Manufacturer should have adequate space

a) Receiving & storing raw materials (it may be animal / herbal origin).

b) It should have adequate space for manufacturing process area.

Eg. In Ayurvedic pharmacy they prepare taila, Aasava, Arista, etc. there are some particular places are mentioned for preparation of pisti there should be 100 sq.ft. for

Churna, Aasva, Arista – 200 sq.ft.

Kajjali – 100 sq.ft.

Syrups – 150 sq.ft.

All the section of these preparation should be separately made.

c) Each Ayurvedic pharmacy / factory should have adequate space for quality control.  Each and every batch of medicine should be experimented by giving to animals.  This is known the efficiency of medicine.

d) Should have adequate space for finished good store.  The finished product should be stored in well hygienic place.

1. Adequate space for rejected gods / drugs.  By quality control some of the products of medicines are rejected.  Even the breakage goods should be discarded.  Even some of the raw materials also rejected.

2. Location & surroundings

Medicine should be prevented by contamination products like –

  • Open sewage
  • drainage
  • public factory which produces some dust fumes or some chemical gases.

3. Buildings

Some minimum standard of materials should be used to construct a building.

The building should have –

  • Adequate light and ventilation
  • The walls should not be damped, i.e., moisture which may spoil the medicine.

Arrangement of section is done to avoid the mixing of some drugs contamination, etc.  Thus the building should be like this where no step of manufacture should be missed.

4. Building should be constructed such a way that the insect, worms should not enter.

5. Flooring should be smooth and even, should not permit the accumulation of dust and waste product

  • water supply
  • disposal of waste
  • workers health
  • some records should be maintained
  • record of market complaints.

In ancient day certain rules and regulations, to construct pharmacy, they constructed in such a way that they give importance to all things like raw drug collection, preservation and preparation.  It is adopted in 1940 June 22.

The concept of ancient, modern pharmacy are same but techniques are different:

6. Water supply

Water used in manufacture of medicine should be pure and potable quality, adequate, provision of water supply.

7. Disposal of waste

There should be separate chamber for disposal of waste.  To avoid the contamination of the medicine, the waste should be disposed in such a way that it should not hamper the environment.

8. Containers cleaning

In pharmacy some containers like bottle, jars, vessels, there should be adequate arrangement to wash clean and drying of the containers and such others.

9. Stores

Storage should have proper ventilation and free from dampness.

It should have adequate space for storage of raw material:

  • package material
  • finished products

10. Raw materials are of different category:

  • metallic origin
  • mineral origin
  • animal sources
  • fresh herbs & dry herbs

11. Packing materials

Bottles, jars, capsules

All packing materials should be moist free.

12. Finished goods store

means the prepared medicine, packed labelled finished goods are dispatched from the production area and this is moved to approved goods store are and then it should be marketed. Along with this a minimum quality standard of equipment should be used in the preparation of medicine.

13. Batch manufacturing records.

Record of market complaints through some medical representatives, the medicine is dispatched.  The medical representatives should consult with the physician and then it is dispatched to the market.

Quality control section

1. Quality control section shall verify all the raw materials, monitor in process quality checks and control the quality of finished product being released to finished good store.  Preferable for such quality control there should be separate expert quality control section.

2. For identification of raw drugs, reference book and reference sample should maintain.  Manufacturing record should maintain for various process.

3. To verify the finished product controlled sample of finished product of each batch will be kept for 3 years.

4. Manufacturers who are manufacturing patent proprietary ayurveda medicine shall provide their own specification and control references in respect of such formulation drug.

5. The record of specific method and procedure of operation i.e., Bhasma, Mardana, Puta of every process carried out by the manufacture shall be maintained.

6. The standards for identity, purity and strength as given in respective pharmacopoeias of Ayurveda system of medicine published by Govt. of India shall be compiled with.

7. All the new material will be monitored for fungal, bacterial contamination with a view to minimize such contamination.

8. Quality control section will have minimum of 1 person with degree qualification in Ayurveda as per Schedule II of Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1990 of a recognised university or Board provided the Bachelor of Pharmacy, Pharmacognacy & Chemistry may be associated with quality control section.

A site for the Ayurvedic pharmacy is chosen where there is no obstacle of any kind where all medicinal herbs are available which is beneficial and beautiful to look at and consists of a well pharmacy building is built at the north position and north-west portion or eastern part of a site this Rasashala should be equipped with all kind of equipment and is beautiful to look at and should be surrounded with the compounds.

Rasa Bhairava is installed at the eastern side of the pharmacy all the instrument relating to fire work are assembled at the southern part grinding work is performed.  An arrangement is made for the process using sharp instrument at the south west position of pharmacy.  In the western region, there should be facility for all kinds of cleaning, washing, etc. drying operation should be done at north western corners and the vedha karma is carried out at southern region of pharmacy.  At north eastern part, arrangement is made for storage of prepared medicine as well as raw mineral drug.

Equipment & Raw Drugs

All the equipment such as Kosti like Satava Pathana, Pathala Kosti, , water storage tank or container of different stage or Vastrika metalic and bamboo, pipes, vessels and utensils of gold, iron, copper, bronze, leather and many other useful instrument equipment as well as material drugs, etc. are collected and stored in the pharmacy.  Similarly, different type of Peshani, Droni, kinds of mortars and suitable pestles, the sieves consisting 1000 of tiny holes for filtering of liquid, knives and such other things are kept, ready in the Ayurvedic pharmacy apart from these mud used for preparation of Musa, tula,  cotton, cow-dung cakes, floor and all the 3 kind of drugs are stored also coal dried cow-dung powder, sand bottle made of glass mud, etc., should be preserved in the pharmacy various type of pot and vessels specially for heating, cooking the medicine and large knife for cutting are stored.

The following equipment and raw drugs which are frequently required should be stored in Ayurvedic pharmacy:

1. Pestles & mortars of different size & shape – these are made of either stone or iron or crystals.

2. Bottles, pots, cups, blades, utensils and jars made of glass, mud, wood as well as metals for storing raw drugs and finished product.

3. Equipment like forceps, spatula, spoon, knife, sieves, yantras, weighing machines and balances of different capacity and shape.

4. Different types of fuel like wood, cow-dung cake, coal, charcoal & husk.

5. Hg other metals, minerals, drugs of vegetable origin, animal products, poison of vegeable / animal origin, salt, alkalies, gems & jewels.

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What is the Meaning of Ashtanga Ayurveda

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Ashtanga Ayurveda (अष्टांग आयुर्वेद) literally means eight parts or division of Ayurveda.

Ashta= eight + anga= parts

It is mentioned in Ayurvedic scriptures that Lord Brahma divided Ayurveda into eight parts to make it easy to learn, understand and remind. We can also say the Astanga Ayurveda as 8 super speciality branches of Ayurveda practised since the classical era.

Ashtanga Ayurveda (eight parts) are as follows :

  1. Kaya Chikitsa (Internal Medicine) : kaya= body, chikitsa= treatment

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the treatment of the body with the help of administration of various Ayurvedic medicines internally or externally.

  1. Shalya Tantra (Ayu. Surgery) : shalya= harmful foreign particle, tantra= science

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the management of diseases caused by shalya.

  1. Shalakya Tantra (Ophthalmology & ENT) : shalaka= a rod-like instrument, shalakya= related to shalaka

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals the treatment and management of diseases of supraclavicular (urdhva jatrugat) organs. Shalaka is used in the treatment of most of the diseases of eye, ear, nose and throat in Ayurveda.

  1. Koumarabhritya/ bala roga (Paediatrics) : Koumara= children, bhritya= nutrition, parental care

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to preconception, pregnancy, childbirth (delivery) and diseases of children. It also deals with the care of a child from before its birth up to 16 years.

  1. Bhoot Vidya (Ayu. psychiatry) : Bhoota= invisible presence, Vidya= knowledge

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with diseases acquired or inherited from apparently unknown causes. We can compare it with modern terminology as treatment of  idiopathic diseases in which the exact cause of the disease is unknown.

  1. Agad Tantra/ Danshtra (Ayu. toxicology) : Agada= toxin, danshtra= poisonous bite

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with knowledge of toxins, poisonous animals and management of toxicological problems.

  1. Rasayana Tantra (Geriatrics) : Rasayan= any medicine, material or behaviour which enhance longevity and slows down the process of ageing.

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with various aspects of preventive health care.

  1. Vajikaran Tantra (Science of fertility & virility) : Vaji= horse, a symbol of vital power or sexual power.

It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with sexual problems. It covers the management and treatment of sexual disorders.

Read: Introduction to Ayurveda

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Introduction to Ayurveda

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Introduction to Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद परिचय)


आयुर्वेद के पर्याय वाचक शब्द (Synonyms of Ayurveda)

महर्षि चरकानुसार- आयुर्वेद, शाखा, विद्या, सूत्र, ज्ञान, शास्त्र, लक्षण, तंत्र

(सन्दर्भ: च. सू. ३०/३१)


आयुर्वेद की निरुक्ति

आयुर्वेद = आयुष + वेद

आयुर्वेद दो शब्दों “आयुष” और “वेद” के योग से बना है  |

आयु = जीवन, वेद = शास्त्र, जानना, ज्ञात होना, पाना,


|| आयुर्वेदयतीत्यायुर्वेद: ||                          च.सू. ३०/२२

|| आयुरस्मिन् विद्यते अनेन वा आयुर्विन्दतीत्यायुर्वेद: ||                        च.सू. १/१३

अर्थात् जिसके द्वारा आयुर्वेद का ज्ञान प्राप्त हो उसे आयुर्वेद कहते हैं |


आयुर्वेद लक्षण

चतुर्विध आयु अर्थात् हितायु, अहितायु, सुखायु एवं दुखायु के अनुसार पथ्य- अपथ्य का वर्णन जिसमें किया गया हो; आयु का प्रमाण एवं आयु का स्वरुप जिसमे कहा गया हो उसे आयुर्वेद कहते हैं | यही आयुर्वेद का लक्षण है |


|| हिताहितं सुखं दु:खमायुस्तस्य हिताहितम्

मानं च तच्च यत्रोक्तम् आयुर्वेदः स उच्यते ||                च.सू. १/४१

आयु का स्वरुप एवं आयु के पर्याय

|| शरीरेन्द्रियसत्वात्मसंयोगो धारि जीवितम्

नित्यगस्चानुबंधस्च पर्यायेरायुरुच्यते ||                     च.सू. १/४२

आयु के पर्याय वाचक शब्द शरीरेंद्रियसत्वात्मसंयोग, धारि, जीवित, नित्यग, अनुबंध हैं, एवं ये ही आयु के स्वरुप हैं | मतलब, इन शब्दों का अर्थ ज्ञात होने से आयु का स्वरुप ज्ञात होता है |


