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The first mentioning of Dravyaguna is traceable from the description of Charaka who defined Ayurveda as the science which deals with Dravyaguna (Ayurvedic pharmacology) and Karmas (actions of drugs or pharmaco-kinetics) of helpful and harmful material. (CH. SU. 30). Dravya Guna Shastra has been identified as a separate speciality by Narahari, the author of Raj Nighantu (17 A.D.)
Acharya Priyavrata Sharma defined Dravyaguna shastra as the branch which deals with the property action and therapeutic effects of various dravyas((drugs).
Actually, Ayurveda does not advocate the concept of pharmacology and therapeutics separately, it advocates the concept of pharmacotherapeutics and clinical pharmacology .
Dravyaguna does not agree with universal truth, but it is based on the principle of thesis truth.These principles have been derived through knowledge experience,repeated elucidation of findings.
IMPORTANCE OF DRAVYA GUNA SHASTRA
The two main goals of Ayurveda are –
- To protect the health of a healthy person .
- To eradicate the disease.
These two goals will be achieved with the help of dravya.
- The imbalance of the body can be treated with the help of panchabhouthika dravya. (Su su 42)
- The versatile action of a drug can be explained as follow based on dosage. Even an acute poison can become an excellent drug if it is properly administrated. Even a drug if not administered properly can become a poison .
Bhavamishra (16-17 AD) quoted about the five constituents of a dravya viz Rasa, Virya, Vipaka, Guna and Prabhava. Adding dravya and karma to the above five, Acharya Yadavji Trikamji mentioned about sapta padartha .
A substance which possesses Guna (property) and Karma (action) with inheritance relation is known as Dravya.
- RASA (Taste)- The property perceived through the taste buds is known as Rasa.
- GUNA (Physical property)
It is the property which will have an inherent reaction with dravya but remains inactive.
This may be considered as the pharmacologically active ingredient of the drug which performs pharmacological activities.
- Read The Concept of Veerya in Ayurveda
VIPAKA (Drug Metabolism)-
It is a property of a drug which is responsible for the change in original taste on exposing to GIT enzymes.
- Read The Concept of Vipaka in Ayurveda
PRABHAVA (Non-Specific Activity)-
When a drug produces an effect which is not in accordance with the constituent is called as prabhava.
KARMA (Pharmacological Action)-
The inseparable relation for association and dissociation of the drug in exhibiting its action is called as karma.
The properties and action have no identity or existence without the substance and the substance has no identification without the properties and action. In a broad sense, any substance or mixture of substance intended to be used internally or externally for the preservation of fortification of health and for the prevention mitigation or cure of disease either man or another animal is called as Dravya. (Ch.su. 9/3)
Chikitsa Chatuspada – The four aspects of Therapeutics are the physician, patient, medicament and attendee. They are responsible for the cure of disease.
According to Charaka, there is no any substance in the world which may not be used as a medicine.
The drugs (dravya) perform a certain action in the body by virtue of its properties (guna) which exists in a state of co-inherent. This uniformity of the drug on other hand form the basis of the principle of similar and dissimilar. These principles imply that the predominant proto-element of the drug will increase similar proto-element in the body dissimilar will decrease the dissimilarity.
Thus the six padharta gets a practical application in Dravya Guna Dravya holds the position of prominence in this six padharta of ayurveda .
Derivation of Dravya –
- The word dravya is derived from “Dru Gato Dhatu”.
- The word Dru means origin and Gato mean movement, knowledge.
Defination of Dravyas-
- Dravya is having, function & qualities with samavaya sambandha. (vi & su )
- Dravya is having a base for karma & guna. They both defined on dravya with samavaya sambandha. (Ch su 1 )
- Dravya is one on which the rasa etc 5 factors depends. Ex. Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, parbhava. (Bhavamishra)
- Five factors- Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, prabhava depends on dravyas. (Rasa vaisheshika )
- The lakshana of dravya is that the guna & karma is on it with samvaya sambandha. (Yoga ratanakara).
- Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, prabhava these all in a combination defined on dravya. (Nagarjuna).
- In this context, Chakarapani explained that guna term includes Rasa, virya, vipaka, guna, prabhava etc. (Chakrapani).
- The one in which guna & karma are present with is called as dravya. (Dr. gu. su.)