जैसे- शरीरेंद्रियसत्वात्मसंयोग का अर्थ है- पांचभौतिक शरीर, चक्षुरादि इन्द्रियां, सत्व (मन) और आत्मा, ये सभी जितने समय तक किसी पुरुष में संयोगात्मक रूप से रहते हैं, उतनी उस पुरुष की आयु होती है |


धारि- पांचभौतिक शरीर, चक्षुरादि इन्द्रियां, सत्व (मन) और आत्मा के परस्पर संयोग को धारण करने वाले को धारि कहते हैं |


जीवित- इन सभी को जीवितावस्था में रखने वाले को जीवित कहते हैं |


नित्यग- नित्य  (सदैव, प्रतिक्षण) गमनशील होने वाले को नित्यग कहते हैं |


अनुबंध- (bonding) हमेशा बंधित रहना, एक साथ रहना, एक दूसरे के बिना अस्तित्वहीन होना; इस प्रकार सभी का एक साथ संयोग रूप से अनुबंधित रहने के कारण आयु को अनुबंध भी कहते हैं |


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Ayurvedic terminology of common diseases, symptoms, indication

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Ayurveda is the ancient Indian system of medicine practised since the classical time. Sanskrit, which is accepted as the mother of all languages, was the only language used in India at that time. All the Ayurvedic classical texts were written in Sanskrit (mostly in shloka form) by great Indian saints (Acharya & maharishi). Since then, almost all the Ayurvedic terminology, are still in its original Sanskrit form. For the peoples around the world, it is very difficult to understand what did these Ayurvedic terminology mean.

This article may act as a reference for all of them. I have compiled most of the Ayurvedic terms and their English translation in this article below.

List of Diseases in Ayurveda, Ayurvedic terminology and their English equivalents –