Charaka quotes an example that, “a drug is like a fabric material and its properties and action are like the yarn of the fabric.” Though the definition of dravya given by Charaka is intended for Karma dravyas the same is applicable to Karya dravya.
The drug will show different Gunas – Karmas when used in therapeutics.
Badhanta Nagarjuna defined dravya as a set of operation for the activates of rasa, guna, virya & vipaka.
Concept of Panchamahabhuta in Dravya
For Ayurveda, panchabhuta theory is important as chemistry is for modern medicine. There is evidence about five elements theory in the western medicine during ancient times.
- Bhuta is defined as the matter which proves its existence through certain characteristic feature or it is the factors which produce all the inorganic and organic material. (Ra.va.)
- Sushruta mentioned about the process of conversion of food into body constituents through the action of Agni. (Su.su 46/80)
- Charaka concludes that all the objects in the universe are composed of Panchabhutas. (Ch.su26/10)
- Here Chakarapani clarified that the karya dravyas are only panchbhoutika but not karana dravyas.
- With this background, Sushruta correctly defined that the treatment ultimately depends on Panchamahabutas. (Su.sa.1/9)
- The body will need a diet which in turn composed of mahabhutas. Therefore they will undergo & improves respective biochemical equivalent in the body. (Su.sa1/9)
- The main difference is that explains their concept on the basis of Paramanu (atom) & Trisrenu whereas Sankhya explains as Tanmatra & mahabhuta which is also accepted in Ayurveda. Text mention that 2 parmanu become dvayanuka & 3 dvayanuka will make a trisrenuka. However, it is accepted by both the philosophy about physical & chemical characteristic one by one..(Su.sa1/9)
- It is stated that the creation begins with Ayurveda or Prakriti which is imperceivable in nature. In biochemistry, it is known as cosmic energy coming from the galaxy. The inline energy of the universe in its results only. After we have ahankara with the fragments viz vikarika, tejas, bhutadi. These 3 will represent the move stable energy particles i.e. proton, Rough is electron & is neutron. These 3 together known as trividha ahankara. Since satva is a source of positive energy. Scientifically, in modern Physiology all the motor and sensory function are the results of +ve & -ve ions across a membrane either depolarization by means exchange of +ve charged Cu+, K+, Na+, etc. or negatively charge CL–, O–, etc. results in bodily activities. The same is the basis for considering Satva & Rajas for Ekaadasha Indriya (11 senses).
- Panchamahabhuta mainly indicates the physical properties of matter or atom while Panchatanmatras mainly indicate the chemical properties of the atom along with physical properties have a linear or vertical expansion like the group in the periodic table.
- These five elements in the form of five compounds are a major constituent of the body. They are CO2, CH3, PO3, H2O, & NH3.
- It is mentioned in the classics that all minutest level have their individual characteristic like Shabda etc. There features add one to another as the evolution of bhutas complete. This process of quantification is denoted as Anyonapravesha or Panchpanchi karana in Ayurveda & Vedanta respectively. (Ch.sh. 1/27-28)
- As Avayakta is inactive, activity is provided by Purusha. This may be compared to the kinetic energy of the atom.
The action of the drug is intimately related to its chemical structure in the form of the preponderance of one or two proto – elements in them. Even during digestion or metabolism, there is always a chemical reaction leading to conjugation of molecules in drug showing different action in different stages.
The drug will show its proper effect if it is used at the proper time and after taking into consideration of different factors. Some of the substance which is chemical to the body element tends to disagree with the system and will cause different side effects. So after appropriate consideration, only one should use the drug for getting the desired effects.
The knowledge of dravya is very important, not only in Ahara (food) aspect but also in the Aushadha (drug) aspect because of its pancha bhoutikta. If the drug is not known then it can be compared with poision, fire, and thunderbolt. But if anyone knows about it then it acts like a nectar. (Raj nighantu)
A drug acts by its potency. Different drug has different arrangement of five proto elements in terms of weight, number and configuration. The drug shows different action at a different stage. But sometimes, the action of a substance cannot be explained and for them, we will give the name of Prabhava of substance. eg; effect of different stones on Graha (planets).
The drug mentioned by Charaka in Gana produces similar action individually and also in combination. But it is not in the case as explained by Sushruta. These drugs cannot give individually similar effect what is given by them in combination. This is the beauty of Dravya and Ayurveda.