  1. Abhighatabhicari Jvara- Fever due to physical or psychological trauma
  2. Abhinyasa Jvara- Meningitis
  3. Abhishyanda- Conjunctivitis
  4. Adhimantha- Glaucoma
  5. Adhmana- Flatulance with gurgling sound
  6. Adhyavata- Gout
  7. Adrishti- Loss of eyesight
  8. Aghata- Trauma
  9. Agni Vikrti- Impaired digestion
  10. Agnidagdha- Burn injury
  11. Agnimandya- Digestive impairment
  12. Agnivikara- Diseases due to vitiation of Agni
  13. Ajirna- Dyspepsia
  14. Akshepa- Convulsions
  15. Akshiroga- Eye disease
  16. Alasaka- Intestinal atony
  17. Alasya- Laziness
  18. Amadosha- Products of impaired digestion and metabolism / consequences of Ama
  19. Amagrahani – Sprue associated with indigestion
  20. Amaja shoola- Intestinal colic due to indigestion
  21. Amajirna- Indigestion due to Ama
  22. Amajvara- Fever due to indigestion
  23. Amashoola- Colicky Pain due to Ama
  24. Amatisara- Diarrhoea due to indigestion/ Ama
  25. Amavata- Rheumatism
  26. Amladaha- Hyperacidity
  27. Amlapitta- Dyspepsia
  28. Amsaphalaka shoola- Pain in Scapular region
  29. Amsatapa- Burning sensation in scapular region
  30. Anaha- Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools
  31. Anda shoola- Testicular pain
  32. Andhatva- Blindness
  33. Angadaha- Burning sensation all over the body
  34. Angamarda- Body ache
  35. Angastambha- Body stiffness
  36. Anidra- Insomnia
  37. Antardaha- Internal Burning sensation
  38. Antarvidradhi- Internal abscess
  39. Antarvidradhi- Internal abscess
  40. Antra Vrddhi- Hernia
  41. Antrashoola- Intestinal colic
  42. Apachi- Chronic lymphadenopathy / scrofula
  43. Apana Vayu Nirodha- Obstruction of flatus
  44. Apasmara- Epilepsy
  45. Apatanaka- Tetanic convulsions
  46. Apatantraka- Hysteria with loss of consciousness
  47. Arbuda- Tumor
  48. Ardhavabhedaka- Migraine
  49. Ardita- Facial palsy
  50. Ardita vata- Facial palsy
  51. Arma- Pterygium
  52. Arochaka- Tastelessness
  53. Arsha- Haemorrhoids
  54. Arshoroga- Haemorrhoids
  55. Artava Ruja- Dysmenorrhoea
  56. Artava Vedana- Dysmenorrhoea
  57. Artavadosha- Vitiation of Artava
  58. Aruchi- Tastelessness
  59. Ashmari- Calculus
  60. Ashmarikshaya- Urinary calculus
  61. Ashta Jvara- Eight types of Fever
  62. Ashthila- Prostatic Hyperplasia
  63. Aspashta bhashana- Incoherent speech
  64. Asrigdara- Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia or both
  65. Asrigdara Ruja- Dysmenorrhoea
  66. Asthi Bhanga- Bone fracture
  67. Asthi Chyuti- Dislocation of bones, joints
  68. Asthi Ruja- Ostealgia
  69. Asthi Srava- Discharge from bones
  70. Asthichyuta – Dislocation of bones, joints
  71. Asthigata Vata- Vata confined to bones
  72. Asthishosha- Osteoporosis
  73. Asthivata- Bone diseases due to Vata dosha
  74. Asya Roga – Diseases of buccal cavity
  75. Atisara- Diarrhoea
  76. Atopa- Gurgling found in abdomen with pain
  77. Audumbara Kushtha- Patchy leprosy / lepromatous leprosy
  78. Avabahuka- Brachialgia, Frozen shoulder
  79. Avrana shukra- Corneal opacity
  80. Ayama- Stretching
  81. Baddhapurisha- Hard stools
  82. Badhiratva- Deafness
  83. Badhirya- Deafness
  84. Bahu shosha- Muscular wasting of forearm
  85. Bahumootra- Polyuria
  86. Bahushoola- Pain in arm
  87. Bahyadaha- Burning sensation
  88. Bahyayama- Opisthotonos
  89. Bala Graha- Specific disorders of children
  90. Bala Roga- Diseases of children
  91. Bala shosha- Emaciation in children
  92. Bala- Strength / Immunity
  93. Bala- Strength / Immunity
  94. Balakshaya- Loss of strength / immunity
  95. Balavarna Kshaya- Loss of physical strength and complexion
  96. Balya Improves physical strength
  97. Basti roga- Diseases of urinary system
  98. Basti ruja- Pain in urinary system
  99. Bastigata roga- Disorders of urinary system
  100. Bhagandara- Fistula-in-ano
  101. Bhasmaka- Polyphagia with emaciation
  102. Bhoota Badha- Psychological disorder
  103. Bhoota Visha- Microbial infection
  104. Bhootonmada- Exogenous psychosis
  105. Bhrama- Vertigo
  106. Bhroo-shankha-Karnashoola- Trigeminal neuralgia
  107. Bhuja bala- Physical Strength
  108. Bradhna Vriddhi- Hernia
  109. Buddhi Bhrama- Dementia
  110. Buddhi Daurbalya- Weak intelligence
  111. Buddhi kshaya- Impaired intelligence
  112. Buddhimandya- Low intelligence
  113. Chaladanta- Loose tooth
  114. Charmadala- Exfoliative dermatosis
  115. Charmaroga- Skin disorders
  116. Chhardi- Emesis
  117. Dadru kushtha- Taeniasis
  118. Dadru- Taeniasis
  119. Dagdha Vrana- Burn ulcer
  120. Daha- Burning sensation
  121. Damsha Vrana- Ulcer due to bites
  122. Damshtra Visha- Poisonous bite
  123. Dandapatanaka- Tetanus / Plenosthotonus
  124. Danta bandha- Lock jaw
  125. Danta Chalana- Loose tooth
  126. Danta Krimi- Dental caries
  127. Danta- Nakha Kshata- Injury caused to teeth and nails
  128. Danta roga- Dental disease
  129. Danta Roga- Disease of tooth
  130. Danta shoola- Dental Pain
  131. Dantapida- Pain in Teeth
  132. Dantasaushirya- Dental caries
  133. Dantodbhava Jvara- Dentitional fever
  134. Dantodbhava Kalina Jvara- Fever during dentation
  135. Daruna Vishoocika- Severe gastro enteritis
  136. Daurbalya- Weakness
  137. Deha shithilata- Unenergetic body
  138. Deha shoola- Bodyache
  139. Dhanurvata- Tetanus / Plenosthotonus
  140. Dhatu Kshaya- Tissue wasting
  141. Dhatugata Atisara- Diarrhoea resulting in tissue wasting
  142. Dhatushosha- Cachexia
  143. Dhatustha Jvara- Fever due to dosha residing in particular Dhatu
  144. Dhvajabhanga- Failure of penile erection
  145. Doora drishti- Hypermetropia / Hyperopia
  146. Drishti Daurbalya- Weakness of vision
  147. Drishti Lopa- Defects in eye sight
  148. Dukha Prasava- Difficult labour
  149. Dushta nadi vrana- Infected/ non healing fistula
  150. Dushta pinasa- Infected/ non responding rhinitis
  151. Dushta Vrana- Non-healing ulcer
  152. Ekanga shosha- Wasting of one limb
  153. Gadha vitkata- Constipation
  154. Gala Roga- Diseases of throat
  155. Galaganda- Goitre
  156. Galagraha- Difficulty in swallowing
  157. Galashosha- Dryness in throat
  158. Gambhira Vrana- Deep ulcer
  159. Ganda mala- Cervical lymphadenitis
  160. Ganda- Maxillar prominence
  161. Gandoopada Krimi Roga- Ascariasis
  162. Gara dosha- Effects of slow / accumulated poison
  163. Gara- Slow / accumulated poison
  164. Gara Udararoga- Abdominal disorder due to slow / accumulated poison
  165. Gara Visha- Slow / accumulated poison
  166. Garbha dosha- Foetal anomaly
  167. Garbha shrava- Threatened abortion
  168. Garbhapata- Abortion
  169. Garbhashaya chyuti- Uterine prolapse
  170. Garbhashaya Dosha- Uterine disorder
  171. Garbhashaya roga- Disorders of Uterus
  172. Garbhini Daha- Burning sensation during pregnancy
  173. Garbhini Jvara- Pyrexia during pregnancy
  174. Garbhini Roga Disorders during Pregnancy
  175. Garbhini Roga- Disorders during pregnancy
  176. Gatra Kampa- Tremors
  177. Gatra Kandoo- Generalised pruritus
  178. Gatra shaitya- Cold calm extremities
  179. Gatrashoola- Bodyache
  180. Gatrashosha- Wasting of limbs
  181. Graha Dosha- Psychosis
  182. Graha roga- Psychosis
  183. Grahani Dosha- Disorders of small intestine
  184. Grahani- Malabsorption syndrome
  185. Grahani Roga- Malabsorption syndrome
  186. Granthi- Cyst
  187. Granthiruk- Pain in cyst
  188. Gridhrasi- Sciatica
  189. Griva shushkata- Wasting in cervical region
  190. Griva Stambha- Neck Stiffness
  191. Guda Nihsarana- Rectal prolapse
  192. Guda Roga- Anorectal disease
  193. Guda Ruja- Pain in the anorectal area
  194. Guda shoola- Pain in the anorectal area
  195. Guda shopha- Swelling in the anorectal area
  196. Guda shotha- Inflammation of the rectum
  197. Gudabhramsha- Prolapse of the rectum
  198. Gudankura- (Arsha) Piles
  199. Guhya vrana- Ulcer in genitalia
  200. Gulma- Abdominal lump
  201. Halimaka- Chronic obstructive Jaundice/Chlorosis/Advanced stage of Jaundice
  202. Hanu graha- Lock jaw
  203. Hanu shopha- Swollen Jaw
  204. Hanu stambha- Lock jaw
  205. Hasta kampa- Tremors in hands
  206. Hasta Pada Daha- Burning sensation in palms and soles
  207. Hasta pada Roga- Disease of the limbs
  208. Hidhma- Hiccup
  209. Hikka- Hiccup
  210. Hinamamsa- Lack of muscle tissue
  211. Hricchhoola- Angina pectoris
  212. Hrid daha- Burning sensation in heart region
  213. Hrid daurbalya- Weakness of the heart
  214. Hridaya daurbalya- Weakness of heart
  215. Hridaya shoola- Angina pectoris
  216. Hridayagra Vridhhi- Ventricular Hypertrophy
  217. Hridroga- Heart disease
  218. Hridruja- Angina pectoris
  219. Hridyavirecaka – laxative
  220. Hrillasa- Nausea
  221. Hritgraha- Cardiac failure
  222. Hritkampa- Cardiac fibrillation
  223. Hritshoola- Angina pectoris
  224. Indralupta – Alopecia
  225. Jalamrita – Drowning
  226. Jalodara – Ascites
  227. Jangha Janugata – Vata Pain in calf and knee
  228. Jangha Ruja – Pain in thigh
  229. Jangha shoola – Pain in calves
  230. Jangha shopha – Swelling in the thigh
  231. Janghoru-Prishtha-Trikasthana-Vastigatashoola – Pain in calves-thighs-back-sacral and bladder region
  232. Janu shoola – Pain in the knee
  233. Janu Stabdhata – Stiffness of the knee
  234. Jara – Senility/ Progeriasis
  235. Jara dosha – Senility
  236. Jarayu Dosha – Vitiation of placenta
  237. Jathara – Stomoch
  238. Jatharagni  – Digestive fire
  239. Jatumani – Congenital mole
  240. Jihvastambha Glossal palsy
  241. Jirna jvara – Chronic fever
  242. Jirna Kasa – Chronic cough
  243. Jvara- Fever
  244. Jvaratisara- Diarrhoea with fever
  245. Kacchoo- Itching
  246. Kacha- Cataract
  247. Kamala- Jaundice
  248. Kampa- Tremor
  249. Kandoo- Itching
  250. Kantha daha- Burning sensation in throat
  251. Kantha Roga- Disease of throat
  252. Kantha roga- Disorders of Throat
  253. Kanthabandha- Feeling of bandage around neckDrishti Lopa- Defects in eye sight
  254. Kapha dosha- Vitiation of Kapha dosha
  255. Kapha Jvara- Fever due to Kapha dosha
  256. Kaphaja Agnimandya- Impaired digestive fire due to diminished agni
  257. Kaphaja Hridroga- Heart disease due to Kapha dosha
  258. Kaphaja Kasa- Cough due to Kapha dosha
  259. Kaphaja Roga – Disease due to Kapha dosha
  260. Kaphaja sandhibandha- Stiffness in joints due to Kapha dosha
  261. Kaphaja shoola- Pain due to Kapha dosha
  262. Kaphapitta- Disease due to Kapha dosha and Pitta dosha
  263. Kaphapitta- Kushtha Skin disease caused by Kapha and Pitta dosha
  264. Kaphapittajashoola- Pain due to Kapha and Pitta dosha
  265. Kaphapittaroga- Disease due to Kapha dosha and Pitta dosha
  266. Kaphapraseka- Excessive salivation
  267. Kapharoga- Disease due to Kapha dosha
  268. Kaphavataja- Nadi Vrana Fistula due to Kapha, Vata
  269. Kaphavataroga- Disease due to Kapha and Vata dosha
  270. Kaphavikara- Disorders due to vitiation of Kapha dosha
  271. Kaphonmada- Psychosis due to Kapha dosha
  272. Kaphotklesha- Nausea
  273. Karna Krimi- Worm infestation in Ear
  274. Karna Roga- Disease of ear
  275. Karna Shrava- Otorrhoea
  276. Karnagata- Nadivrana Fistula in Ear
  277. Karnanada- Tinnitus
  278. Karnapaka- Otitis externa diffusa
  279. Karnaruja- Otalgia
  280. Karnashoola- Otalgia
  281. Karshya- Emaciation
  282. Kasa- Cough
  283. Kashta artava- Dysmenorrhoea
  284. Kati Graha- Stiffness in lumbo-sacral region
  285. Kati shoola- Lower backache
  286. Kati-ooru-Prishtha Daurbalya- Weaknes and lower backache radiating to thighs
  287. Katiruja- Backache
  288. Katistambha- Restricted movement of the lumbo-sacral region
  289. Kativata- Disorders of lumbo-sacral region due to vitiated Vata dosha
  290. Kaubja- Hump/Kyphosis
  291. Kesha- Patana Falling of hair
  292. Keshapata- Falling of hair
  293. Keshashata- Loss of hair
  294. Khalitya- Alopecia
  295. Khanja- Limping
  296. Khanja- Vata Limping
  297. Khudaka- Limping
  298. Kilasa- Vitiligo
  299. Kitibha- Depigmentation
  300. Klama- Tiredness without exertion/Langour
  301. Kledi- Vrana Oozing/weeping ulcer
  302. Koshtha shoola- Pain in abdomen
  303. Koshtha Vikara – Disorders of abdomen
  304. Koshtharuja – Pain in abdomen
  305. Kotha – Urticaria
  306. Kricchrartava – Dysmenorrhoea
  307. Krimi – Helminthiasis/Worm infestation
  308. Krimi Roga – Worm infestation
  309. Krimija Hridroga – Bacterial endocarditis
  310. Krishata – Emaciation/Cachexia
  311. Krishatva – Emaciation
  312. Kritrima Visha – Synthetic poison
  313. Kroshtuka Sirsha – Synovitis of Knee joint
  314. Kshata Kshaya – Emaciation due to injury
  315. Kshata Kshina – Debility due to chest injury
  316. Kshata – Wound
  317. Kshataja Kshaya – Emaciation due to injury
  318. Kshaya – Pthisis
  319. Kshayaja Kasa – Cough due to Pthisis
  320. Kshina Retas – Oligospermia
  321. Kshina shukra – Oligospermia
  322. Kshinendriya – Impaired senses
  323. Kshudra Kushtha – Group of minor skin diseases
  324. Kubja – Hump-back/Kyphosis
  325. Kubja Roga – Hump-back/Kyphosis
  326. Kubja Vata – Kyphosis
  327. Kubjata – Dwarfism
  328. Kukoonaka – Ophthalmia neonatorum
  329. Kukshi Ruja – Pelvic pain
  330. Kukshishoola – Pelvic pain
  331. Kumbhakamala – Hepatitis
  332. Kushtha – Diseases of skin
  333. Lalajihvata – Excess salivation
  334. Loota Visha – Poison of Spider
  335. Loota-Vrshcika-Sarpavisha – Poison of Scorpion, Spider and Snake
  336. Mada – Intoxication
  337. Madatyaya – Alcoholism
  338. Madhumeha – Diabetes mellitus
  339. Madyapanaja Vikara – Ailments due to Intoxication of Fermented liquids
  340. Mahakushtha – Group of major skin diseases
  341. Mahatapa – Severe body temperature
  342. Mahavata Roga – Major neurological disorder
  343. Majjagata Vata – Bone marrow related disorder
  344. Majjavata – Bone marrow disorder
  345. Malabandha – Constipation
  346. Malashodhaka – Laxative
  347. Mamsa Kshaya – Muscle Atrophy
  348. Mamsa – Muscle
  349. Mamsa Vriddhi – Muscle Hypertrophy
  350. Manasa Dosha – Mental disorders
  351. Mandabuddhitva – Retarded intellect
  352. Mandadrishti – Diminished vision
  353. Mandagni – Impaired digestive fire
  354. Mandajvara – Low-grade fever
  355. Mandala Kushtha – Lepromatous lesion
  356. Mandala Vrana – Ulcers
  357. Manodaurbalya – Mental weakness
  358. Manodosha – Mental disorder
  359. Manoglani – Depression
  360. Manoroga – Psychological Disorder
  361. Manovibhrama – Delirium
  362. Manovikara – Mental disorder
  363. Manya Stambha – Neck rigidity/Torticollis
  364. Manyaroga – Diseases of Neck
  365. Manyastambha – Neck rigidity/Torticollis
  366. Marma vikara – Disorders of vital points
  367. Marmashrita vrana – Ulcers in vital points
  368. Marmavata – Vitiation of Vata in Vital points
  369. Mashaka – Mole
  370. Masoorika jvara – Eruptive fever
  371. Mastaka Bhrama – Vertigo
  372. Mastishka roga – Disorders of Brain
  373. Meda – Adipose tissue
  374. Medha – Intelligence
  375. Medhalpata – Retarded intelligence
  376. Medhra roga – Penile diseases
  377. Medhya – Brain tonic/nootropic
  378. Medo roga – Obesity
  379. Medo vikara – Disordes of Fat
  380. Medo vriddhi – Obesity
  381. Medodosha – Disorder of adipose tissue
  382. Medogata vata – Disease of adipose tissue affected by vitiated Vata
  383. Meha – Excessive flow of urine
  384. Moha – Delusion
  385. Moodha Garbha – Malpresentation of the foetus
  386. Moodha Vata – Obstructed movement of Vata dosha
  387. Moodhata – Entrapment of Vata
  388. Mookata – Aphasia
  389. Moola Visha – Poisoning due to roots of plants
  390. Moorccha Kampa – Tremors due to syncope
  391. Moorccha – Syncope
  392. Mooshika Visha – Rat poisoning
  393. Mootra sharkara – Urinary calculus
  394. Mootra Vibandha – Retention of urine
  395. Mootra virechanartha – Diuresis
  396. Mootrabandha – Retention of urine
  397. Mootradosha – Urinary disorders
  398. Mootraghata – Urinary obstruction
  399. Mootrakricchra – Dysuria
  400. Mootraroga – Urinary diseases
  401. Mootrasada – Oligouria
  402. Mootrasanga – Obstruction in urinary tract
  403. Mootratisara – Polyurea
  404. Moudhyam – Stupidity
  405. Mukha Daurgandhya – Halitosis
  406. Mukha Paka – Stomatitis
  407. Mukha Roga – Disease of mouth
  408. Mukha Roga – Disease of mouth
  409. Mukha shosha – Dryness in mouth / buccal cavity
  410. Mukhadurgandha – Halitosis
  411. Mukhadurgandhya – Halitosis
  412. Mukhajadya – Restricted movement of jaw
  413. Mukha-Karna-Nasa-Akshi Vikrti – Disorders of Mouth, Ear, Nose and Eyes
  414. Mukhapaka – Mouth ulcer
  415. Nabhi shoola – Pain in umbilical region
  416. Nadi vrana – Fistula
  417. Naktandhya – Night blindness
  418. Naktandhya – Night blindness
  419. Napumsakata – Impotency
  420. Nasa Roga – Disease of nose
  421. Nashta Pushpa – Amenorrhoea
  422. Nashtashukra – Oligospermia/ Azoospermia
  423. Nasika durgandha – Ozena
  424. Nava jvara – Acute fever
  425. Nayana Roga – Disease of the eye
  426. Netra Adhimamsa – Pterygium
  427. Netra Daha – Burning sensation in eyes
  428. Netra drishti – Eyesight
  429. Netra Kandoo – Itching in eyes
  430. Netra Ruja – Pain in eyes
  431. Netra vikara – Disorder of eye
  432. Netra Vrana – Corneal ulcer
  433. Netrabhishyanda – Conjunctivitis
  434. Netradrishti – Eye sight
  435. Netraroga (Dhavanartha) – Eye disorder (for cleansing)
  436. Netraroga – Eye disorder
  437. Netrasrava – Chronic dacrocystitis/epiphora
  438. Nilika – Mole
  439. Nyaccha – Naevus/mole/ blemishes
  440. Oja kshaya – Loss of body strength (immunity)
  441. Ojo kshaya – Loss of body strength (immunity)
  442. Pada daha – Burning sensation of feet
  443. Padminikantaka – Papilloma of skin
  444. Paittika Netra Roga – Eye disease due to Pitta dosha
  445. Pakshaghata – Paralysis/Hemiplegia
  446. Pakshavadha – Paralysis/Hemiplegia
  447. Pakshmakopa – Trichiasis/Entropion
  448. Paktishoola – Duodenal ulcer
  449. Pakvatisara – Chronic diarrhoea
  450. Palita – Greying of hair
  451. Palitya – Greying of hair, particularly of scalp
  452. Pama – Eczema
  453. Pana vibhrama – Delirium due to alcohol intoxication
  454. Panajirna – Alcoholic intoxication
  455. Panatyaya – Acute alcoholism
  456. Pandu – Anaemia
  457. Pandu Roga – Anaemia
  458. Pangu – Paraplegia
  459. Pangu vata – Paraplegia
  460. Pangutva – Paraplegia
  461. Parigarbhika Roga – Kwashiorkor
  462. Parikarta/ parikartika – Fissure-in-ano
  463. Parinama shoola – Duodenal ulcer
  464. Parisarpa – Erysipelas
  465. Parshva shiroruja – Hemicrania
  466. Parshva shoola – Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia
  467. Parshva shopha – Pleural effusion
  468. Parshva shopha – Swelling in lateral part of chest region
  469. Parshvaruja – Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia
  470. Patala Arbuda – Growth in layers of eye
  471. Patala – Layers of Eye
  472. Patala Roga – Disorders of layers of eye
  473. Phakka Roga – Ricketts
  474. Phiranga Roga – Syphilis
  475. Phiranga – Syphilis
  476. Phirangaja Vrana – Chancroid
  477. Phupphusa Roga – Lung disorders
  478. Picchasrava – Mucoid discharge
  479. Pidaka – Carbuncle
  480. Pinasa – Chronic rhinitis/sinusitis
  481. Pipasa – Thirst
  482. Pitaka – Boil/Carbuncle
  483. Pitta Daha – Burning sensation due to Pitta dosha
  484. Pitta Jvara – Fever due to Pitta dosha
  485. Pitta Roga – Disease due to Pitta dosha
  486. Pittaja Gulma – Tumour due to Pitta dosha
  487. Pittaja Kushtha – Skin disorders due to Pitta dosha
  488. Pittaja Netra Roga – Eye disease due to Pitta dosha
  489. Pittaja Pandu – Anaemia due to Pitta dosha
  490. Pittaja Roga – Disease due to Pitta dosha
  491. Pittaja shirahshoola – Headache due to Pitta dosha
  492. Pittaja shiroruja – Headache due to Pitta dosha
  493. Pittaja shvasa – Asthma due to Pitta dosha
  494. Pittaja Unmada – Insanity due to Pitta dosha
  495. Pittarsha – Piles due to Pitta dosha
  496. Pittatisara – Diarrhoea due to Pitta dosha
  497. Pittavikara – Disorder of Pitta dosha
  498. Pittavyadhi – Disease of Pitta dosha
  499. Pliha Roga – Splenic disease
  500. Pliha – Splenic disease
  501. Pliha Vriddhi – Splenomegaly
  502. Plihamaya – Splenic disease
  503. Pliharuja – Pain due to splenic disease
  504. Pliha-Yakrid roga – Disorder of Spleen and Liver
  505. Plihayakritvriddhi – Enlargement of liver and Spleen
  506. Plihodara – Disorder of Spleen, Ascites associated with spleenomegaly
  507. Pooyasrava – Secretion of pus
  508. Pradara – Excessive vaginal discharge
  509. Pralapa – Delirious speech
  510. Pralepaka Jvara – Hectic fever
  511. Prameha and Mootramarga Roga – Polyurias and diseases of Urinary tract
  512. Prameha – Pidaka Diabetic carbuncle
  513. Prameha – Urinary disorders
  514. Praseka – Excessive salivation
  515. Prasoota vata – Puerperal disorder
  516. Prasveda – Excessive sweating
  517. Pratishyaya – Coryza
  518. Pratitooni/ pratooni – Renal/ureteric colic
  519. Pratyashthila – Distended, Regid abdomen resembling paralytic Ileus
  520. Pratyashthila – Rectovesical tumour
  521. Pravahika – Dysentery
  522. Prishtha Ruja – Pain in the lower back
  523. Prishtha shoola – Backache
  524. Prishtha Stambha – Stiffness of the Lower back
  525. Purana jvara – Chronic fever
  526. Purana Tvagroga – Degenerative/Chronic Skin disorder
  527. Rajahkricchra – Scanty menstruation (Oligomenorrhea)
  528. Rajayakshma – Tuberculosis
  529. Rajo shoola – Dysmenorrhea
  530. Rajodosha – Menstrual disorder
  531. Rajorodha – Obstruction to menstrual flow
  532. Rakta Dosha – Vitiation of Blood and its components
  533. Rakta Nishthivana – Blood stained sputum
  534. Raktakasa – Coughing up blood from the respiratory tract-hemoptysis
  535. Raktakshaya – Blood loss
  536. Raktapitta – Bleeding disorder
  537. Raktapradara – Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia or both
  538. Raktapravahika – Bacillary dysentery
  539. Raktaroga – Diseases of blood
  540. Raktarsha – Bleeding haemorrhoids
  541. Raktasrava – Haemorrhage
  542. Raktatisara – Diarrhoea with Bleeding
  543. Raktavami – Haematemesis
  544. Raktavataja shopha – Inflammation due to Rakta and Vata dosha
  545. Raktavikara – Disorders of blood
  546. Rasayana – Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrino-modulator properties
  547. Rasayanarthi – Person seeking Rasayana effect
  548. Ratryandha – Night blindness (Nyctalopia)
  549. Retovikara – Diseases of Semen
  550. Ruja – Pain
  551. Sahaja Arshoroga – Congenital haemorrhoids
  552. Samadosha Dosha – afflicted by Ama
  553. Samipa Drishti – Myopia
  554. Samnyasa- Coma
  555. Sandhi Pida – Joint pain
  556. Sandhigata Vata – Osteoarthropathy
  557. Sandhivata – Osteoarthritis
  558. Sanjnanasha/ Sangyanasha – Loss of consciouness
  559. Sannipata Jvara – High grade fever due to vitiation of all Dosha
  560. Sannipata Roga – Disease due to vitiation of all Dosha
  561. Santatajvara – Continuous Fever
  562. Sanyasa – Coma
  563. Saptadhatugata Jvara – Fever due to involvement of all seven dhatu
  564. Sarpa Visha – Snake poison
  565. Sarpadamsha – Snake bite
  566. Sarpadamshta – Snake bite
  567. Saruja Vrana – Painful ulcer
  568. Sarva Balaroga – All types of Pediatric conditions
  569. Sarva Dhatu shosha – Emaciation of all tissues
  570. Sarva Jvara – All types of fevers
  571. Sarva Kricchra Sadhya Roga – All types of disorders with difficult prognosis
  572. Sarva Roga – All diseases
  573. Sarva shoola – All kinds of pain
  574. Sarvajvara – All types of fevers
  575. Sarvanga Graha – Stiffness and Tightness in all limbs
  576. Sarvanga Grahana – Stiffness and Tightness in all limbs
  577. Sarvanga Kampa – Generalized tremors