Dravya Sangrahana (collection) and Samrakshana (preservation)
Collection and preservation of Ayurvedic raw material is well explained in Ayurvedic texts. Ayurveda is a science of life and art of living the knowledge of life science bestowed health and longevity in the form of preventive and curative measures. Dravyaguna is a branch of science which deals with all drugs used in the treatment of diseases, their source, collection, preservation, preparation dosages and uses.
Collection of specific drugs played utmost role in Ayurveda. In Ayurveda has considered that all the drugs are made up of pancha mahabhoota. Therefore, due consideration should be given to the type of land, soil, direction, users, etc. The herbs should also have some characters, not affected by smoke, rain, air or water and also collected in respective season. Drugs must have single predominant taste, well developed, strong such drug may be collected preserve for therapeutic utility.
After collection of the drugs as mentioned above, preservation and protection is equally important. Otherwise the drugs once spoiled cannot be used in treatment. Drugs are maintained in a sound condition by adopting proper storage and a study of the causes of deterioration enables one to perceive the general principle which must govern the condition of storage. Drugs need preservation for future use in treatment.
Optimal timing for usage
There is a limitation for the development of every food and medicinal plant. Time consideration is important for plants. Any plant unless fully grown and completely developed does not acquire its attributes of properties and actions mentioned in the books are those of the mature plants, immature plants, if used, do not show the desired effects. Some drugs matue in summer, some in winter and rest in the rainy season, flowering and fruiting makes the plant rich in its properties.
Latex of a plant should be collected before sunrise. Milky juice of cactus is never collected before the plant is two to three years old. Consideration of time for such collection method is important. To observe the effect of a drug on the body, every second, minute, hour, morning, afternoon, evening, month, year, etc. ae considered. Similarly, in the patient, various stages of digestion like aam, semi-digestion, full digestion, prerigor sage, pyretic stage, etc. are also important.
Drugs – their collection & preservation
Ayurveda has considered that all the drugs are made up of Panchamahabhootas.
Substances of any use, medicinal or dietary are intimately related to the type of land in which they are produced. Therefore, due consideration should be given to the type of land, i.e., soil, land, which ultimately determines the Gunakarma of Dravyas, produced in it, it is classified into 5 types. Though soil is Panchamahabhoota, its composition in relation to individual Mahabhoota varies at different places, hence the change in properties and action.
Parthiv – This type of soil containing stones, is hard, black, with tall tries and grass.
Aapya – This soil is of different colours, full of small stones, brownish white coloured and grassy.
Tejas – Dry, ash coloured, trees scatered dry, hollow and grassy.
Vavyaveeya – This soil is soft but uneven, water tasteless, trees of useless varities, large mountains and blackish colour.
Soil & water are responsible for the formation of Rasa just as Panchamahabhootas forms various dravyas, herbs, shrubs and climbers continuously ingest water. Water is devoid of Rasa but it is expressed in climbers and plants because of contact with the soil. Therefore, soil and environment become important factor while considering the dravyas.
As all the medicinal dravyas from various sources are related to soil, its study for fertility and usefulness becomes essential.
Infertile land, uneven pits, deep trenches, collection of dirty and waste water, heaps of ant hills, funeral place, temples and desert land are indicative of infertile land.
Fertile land – land having even surface, salt less near pond or late, where grass grows, soft black, white or red color without cultivation containing only medicinal plants and no other vegetation, jungle and sadharan land is considered to be fertile.
The possibility of underground gold, silver, iron or copper can be judged by the habitat and growth of plants in that region. It is also rational to think that the same Guna acquired from the metals into the plants would be useful as medicine.
Irrespective of the type of the crude drug and the area of collection, these can be two options that the drug should be collected when they contain maximum concentration of active constituents. The advantage of the environmental conditions is also taken into consideration while collecting the crude drugs. The drug which constitute leaf and the flowering tops are collected just before they reach flowering stage (maturity).
eg; Senna digitalis, vinca, belladonna, etc., the leaves of the aloe are collected when they are sufficiently thick, flowers need to be collected just before pollen or before their full blooming.
eg; saffron, clove buds, chamomite, etc. the barks are generally collected in the spring or early summer when the combium is active as it is easy to detach them from the stem. Sometimes, they are collected in autumn (wild cherry) or in rainy season (cinnamon), fruits are collected just before their dehiscence of bael and tamarind after their fully maturity while caraway, fennel and coriander are collected when they are fully ripe. Rhizomes are collected after full vegetative growth of plants, ginger and turmeric. The roots are collected in spring. Before the vegetative procedure stops, Rhizomes and roots are collected when they store ample of reserve food material and maximum contents of chemical constituent. The unorganized drug such are resins, gums and lattices are collected as soon as they ooze out of the plant. The general opinion is that the time of collection should coincide with the time when the active ingredients are at their maximum level. They should also be free from insect infestation.