  578. Sarvanga shotha – Anasarca
  579. Sarvanga shotha – Generalized tremors
  580. Sarvanga Vata – Quadriplegia
  581. Sarvatisara – All types of diarrhoea
  582. Satatadi Jvara – Continous fever and the like
  583. Savrana shukra – Corneal ulcer/Ulcerative keratitis
  584. Sharira Varna Hani- Change in body complexion
  585. Sharkara- Gravel in urine
  586. Sharkarameha- Crystalluria
  587. Shastraprahara Vrana- Wounds due to sharp weapons
  588. Shighra shukra Skhalana- Premature ejaculation
  589. shirahkampa- Tremor/Shaking of head
  590. shirahshoola- Headache
  591. shirodaha- Burning sensation in the head
  592. shirogata Vata- Neurological disorders of head
  593. shirograha- Stiffness in head
  594. shirogriva Stambha- Stiffness in head and neck
  595. shiroroga- Disease of head
  596. shiroruja- Headache
  597. Shita Jvara- Fever with chills
  598. Shitapitta- Urticaria
  599. Shleshma jvara- Fever due to Kapha dosha
  600. Shleshmapittaja Kasa- Cough due to Kapha and Pitta
  601. Shleshmavikara- Disorder due to Kapha dosha
  602. Shleshmodara- Ascites due to Kapha dosha
  603. Shlipada- Filariasis
  604. Shmashru Patana- Falling of hair of beard and moustache
  605. Shookadosha- Ulcer on penis due to chemical agents
  606. Shoola- Colicky Pain
  607. Shoolaroga- Gastric ulcer/Duodenal ulcer/Colic
  608. Shootikaroga- Post Partum disease
  609. Shopha- Oedema
  610. Shosha- Cachexia
  611. Shotha- Inflammation
  612. Shotha Roga- Inflammatory disease
  613. Shrama- Fatigue/ lethargy
  614. Shravana Lopa- Impaired hearing
  615. Shroni shoola- Pain in pelvic region
  616. Shukla- Opacity
  617. Shukra Dosha- Vitiation of semen
  618. Shukra Kshaya- Deficiency of semen
  619. Shukra- Semen
  620. Shukra Vikara- Disorders of semen
  621. Shukrakshaya- Oligospermia
  622. Shukrameha- Spermatorrhoea
  623. Shukraroga- Diseases of semen
  624. Shushkarsha- Non bleeding Haemorrhoids
  625. Shvasa- Dyspnoea/Asthma
  626. Shvasanaka- Jvara Pneumonia
  627. Shvayathu- Oedema
  628. Shveta Pradara- Leucorrhoea
  629. Shvitra- Leucoderma/ Vitiligo
  630. Shvitra roga- Leucoderma/ Vitiligo
  631. Sidhma –  Pityriasis versicolor
  632. Sikata Vartma – Granular Eyelid disorder
  633. Skandha shushkata – Emaciation of shoulder
  634. Smriti bhrama – Impairment of memory
  635. Smriti Bhramsha – Impairment of memory
  636. Smriti Daurbalya – Weak memory
  637. Smriti hani – Loss of memory
  638. Smriti Kshaya – Loss of memory
  639. Smriti kshina – Decrease in memory
  640. Smriti – Memory
  641. Smriti nasha – Loss of memory
  642. Smritiprada – Improves memory
  643. Snayu Bhagna – Tendon tear
  644. Snayu daurbalya – Rupture of ligaments
  645. Snayu ruja – Pain in tendons
  646. Snayu vata – Inflammation of ligaments
  647. Soma roga – Polyuria in females
  648. Sooryavarta – Sinusitis
  649. Sootika Jvara – Post-partum Fever puerperal fever
  650. Sootika Roga – Puerperal disease
  651. Sootika Vata – Neurological disorders of puerperium
  652. Sparsha shoonyata – Lack of tactile sensation
  653. Sphota – Boil
  654. Sphotaka – Boil
  655. Srotorodha – Obstruction to srotas
  656. Stana shoola – Pain in breast tissue
  657. Stanya Dushti – Vitiation of breast milk
  658. Stanya dvesha – Aversion to breast milk
  659. Stanya Kshaya – Decrease in breast milk
  660. Sthaulya – Obesity
  661. Sthavara Visha – Poison of plant and mineral origin
  662. Sthoolata – Obesity
  663. Stimita – Feeling of Numbness
  664. Stri roga – Gynaecological disorders
  665. Supta jihvatva – Numbness of tongue
  666. Supta Vata – Numbness
  667. Svapna dosha – Nocturnal emission
  668. Svara bheda – Hoarseness of voice
  669. Svara hina – Aphasia
  670. Svara karshya – Aphasia
  671. Svara Kshaya – Aphasia
  672. Sveda – Sweat
  673. Svedadhikya – Excessive Sweating
  674. Tamaka shvasa – Bronchial asthma
  675. Tandra – Lassitude
  676. Taruna Jvara – Acute fever
  677. Tilaka – Non-elevated mole
  678. Timira – early stage of Catract
  679. Timira Roga – Blindness
  680. Tooni – Neuralgic pain renal/ureteric colic
  681. Tridoshaj atisara – Diarrhoea due to all Dosha
  682. Trika Ruja – Pain in sacral region
  683. Trika shoola – Pain in sacral region
  684. Trika shopha – Swelling in sacral region
  685. Trishna – Thirst
  686. Trit – Thirst
  687. Tvag dosha – Skin disorder
  688. Tvag roga – Skin disease
  689. Tvagrakta dosha – Skin and blood disorder
  690. Tvak rakta rog – Skin and blood disorder
  691. Tvak raukshya – Dryness of skin
  692. Udakodara – Ascites
  693. Udara – Diseases of abdomen / enlargement of abdomen
  694. Udararoga – Ascites
  695. Udararuja – Pain in the abdomen
  696. Udarashoola – Pain in the abdomen
  697. Udarda – Urticaria
  698. Udavarta – Condition in which there is upward movement of vayu
  699. Ugra Atisara – Severe Diarrhoea
  700. Unmada Hridroga – Insanity Heart disease
  701. Unmada – Mania/Psychosis
  702. Upadamsha – Syphilis/Soft chancre
  703. Upadamshaja Vrana – Chancroid
  704. Upajihvika – Epiglottis
  705. Urahkshata – Chest wound / injured chest/ disease of lungs
  706. Urastoya – Pleural effusion/ Hydrothorax
  707. Urdhva Jatrugata Roga – Diseases of head and neck
  708. Urdhva raktapitta – Bleeding from orifices of the upper part of the body
  709. Urdhvagata Raktapitta – Bleeding from orifices of the upper part of the body
  710. Urdhvajatrugata Roga – Disorders of body parts above clavicle
  711. Urdhvanga Ratkapitta – Bleeding from orifices of the upper part of the body
  712. Urdhvanga Roga – Disordrs of Head and brain
  713. Urdhvashvasa – Shallow breathing/ Shortness of breath
  714. Uro graha – Stiffness and Tightness in the chest
  715. Uro roga – Disease of thorax
  716. Uru graha – Stiffness in thighs
  717. Uru shoola – Pain in thighs
  718. Uru shopha – Swollen thighs
  719. Uru stambha – Stiffness in thigh muscles
  720. Used as Rasayana, Vajikara, Medhya, Smrtivardhaka Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrino-modulator properties, Aphrodisiac, Brain Tonic / Nootropic, Improves memory
  721. Utklesha – Nausea
  722. Vaak- Speech
  723. Vaivarnya – Discolouration
  724. Vajikara and Rasayana – Aphrodisiac and Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro endocrino-modulator properties
  725. Vajikara – Aphrodisiac
  726. Vajikarana – Aphrodisiac
  727. Vajikaranartha – For aphrodisiac property
  728. Vakdosha – Disorder of speech
  729. Vaksha shushkata – Emaciation of chest muscles
  730. Vaksvara Bhanga – Impairment of speech and voice
  731. Vaktra ruja – Pain in mouth
  732. Vali Palita – Wrinkles in skin and greying of hair
  733. Vali – Wrinkles in the skin
  734. Valmika Arbuda – Malignant growth (Cancer)
  735. Vami – Vomiting
  736. Vandhyaroga – Infertility
  737. Vandhyatva – Infertility
  738. Vankshana Ruja – Pain in groin
  739. Vankshana shoola – Pain in the groin
  740. Varcho vibandha – Impaction due to Hard stools
  741. Vardhma – Hernia
  742. Varna – Complexion
  743. Varna Vikara – Pigmentation disorder
  744. Varna Vikriti – Pigmentation disorder
  745. Vartma Roga – Disease of eye lids
  746. Vasti roga – Diseases of urinary bladder
  747. Vasti shoola – Pain in urinary bladder
  748. Vata Gulma – Lump due to Vata dosha
  749. Vata Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha
  750. Vata Kapha Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
  751. Vata Kapha Roga – Disease due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
  752. Vata Kaphaja Gulma – Lump due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
  753. Vata Kaphaja Roga – Disease due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
  754. Vata Pittaja Roga – Disease due to Vatadosha and Pitta dosha
  755. Vata shleshma Roga – Disease due to Vata and Kapha dosha
  756. Vata Vaigunya – Abnormality of Vata dosha
  757. Vata Vidradhi – Abscess due to Vata dosha
  758. Vata Vyadhi – Disease due to Vata dosha
  759. Vataja Grahani – Malabsorption due to Vata dosha
  760. Vataja Kasa – Cough due to Vata dosha
  761. Vataja shiroruja – Headache due to Vata dosha
  762. Vataja shoola – Pain due to Vata dosha
  763. Vatajaroga – Disease due to Vata dosha
  764. Vatakapha roga – Disease due to Vata Kapha dosha
  765. Vatakaphaja Grahani – Malabsorption due to Vata Kapha dosha
  766. Vatakundalika – Scanty and painful flow of urine
  767. Vatapitta Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha and Pitta dosha
  768. Vatapitta Roga – Disease due to Vata dosha and Pitta dosha
  769. Vatapittaja – Vastiroga Disorder of Urinary tract and Bladder due to Vata Pitta dosha
  770. Vatapittakapha Vrana – Ulcer due to Vata Pitta Kapha dosha
  771. Vatarakta – Gout
  772. Vataraktaruja – Pain due to Vatarakta
  773. Vataroga – Disease due to Vata dosha
  774. Vatashleshma Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha and shleshma dosha
  775. Vatashleshma Pratishyaya – Rhinitis due to Vata dosha and shleshma dosha
  776. Vatashleshmaja kshaya – Pthisis due to Vata dosha and shleshma dosha
  777. Vatashleshmaja Roga – Disorders of Vata Kapha dosha
  778. Vatashleshmaja Vrishana shotha – Inflammatory swelling/ ulceration of scrotum due to Vata Kapha dosha
  779. Vatashleshmatisara – Diarrhoea due to Vata and Kapha dosha
  780. Vatashonita – Gout
  781. Vatashoola – Pain due to Vata dosha
  782. Vatavikara – Disorder due to Vata dosha
  783. Vatodara – Distention of abdomen due to gases
  784. Vayushoola – Colicky Pain due to Vata dosha
  785. Vibandha – Constipation
  786. Vicharchika – Eczema
  787. Vidradhi – Abscess
  788. Vidvibandha – Constipation
  789. Vipadika – Scaly lesions on palms and soles
  790. Vipluta Yoni roga – Disorder of Vagina(vaginismus)
  791. Virecaka – Purgative
  792. Virechanartha – For purgation
  793. Virya kshaya – Azoospermia
  794. Visarpa – Erysipelas
  795. Visha – Poison
  796. Visha Vikara – Disorders due to poison
  797. Visha vikara – Morbidity due to Poisonous substance
  798. Vishamagni – Impaired digestion power
  799. Vishamajvara – Intermittent fever
  800. Visharpa – Erysipelas
  801. Vishoochi  – Gastro-enteritis with piercing pain
  802. Vishoochika – Gastro-enteritis with piercing pain
  803. Vishtambha – Constipation
  804. Vishvachi – Brachial neuralgia
  805. Visphota – Blister
  806. Visphotaka – Blisterous eruption
  807. Vitbandha – Constipation
  808. Vitsanga – Constipation
  809. Vrana Dosha – Ulcer
  810. Vrana – Ulcer
  811. Vranopachara – Ulcer debriding agent
  812. Vriddhi – Inguino-scrotal swellings
  813. Vriddhi roga – Inguino-scrotal swellings
  814. Vrikka roga – Disorders of Kidney
  815. Vrikka shola – Kidney Pain
  816. Vrishya Rasayana Medhya – Aphrodisiac and Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrino-modulator properties, Brain Tonic / Nootropic
  817. Vrishya shakti – Vigour/Aphrodisiac strength
  818. Vyadhikarshita Nashtashukra – Oligospermia due chronic illness
  819. Vyanga – Pigmentation disorder
  820. Yakrit roga – Disease of liver
  821. Yakrit vikara – Disorder of liver
  822. Yakrit vriddhi – Enlargement of liver (Hepatomegaly)
  823. Yakritodara – Enlargement of liver (Hepatomegaly)
  824. Yakritpliha roga – Disorder of Liver and Spleen
  825. Yakritpliha Shoola – Pain due to hepatic and splenic diseases
  826. Yakritpliha vriddhi – Enlargement of liver and spleen
  827. Yakritplihodara – Disease of liver and spleen
  828. Yakshma – Tuberculosis
  829. Yauvana Pidika – Acne vulgaris
  830. Yoni bhramsha – Prolapse of Vaginal wall
  831. Yoni dosha – Disorder of female genital tract
  832. Yoni roga – Disease of female genital tract
  833. Yoni ruja – Vaginal Pain
  834. Yoni sankochaka – Vaginal constricting agent
  835. Yoni shoola – Pain in female genital tract
  836. Yoni Vikara – Disorder of Vagina

Hence, in this article, 839 types of commonly used Ayurvedic terminology and their English equivalents has been compiled. These Ayurvedic terminology now can be easily undertandible, and translated to other languages with reference to their English translations.

Explore Ayur Guides to learn basics of Ayurveda and other related topics.

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Ayurvedic Treatments/ therapies

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

What are Ayurvedic Treatments and Therapies – An Introduction

ayurvedic treatments

The main aim of Ayurveda is the preservation of Swasthya (health) and cure of ailments. The object of Ayurvedic treatments is to restore the patient’s natural balance of doshas. The main discipline in the practice of Ayurvedic medicine consists of two primary procedures- Brimhana and Langhana. Brimhana is nourishing and Langhana is reducing the body. Most of the diseases need langhana type of management. Langhana is of two types- Shamana (palliation) and Shodhana (purification).


When aggravation of doshas and accumulation of doshas are mild, they can be pacified by appropriate Samana medicines or treatment procedures. These comprise of Deepana-pachana drugs (Amapachana), Trit (restriction of fluid intake), Maruta sevana (exposure to fresh air), Atapa sevana (sunbath), Upavas (fasting), Vyayama (proper exercise). Since the elimination of root cause is not completely possible by these methods, the chances of recurrence are more.


The elimination therapy is employed when the vitiated doshas are more, or in other words the accumulation of impurities at an extreme level. Different methods are described for elimination, which suit to different disease conditions- Vamana (emesis), Virechana (purgation), Nasya (nasal medication), Vasti (medicated enema), and Raktamokshana (blood letting).


The group of five purification measures comprising of Vamana, Virechana, Vasti, Nasya and Raktamokshana are technically termed as Panchakarma in Ayurveda. Pancha means five and Karma means action. These are bio cleansing procedures used in Ayurveda. By these methods the toxins accumulated and adhered to the body channels (shrotas), due to derangement of doshas are expelled through the natural orifices of the body. (By Vamana through mouth, by Virechana and Vasti through anus and by Nasya through nostrils).

Since these are major operations (Pradhana karma), they require preoperative and post-operative procedures. The preoperative procedures are known as poorvakarmas. Snehana (oleation) and Svedana (sudation) are the two major preoperative measures. By snehana vitiated doshas adhere to the channels (Shrotas), tissues (Dhatus) and organs are moisturized and transformed in to a form suitable for elimination. Svedana is intended to liquefy the doshas and lead them to the gastro intestinal tract (Mahashrotas). After this, by administering appropriate Panchakarma, doshas are expelled through the nearest natural orifice of the body.

Then by using specific post operative measures, prescribed for each karmas, the body regains normalcy.


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The Concept of Prabhava in Ayurveda

Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

Prabhava in Ayurveda is an important topic every Ayurveda expert should know. It is the factor or power which changes the pharmacodynamics of a herb or drug. Generally, the drug shows their effects on the body by the virtue of their properties and active potent constituents. But, the Prabhava is a factor which changes the effects or action of the drug generally shows. This article will explain in brief about Prabhava, it’s characteristics and why it is very important to understand the drug action.

Prabhava in Ayurveda

Dravya (Aushadha or medicine) the important tool in the physician performance and one of the four limbs of treatment should be known by name form, properties and actions.

Read: What is Dravya according to Ayurveda

Read: Shada Padartha: Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

Prabhava is the non-specific activity or specific power which is one among Dravya sapta padarthas.


  1. Prabhava in Ayurveda is the one which is specific and special power of the Dravya.
  2. The property which is responsible for the special or peculiar action of Dravya is known as prabhava.
  3. The prabhava is the non-specific effect of a Dravya.
  4. Prabhava may be defined as the special property which produces actions which are different from and contrary to those attributed to rasa, guna, veerya and vipaka.

Synonyms of Vipaka in Ayurveda

  1. Shakti
  2. Vichitra pratyarabdhatwa
  3. Vikriti Vishama samaveta
  4. Achinthya virya
  5. Achinthya
  6. Anavadharaniya
  7. Swabhava


Prabhava in Ayurveda is the property which is characterised by specific actions of substances which can not be explained in terms of the pharmacological actions of various constituents of Dravya when they are considered individually in relation to each other.

Even though rasa, virya, vipaka are equal karma is mentioned especially because of one specific power. That specific property is known as Prabhava.

Prabhava in Ayurveda is the unimaginable effect of the drugs as it happens in the case of Mani (precious stones). Manthra (sacred chanting) and celestial herbs. They act in a manner entirely different from the expected action without depending on taste, potency, quality and digested taste existing in them. The term shakti or prabhava indicates the special or extreme capability of a drug this is always explained comparing two drugs, one with prabhava and one without.

Concept of Prabhava

Prabhava in Ayurveda has been explained while describing virya like, Dravya gat shakti of 2 types

  1. Chintya
  2. Achintya

Chintya is one which has got the base of karya karanabhava, hence it is called as chintya other one is Achintya. It is told that due to sahaja dravya swabhava. i.e., Yuktipratipadya  but not Buddhigamya. Swabhava is Achintya hence prabhava also dravya- swabhavagata hence that is Achintya. But it can not be considered under the base of karyakaranabhava action of the Dravyagata rasadi padartha’s will be changing because of prabhava and cause of this variation can not be predicted hence it is Achintya.

Prabhava as Achintya (unpredictable) generally from the constituents of a Dravya. It is also told the virya as Achintya and chintya. The ‘Achintya virya’ is considered as prabhava in Ayurveda.

Prabhava can be explained through the concept of ‘Achintya virya’ Prabhava janya karma is Achintya (unpredictable) and unquestionable.

On the basis of Panchabhoutika composition dravya are divided into 2 groups-

    1. Samanya pratyarabdha dravya
    2. Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya
    • Samanya pratyarabdha dravya are which exhibit structure related pharmacological activities and therapeutic effects.
    • Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya are which do not have structural similarity among the constituents.

    There is another classification:

    1. Prakritisama samaveta
    2. Vikrit vishama samaveta

    Basically, there is no difference between samanya prathyarabdha dravya and prakritisama samveta dravya but vikriti vishama samaveta differs from vichitra prathyarabdha dravyas. Vikriti vishama samaveta dravya will have similarity among the constituents but exhibits the special therapeutic effect independent of constituents. Thus prabhava may be tentatively divided into two categories.

    1. Vikriti- vishama samaveta: structurally similar but functionally dissimilar
    2. Vichitra pratyarabdha: structurally dissimilar but functionally similar.