Drugs need preservation for future use in treatment. The should be easily available. A drug used as medicine should not come in contact with bacteria, insects, poison, instruments, smoke, sunshine, air, fire and water. Plants with deep and thick rooks, fulfilling the essential properties of rasa, guna, colour, smell and proportion and plants grown in favourable season are suitable for proper preservation and treatment of diseases.
In India, the Himalayas lie towards the north and there is a belief that moon which is the guardian of the north is the ruler of plant kingdom. Therefore, plants gown in the Himalayas and in the northern region, are considered of the best quality and their use is advocated.
The use of Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus and Herpestis moniera are advocated in fresh form and therefore should not be preserved.
Honey, piper longum and embelia ribes should be used after preserving these for one year. The time is required for their maximum efficacy.
Method of drug preservation
For collecting the plants grown in suitable soil as mentioned above, a person should pluck or uproot the plant after a bath wearing white clothes, mind stabilized by reciting shlokas, praying to gods, Ashwinikumaras, cow, brahmin and faithfully facing the north or east direction. East indicates vitalizing the plant energy through the sun and north is the symbol of the moon, the ruler of plants. Similarly, regarding time, pushya nakshatra, ashwin nakshatra and mriga nakshatra are considered to be superior. Moon being the ruler of pushya and mriga nakshatra, it (moon) transferred its properties into the plant during these nakshatra. This must be related to aptopadesha.
Just as man is controlled by cosmos, plants ae also under the influence of the cosmos. Therefore, the study of environment for their preservation is essential. Plants collected in the rainy season always tend to perish, therefore rainy season is unsuitable for preservation. Also perennial plants are immature in their Rasas during rainy season. Generally some are plucked at the end of winter and some at the end of autumn since they are fully enriched with their Rasas.
Specific period of preservation
While preserving the plant, its useful parts should also be given due importance. Generally, the part or the specific portion which is considered for use, must grow full – maturity.
According to Rajagnighantu, Tuber – Hemant, Root – Shishir, Flower – Vasant, Leaves – Greeshma & Panchang Sharad.
According to some other acharyas, root – pravrutt, leaves – varsha, bark – sharad, latex – hemant, juice vasant, fruit greeshama.
Useful parts- Period
Branches- Rainy season or autumn
Leaves- Rainy season or autumn
Root- Summer or winter
Bark, Tuber & Latex- End of summer or the beginning of winter, latex of calotropies procera to be collected at the beginning of summer and End of winter.
Flower, fruit- Blossom and fruiting period of the specific plants.
Veerya in drug procurement
Above mentioned seasonal view may not be useful while considering veerya. Instead of considering specific parts in specific season for drug collection due importance should be given to its veerya. Sheeta veerya drugs which possess madhur snigdha & sheeta gunas should be collected during visargakala while ushna veerya drug which possess tikta, ruksha & ushna, properties must be collected in adan kala.
Consideration of karma in drug procurement
Similar to veerya, consideration of the action of drug is also important. To bring about effective purgation, the drug must be collected from the soil containing prithvi & jala mahabhootas which have a tendency to move downwards. Similarly, for emesis, the drug should be collected from soil predominantly containing agni and vayu mahabhootaswhich tend to move downwards. Drug acting for both the purposes must be collected from soil containing akash Mahabhoota so that the expected action is achieved.
Sharangdhar mentions that for emetic and purgative action drug should be collected at the end of vasant ritu and for rest of the action in the sharad rutu but the best period is when they are enriched with their Rasa.
Collection of dietary item
Food contains different part of plants like fruit, tuber, seed, panchang, etc. – Sushruta has laid down the following guidelines:
Fruit – Only ripe (not raw or over ripe), fruit are collected. the exception is Aegle marredes which is collected in a raw form which is very effective fruits which are diseased, insect affected, untimely grown, affected by fire or cold or artificially ripened ae not to be collected.