    Sl. No.






    b) Yava


    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura, guru

    Madhura, guru




    b) Matsya

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura, guru

    Madhura, guru

    Sheetha virya

    Ushna virya


    b) Simha

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura, guru

    Madhura guru

    Madhura vipaka

    Katu vipaka


    b) Paravata

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Samana prathyarabdha





    5a) Kapitha

    b) Dadima

    c) Dhathri

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Amla rasa

    Amla rasa

    Amla rasa




    6a) Dhataki

    b) Haritaki

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Kashaya rasa

    Kashaya rasa

    Sheetha,virya grahi

    Ushna, virya rachana

    7a) Masha

    b) Gruta

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Madhura vipaka

    Madhura vipaka

    Pitta vardhaka


    8MadyaVichitra prathyarabdhaKatu vipakaPitta shamaka
    9VasaVichitra prathyarabdhaUshna viryaAgni sadana
    10PhanithaVichitra prathyarabdhaGuru, snigdha ushnaVatakara
    11a) Danthi

    b) Chitraka

    Vichitra prathyarabdha

    Samana prathyarabdha

    Katu, vipaka, ushna virya

    Katu, vipaka ushna virya




    1Mahat PanchamulaMadhura, kashaya, TikthaUshna
    2Anupa mamsaMadhura, kashaya, TikthaUshna
    3Saindhava lavanaLavanaSheetha
    4AmalakiAmla rasaSheetha

    Other examples of Prabhava in Ayurveda

    1. Mani dharana :Diamond which is a C5- isotope emits certain radiations which may help in various disease condition including cancer.
    2. Pumsavana karma: Human foetus is bisexual till 2-3 months of Intra-uterine life. Though sex is genetically predictable a substance called “ Differentiator” is finally deciding the sex of the human foetus before the third month.
    3. Virechanopaga: These are the prodrugs and analogues prodrugs are used to improve pharmacological or biological properties. Analogies are used to increase potency and to achieve specificity of action.
    4. Ubhaya bhagahara: The dosage of virechana dravyas and vamana dravyas is different therefore their actions, emesis and purgation are dose dependent.
    5. Bhallataka: When Bhallataka applied externally produces blisters because of its ushna virya. Same results virya subsides the Kapha and also results in Rasayana property, when Bhallataka is applied or used internally. The former utility is the examples of Nipatha or Adhishava and the later utility is the examples of Adhivasha. The invisible effects which are the outcome of Nipata might have been quoted as Achintya virya or prabhava.
    6. Kshira and grita are shamana pratyarabdha dravyas but the kshira reduces appetite while the gruta is an appetiser.
    7. Loshuna which has katu rasa, snigdha, guru guna, katu vipaka, it acts as kaphavatahara instead of increasing it.
    8. Raktashali and yavaka have similar properties but the former is Doshahara while the later is Doshavardhaka.
    9. Shirisha etc. acts as antidotes.
    10. Sometimes exposing the individual suffering from poisoning to the antidote. May yield a good result.

    Prabhava janya karma

    Prabhavajanya karma is of 3 types.

    1. Dravya prabhava: Drug action independent of the constitution. Example-  Some of the drugs which are Dosha prashamana, dhatu pradushana, swastahitha.
    2. Guna prabhava : Drug action depends on upon the constituents.
    3. Dravya-guna prabhava: Drug action depending upon the Dravya as well as guna.

    The following actions are exhibited through Prabhava.

    1. Agadiya karma ( antidote activity)- eg- Shirisha.
    2. Virechana karma  ( Purgative property)- eg- Danthi
    3. Rakshoghna karma  ( Antimicrobial property)- eg- Guggulu, jatamamsi
    4. Manasa karma  (Psychological activity)- eg- Kushta, Raktachitraka
    5. Bhowtika karma ( Physical activity).

    Prabhava – Acc. to modern pharmacology

    According to Modern Pharmacology Prabhava can be explained in following ways-

    Prabhava is considered as a non-specific activity of drugs. There are many pharmacological properties mentioned in Modern pharmacology which results in non-specific activity. Usually, it is believed that drugs with similar chemical structure will have similar pharmacological actions. But it is not possible to predict their activity on the basis of chemical structure alone.

    Sometimes drugs with similar chemical structure may have entirely different actions. Exapmle- Morphine and papaverine are structurally similar but their pharmacological action is different, the former is narcotic and CNS depressant while the later is non-narcotic and muscle relaxant. There are certain drugs like phenobarbitone chloral hydrate paraldehyde etc, which are structurally different but all are CNS depressants.

    In pharmacology, the drug activity can be classified as

    1. Structurally non-specific
    2. Structurally specific
    1. Structurally Non- specific: This activity is dependent on physical properties like solubility partition coefficients and vapour pressure and not on the presence or absence of some chemical group. Substances such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols amides, ethers, ketones & chlorinated hydrocarbons exhibit narcotic activity and potency of each substance is related to its partition coefficient structurally non-specific action results from the accumulation of a drug in some vital part of a cell with lipid characteristics.
    2. Structurally specific: This activity is dependent upon the factors such as the presence or absence of certain functional groups, intra-molecular distance and shape of the molecule.

    Activity is not easily correlated with any physical property and small changes in structure often lead to changes in activity structurally specific activity is dependent upon the interaction of the drug with a cellular receptor.


    Sl. No.
    13JatamamsiMadakariBhutaghna (Manasadoshahara)
    20ParaseekayavaniVedanastapanaMadaka and Vedanastapana
    54KebukaGarbhashaya- sankochakaGarbhashaya Sankochaka
    59ShalaAshmaribhedanaVedana stapana

    Superiority of Prabhava in Ayurveda

    The drug action is ultimately controlled by prabhava because that is the special or specific power of drug and it is superior among the drug constituents.

    The different factors which highlight the superiority of Achintya virya i.e., Prabhava are as follows

    1. Achintya ( Unpredictable): Its effects are quite unpredictable and therefore it is considered as superior.
    2. Daiva pratighata( Supernatural power): It exhibits supernatural power. Hence it is important.
    3. Visha pratighata ( Antidote effects): It helps in antidote activity irrespective of drug constituents hence it is superior.
    4. Darshana ( Practically visible) : Its extraordinary effects are practically seen.
    5. Shravana( praise): Many scholars praise its efficacy and superiority.
    6. Tulya-rasa-guna vishesha ( non-specificity): it will exhibit very special action independent of other drug constituents.
    7. Adhbhuta karma ( Magic effects): using precious stones hypnotism hymns chanting etc, will yield some magic effects. Hence prabhava is superior.
    8. Agama ( classical treatise): All the classical texts highlighted prabhava as the main quality of a dravya.

    Therefore, prabhava in Ayurveda is considered as superior among sapta padarthas.

    Discussion & Conclusion

    Prabhava in Ayurveda is the Non-specific effect of the Dravya. It includes both internal usage and external usage of drugs like Manidharana etc.

    Prabhava is the unimaginable effect of the drugs as it happens in case of Mani, Mantra Dravyas. They act entirely different from other padarthas. It is the term i.e., shakthi or prabhava indicates the special or extreme capability of a drug. This is always explained by comparing 2 drugs, one with prabhava and one without.

    Normally, the drug action basing on the predominance i.e., if rasa is powerful, the drug action in an accordance with rasa even if the guna, karma etc are different from rasa.

    Ex: Guduchi is tikta in taste and in spite of its ushna virya it acts as pittahara ( pitta) which means Rasa, the taste is more active in this drug Brahat panchamoola drugs though have kashaya rasa which increases vata acts as a palliative of vata by virtue of ushna virya. Shunti( dry ginger) has tikta rasa which has to increase vata but it is palliated vata by the virtue of madhura vipaka. The action of a drug which is not corresponding to any of first 4 pharmacological entities like Rasa, guna, virya vipaka is known as shakthi or prabhava, the special effect.

    Dravya, guna, karma will have similarity is genesis usually due to panchamahabhootha configuration. This is because similar will produce similarly. However, it need not be compulsory always. When there is equality or similarity there will be sajatheeya karma will occur ( samana prathyarabdha) otherwise vijatheeya karma will occur ( vidhitra prathyarabdha).

    If we consider prabhava as karma; karma  can not produce another karma so it is not possible to consider prabhava as karma. Hence it is concluded that prabhava is shakthi. It is sadhana for particular karma. Totally it can be considered as Dravya swabhava which is Achintya ( unpredictable) and vishista karma or specific or special action of the Dravya.


    Totally the prabhava in Ayurveda, can be considered as specific and special power of the Dravya it is also called a shakthi, Achinthya virya swabhava of the dravya. The prabhava can be considered as the property which is responsible for the specific or peculiar action of dravya which is unpredictable. This is the total concept of prabhava which is nothing but a special or specific property or power of the dravya.

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    The Concept of Guna in Ayurveda

    Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

    Guna in Ayurveda is one which is located in Dravya (a drug) inherently, acts as a causative agent and devoid of property and action. It means Guna itself has no action but it is a responsible agent in Dravya for such action.

    Characteristics of Guna in Ayurveda

    || samavayee tu nischesthaha ||

    Here the word nischestha has been intentionally added to the characteristic of Guna in order to differentiate it from Karma. If only the word Samavayee would have been used, it might have been transgressed the characters of Gunas, since Karma also has a non-separable relationship to Dravyas and resides in Dravyas.

    Dravya sustains Guna, Karma, but Guna can’t sustain Guna and Karma. Karma also resides in Dravya and it is a non-essential cause as well. Yet, it is the cause of aggregation and segregation at the same time.

    The author of text “Rasa vaisheshika” describes Gunas as “ Vishwa lakshana Gunah”. As these are responsible for the presence of various characteristics of Padarthas.

    Gunas acts as a medium for understanding the peculiarities of Dravyas. It is an acceptable principle that every Guna has a definite action a single Dravya  may have many Gunas and single specific Guna may be present in many Dravyas.

    Classification of Gunas

    Guna in Ayurveda is classified mainly into three types i.e., vaisheshika Guna, Samanya Gunas, and Atma Gunas. The Vaisheshika Gunas are- a) Shabda; b) Sparsha; c) Roopa; d) Rasa; e) Gandha.

    The Samanya Gunas (general Ayurvedic properties of material/ object) are 30 in number. They are divided into Guruvadhi and Paradi Guna.

    Guruvadi GunaParadi Guna
    Guru- LaghuPara
    Manda- TikshanaApara
    Hima- UshnaYukti
    Snigdha- RukshaSamyoga
    Shlakshna- KharaVibhaga
    Sandra- DravaPruthakatva
    Mridu- KathinaAbhyasa
    Sthira- SaraSamskara
    Sookshma- SthoolaParimana
    Vishada- PichchhilaSankhya

    Atma Gunas are 6 in number. They are- Ichchha, Dwesh, Sukha, Dukha, Prayatna and Buddhi. In total 41 Gunas are considered.

    Significance of Guna

    The references for Guna in Ayurveda are available in all the classics.

    In the definition of sharira- “dosha dhatu mala  mulam he shariram”, three factors dosha, dhatu and mala are exhibited through Gunas.

    In chikitsa aspects samanya vishesha siddhantha, samanya Guna will increases the dhatus etc. and  Vishesha Gunas will decreases the dhatus etc.