Vegetables – over ripe, worms and insect affected, spoilt, grown in dirty soil, untimely tasteless and dried vegeable should not be collected (exception is raddish). Vegetables which are soft, maatue, unspoilt, grown in proper season and soil are wet are advocated for consumption.
Kanda – Tuber which are raw, untimely grown, old, diseased and eaten by insects should be discarded. They should be well nourished, timely grown and pest-free.
Cereals – Cereals which are affected by too much heat or cold fire, poisonous gases, insect affected, wet grown in unsuitable soil, untimely, with other cereals and valueless should be discarded and those of suitable quantity must be collected.
Collection of drugs of animal origin
Similar consideration must be given to the collection of drugs of animal origin. Animals from whom blood, hair or nails are to be collected, must be fully grown. (These animals mature at ¼ th the age of the total life span of the species.. this span varies with different species.) Similarly, milk, urine, etc. of animals should be collected after complete digestion of their food.
Preservation of drugs
After collection of the drug as mentioned above, preservation and protection is equally important, otherwise the drugs once spoiled cannot be used in treatment for this season, the drugs in the store room must be protected from wet soil, dust, water, fire, smoke, dirt, vapour, rats, cockroaches, ants, flies, etc. Even the containers like vessels, jars, drum, etc. must be such that they will not affect the rasa, properties and action of drugs.
Efficacy of sheeta veerya drugs increases if kept in cold storage or refrigerator. At least it will not decrease. In olden days, such medicines were kept in earthen pots, coconut kernel, covering of hard fruits and brass vessels. But now many varieties of containers are available where it can be protected in a better way.
Potency period of the drug
The main aim of collection and preservation of the drug is to maintain its potency by conserving its properties and action. Even the best selected and protected medicine loses its effectiveness after a certain period. Generally they are potent for one year. Therefore, a proper label giving the date of manufacture, batch number and the expiry date must be attached.
The successful preservation of drug depends on air, changing seasons, container and packaging. Then the potency of a drug will be preserved for a longer period. Sunshine, humid air, rainy season, torn or open container immediately depotentiate the drug, making it ineffective.
Preservation of fresh and dried specimens
Different methods are followed for preserving dry and green plants. This is useful for identification.
Leaves of the plant in intact condition must be pressed between two sheets of blotting paper to absorb humidity. Then they must be stuck or stitched to the paper, treated with liquid hydrogen perchloride or clipped in gelatine and then dried. This process helps preservation for a longer period.
Better than this method is the preparation of mega slides. It maintains the natural colour, appearance and shape of the specimen and hence it is more suitable.
Method of preserving the specimen of plants in natural state
(Dr. Mrs. Shyamalatai Chitale’s technique)
- Branch of a tree or a creeper bearing leaves and flowers or small sprout with the primary root is collected and immediately dipped for 5 minutes in the mixture mentioned below. If the flowers and leaves are too delicate for the mixture then the sample must be sprinkled with the mixture and then spread on blotting paper for 1-2 hours under pressure. The mixture is prepared by 5 to 1- gms. of tannin powder dissolved in 500 ml of water boiled and filtered and preserved in glass or stainless steel container or jar with a tight lid.
- 10 gm. of camphor & 10 gm. of menthol are mixed with equal quantity of castor oil and kerosene to make up to one litre. Camphor & menthol take 10-15 minutes to dissolve uniformly in the mixture. The solution should be applied to a paper with help of a brush and then spread over the sample. Another paper is kept on the sample after spreading it with the mixture. Then the sample is wrapped between the two papers. A hot iron is used to dry the sample by pressing the upper paper which is removed repeatedly to test the dryness of sample. Then it is transferred between the cloth fold and again a hot iron press is used to absorb the remaining moisture by the cloth. Left over solution makes the sealing of the sample in a polythene bag , difficult.
- A sample prepared in the manner described above is scaled in a polythene bag for the process, a sample is kept between two polythene sheets of required thickness and then transferred between the fold of the cloth bag. A hot iron press is applied over the cloth. The two polythene paper stick together because of the pressure and heat applied. While sealing the polythene bag it is repeatedly observed that excess of heat is prevented which may burn or wrinkle the polythene bags. Practice, experience and a use of proper hot press makes the sealing optimum. Principles of this method and its advantages – Tannic acid is the best preservative of the colour even then excess of acid may change the colour, for example, Hibiscus rosa sinesis change from red to voilet many times. Citric acid is used along with tannic acid to preserve the red colour. Application of lemon juice over the hibiscus flower for 3-4 minutes induces dehydration and pressure the rend colour of the flowers.