    Importance of Guna

    The importance of Guna in Ayurveda may be summed up as below-

    1. Rasabibhavata :- Actions of rasa that are present in Dravya are super seated by Guna.
    2. Rasanugraha :- The Gunas of Dravyas are cohesive to rasas only.
    3. Vipakakarantvata :- The vipaka super seats the rasas, but this vipaka is transformed mainly due to the Gunas.
    4. Sankyabahulyata :- In number also it is more.
    5. Prayogabahulyata :- In the aspect of usage the Gunas are widely used in clinical application.
    6. Karmabahulyata :- Guna is associated with and helps to bring action in various manner.
    7. Upadesha :- Many of granthas (Indian scriptures) explained about Gunas.
    8. Apadeshath :- It means description while describing an object we mentions its Gunas only.
    9. Anumanat :- The inference is also by Gunas

    Doshas and its Gunas

    Tridosha viz. Vata, Pitta and Kapha also have Guna (physical properties). See below-

    • Vata dosha :- ruksha , laghu, sheeta, khara, sukshma, chala.
    • Pitta dosha :- sneha, tikshna, ushna,laghu, visra, sara, drava.
    • Kapha dosha :- snigdha, sheeta, guru, manda, slakshana, sandra, mridu.

    This is all about Guna in Ayurveda in brief.

    Read: Shada Padartha & Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

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    The Concept of Veerya in Ayurveda

    Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

    The word Veerya is derived from ‘veer’ that means a dynamic property of a substance which brings about the action. Veerya in Ayurveda is a unique concept which is very important to understand the pharmacodynamics and action of a drug.

    The actions of Rasa are already described in my previous posts, the remaining actions are due to Veerya.

    Characteristics of Veerya in Ayurveda

    It is observed that drugs which effectively act on Dosha, Dhatu and Mala at a particular time become ineffective after sometimes. This is so because the potency of a substances or the Veerya which is responsible for the effective action, is lost when old.

    For this reason, all Samhitas (Ayurvedic classics) advise to use fresh Dravyas instead of old.

    A drug works through Veerya. If its Veerya gets depleted due to the effect of adverse conditions, it looses its dynamic potency because of which it becomes ineffective. Action only takes place if the drug possesses Veerya, if it doesn’t, actions are not seen.

    Different opinions exists regarding the form of Veerya. Some ancient Acharya mentions Veerya as a substances, some as Guna and Karma. Some describes Veerya as a dynamic potency and therefore consider it as a part of Guna. Modern scholars consider Veerya as ‘active principle’ and hence a part of special substances.

    Types of Veerya

    Veeryas are mainly divided into two types based on Charaka Samhita and Vagbhatta Samhita (Ashtangahridayam). i.e.,

    • Innumerable(Charaka)
    • Numerable (Vagbhata)

    ⇒ Astavidha Veerya (8 types of Veerya)- Guru, Laghu, Sheeta, Ushna, Snigdha, Ruksha, Mridu, Tikshna

    ⇒ Dvividha Veerya (2 types of Veerya)- Sheeta, Ushna

    Dvividha Veerya and its Mahabhoota, Karma/ effect on Dosha

    VeeryaMahabhoothaKarmaKarma on dosha
    SheetaPrithvi+ JalaPleasurable, stabilizing, cleaning,life givingPitta shamaka, Kapha- Vata vardhaka
    UshnaAgniBurning, fainting, loss of senses, sweating, emesis, purgationVata- Kapha shamaka, Pitta vardhaka

    Asthavidha Veerya and its Mahabhoota, Karma/ effect on dosha

    VeeryaMahabhoothaKarmaEffect on dosha
    SheetaPrithvi + JalaPleasurable, stabilizing, cleaning,life giving, heavyPitta shamaka, Kapha- Vata vardhaka
    UshnaAgniBurning, digestion, fainting, loss of senses, sweating and emesisVata- Kapha shamaka, Pitta vardhaka
    SnigdhaJalaSnehana, restorative, anti aging, aphrodisiacVata hara
    RukshaVayuConstipative, drying, heating, painfulVata vardhaka, Kapha shamaka
    GuruAgni+ VayuApplicative, promotive, aphrodisiacVata hara
    LaguAgni+ VayuScrapping, absorption, drying, healingKapha hara
    MriduJala+ AkashaBlood & muscle promotingPitta shamaka
    TikshnaAgniCollective, aspiration, drying, oozingKapha hara

    According to some Acharyas, Vishada replaces the Lagu and Pichchhila replaces Guru Veerya.

    Relations between rasa and Veerya

    Generally dravyas having Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya rasas are Sheeta Veerya and those having Amla, Lavana and Katu rasa, are Ushna Veerya. All these rasas which are related to Agni mahabhoota are Ushna Veerya, and rest are Sheeta Veerya. But there is a exception, even though Rasa is useful in arriving at an inference about Veerya , Vipaka, Guna. So it is wrong to decide the Veerya.

    Importance of Veerya in Ayurveda

    • Drug contains different entities like Rasa, Veerya, Vipaka etc. among all these Veerya is predominant because it brings about action of Dravya.
    • Only Dravyas which are predominant in Veerya are used in Chikitsa (treatment/ therapeutic purpose).
    • Action of Dravya is due to Veerya.
    • Veerya supersedes Rasa, Vipaka and Guna, therefore even when Rasa, Vipaka and Guna of a Dravya act in accordance with each other. Veerya brings about total action difference.

    Veerya is mentioned as extremely importance even by Aptavachas in literatures.

    Read: Shada Padartha & Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

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    The Concept of Vipaka in Ayurveda

    Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

    The word Vipaka in Ayurveda is originated from “vi-puch” (वि-पच) which means pachana. The synonyms are parinama, durgati, swadhu, nayati and ayu.

    Transformation of rasas after food is digested completely in the koshtanga (digestive system) by the help of Jatharagni (digestive fire) is called vipaka. When Ahara (ingested food) undergo digestion the Ahara rasa (chyle) is divided into Sara bhaga (useful parts/ nutrients) and Kitta bhaga (waste).

    Classification of  vipaka in Ayurveda:

    Vipaka is classified into 2 types- a) Prapaka; b) Vipaka.

    Prapaka :- It is the first stage of digestion. Here the Ahara (food) undergoes Paka (digestion) in Koshthanga levels (alimentary canal), nourishes the Tridoshas (Ayurvedic humour- Vata, Pitta and Kapha) respectively. It is also called Awasthapaka. It is of three types-

    i). Madhura avastha paka: It takes place from mouth to Amashaya (stomach) and nourishes Kapha dosha.

    ii). Amla avastha paka: It takes place at Amapakwashaya madhya (between the stomach and large intestine means duodenum and small intestine) and nourishes Pitta dosha.

    iii). Katu avastha paka: It takes place at Pakwashya (large intestine) and nourishes Vata dosha.

    Sushruta mentioned two types of prapaka i.e, Guru prapaka which does kapha vardhana (nourishes and increases  Kapha) and Vata Pitta shamana (pacify) and second Laghu prapaka which does Vata Pitta vardhana and Kapha shamana.

    Vipaka :-  It is done by bhootagni and dhathu agni. It is the final stage of Rasa which nourishes the respective Dosha, Mala and Dhatu by doing Ahara Rasa Paka by its respective Agni.

    Vipaka and its Guna and effect on Doshas:

    VipakaGunaEffects on Dosha
    MadhuraSnigdha, GuruKapha vardhaka
    AmlaSnigdha, LaguPitta vardhaka
    KatuRuksha, LaguVata vardhaka

    Karmas of Vipaka on Dosha, Dhatu and Mala:

    MadhuraKapaha vardhakaShukra vardhakaLaxative
    AmlaPitta vardhkaShukra nashakaLaxative
    KatuVata vardhakaShukra nashakaMay cause Constipation

    General rule of Vipaka in Ayurveda:

    Always Madhura Rasa Dravyas undergo Amla vipaka and katu, tikta and kashaya rasas undergo Katu vipaka. But Maharishi Parashara opines that Madhura, lavana, tikta and kashaya rasas undergo Madhura vipaka, Amla rasa to Amla vipaka and Katu rasa to Katu vipaka.

    Perception of vipaka:

    Vipaka of the dravya is ascertained by Anumana. When food undergoes vipaka it shows an effect, by this we can infer the vipaka of the food/ drug but in Pratyaksha, it can not be possible to ascertain.

    Importance of vipaka:

    Vipaka is one in which the Ahara (food) or Aushadhi (medicinal drugs) will attain the last stage of the homologous stage and nourishes the definite Dosha, Dhatu, Mala etc. respectively.

    • Even though it is not possible to see directly we can elicit by inference.
    • Even though it is of different Rasa, Guna etc. due to the Vipaka it undergoes to nourish Tridosha specifically by its action.
    • It is a micro-digested particle of food and medicine.
    • Vipaka is important among all other qualities like Rasa within Dravya, because Guna or dosha of Dravya depend on proper and improper digestion.

    Gunas are evolved due to the proper digestion of Dravya by balanced digestive fire and Doshas due to incorrect digestion.

    Vipaka  is more important because both aggravation and alleviation of Doshas are due to vipaka.

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    Shada Padartha – Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

    Last updated on: September 8th, 2017

    shada padartha

    Superiority among Shada  Padartha

    Shada Padartha is a term given to collectively 6 factors or materials viz. Dravya, Guna, Karma, Rasa, Veerya and Vipaka. Rasa panchaka is a term which includes five factors of dravya i.e., rasa, guna,Veerya, vipaka. These five are always the factors of dravya and these are having inseparable relation with dravya. The actions of these five factors depends on dravya only because these five are the fractions of dravya and some of interrelated while performing the karma.


    Among these rasa panchakas Charaka mentioned vipaka as the first because of its wide spread actions over the body. But the recent authers mentioned in the order of rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka, prabhava.

    Some are mentioned that rasa is more dominant than guna, guna is dominant than veerya, is this sequence till prabhava, but all these factors reside in dravya only for the propagation of actions of  components and dravya is the seat for all these five components. Every matters in the world are studied under the concept of dravya only.

    For the fulfillment of treatment in Ayurvedic science the knowledge of dravya is must. So for the knowledge of dravya the knowledge of these five factors is important.

    Lastly  whatever the opinion about the superiority of these five factors, as per the concern to application. The knowledge of whole five factors carrying equal weight age.


    “ Due to its presence and combination the substance acquires a distinct activity that is called Prabhava.”

    Prabhava- one which is of beyond to the normal effect even though two dravyas having same rasa, guna, beerya and vipaka, are shown for an definite action but finally it gives different action, this action of difference is due prabhava. This prabhva is also called achintya.

    Characteristics of Prabhava:

    If both the plants are having same rasa, guna, etc. its karma is different. This is due to the prabhava. For eg: milk and ghee both are sweet and cold but ghee is agni deepana but milk is not. This is due to prabhava.

    When dravya, rasa, guna, vipaka cannot explain any effect, then it should be assumed to be attributed by prabhava.

    Prabhava is the unique property of dravya which is unconvinced by other properties, its effect is seen but one cannot establish a casual relationship.

    By ancient scriptures prabhava is considered as superior one.