- Pressure and artificial heat of the hot press dehydrates the sample rapidly. Infiltration of this oily mixture helps to preserve and protect the colour of the plants. Oily mixture also makes the sample transparent for examination of the internal structure as well as protect it from insects and fungi.
- Oil mixture makes the sample soft and elastic sealed polythene bag protects it from becoming friable and also makes it easier to observe the sample from both dorsal and ventral surfaces. This transparent sample can be better studied under the microscope. Overall, it helps to identify the sample in an easy way.
Chitale’s technique is the best modern preservative method to study plants. Even then the old method of preservation should be known and was as follows:-
Collected fresh and wet leaves after cleaning and drying were kept between two sheets of blotting paper under pressure in a frame. Humidity is absorbed by the blotting paper and the required aeration is given by opening the press intermittently. Wet paper is also changed frequently. By this process, the sample dries subsequently it can be glued or tied to drawing paper before this process it is treated with a solution of 1:1000 hydrogen perchloride to protect it from insects, mites and fungus.
In this method, even after following all the precautions, the natural colour fades and gets spoiled by air after some days. Rainy season is not suitable for preservation by this method as no precaution can prevent fungal growth in this season. Best season is between October & June.
The process of preservation of fresh plants
Green wet plants dipped in 5-10% formalin in an air tight jar remains for many years in the original form which can be used for identification of the plant. For medicinal use, these plants are incorporated in formulations which are based on honey oil or ghee, fruits and vegetables are preserved in air tight jars, wet plants can be preserved in polythene bags for a long duration (needs scientific research).
While preserving fresh power or tablets the old ones must be discarded completely to prevent the danger of using non-effective drugs. Wet & fresh vegetables can be preserved for 7-8 days in air tight plastic bags.
Ref: Sushruta sutra 37/12-13
Drugs whether fresh or old and emitting a contrary smell or in any way affected as regards their natural sap or juice should not be used for pharmaceutical purposed. The virtues of such medicinal drugs and substance such as vidanga, pippali, madhu improve (after a year). Accordingly, all drugs and medicinal herbs excepting the preceding ones should be used fresh and unsoiled or uninjured by insects.
Guidelines regarding collection of individual plant parts
1. Stem – This is ideally collected when the plant has reached maturity and full growth. The special period for the harvesting of stem is when the interior part is collected after 20 years. Guduchi should be at least 2 years old before collected.
2. Stem bark – should be collected in Sharad rutu.
3. Fruit – are collected according to yielding season and when they achieve full growth and maturity. Eg: Amalaki fruits which can be dried and preserved. those which are used fresh.
4. Branches – should be collected when the tree is shedding its leaves as in cold season. eg: Teja patra.
5. Root – Grishma season
6. Flowers – should be collected during vasantha ruthu since this is the flowering season. However, there are many exceptions like Kutaja tree flowers during the Varsha rutu and jasmine flowers during Grishma rutu.
Generally speaking, flowers should be collected according to the season when they bloom.
7. Leaves – tender leaves should be collectd during vasantha ruthu and well grown mature leaves should be collected during vasantha ruthu. Generally the leaves should be collected before the following season:
Special direction for collection
When the roots are very big and thick the roots bark should be collected. eg., Brahat panchamula are to be collected the innermost part of the stem, i.e. the sara has to be collected.
Collection of herb according to their potency
Collection schedule of different part of the drug
- Underground parts should be collected after shedding to facilitate regeneration.
- Generally collected in autumn in 1st year of growth or in spring before the beginning of 2nd year growth as root and other underground parts are the storage organ and accumulate active principle during the summer.
- Do least cligging for the collection of underground parts.
- Tubers/bulbs should be collected during flowering because this aids in identification of the species.
- Bark should be harvested from mature plants during spring or autumn because this time when the flow of sap is at maximum and bark radically detached from the wood.
- Collected from the branches instead of main trunk.
- Do not harvest when plant is sprouting.
- Do not peel whole bark of plant.
- Strip the bark longitudinally and not all over the circumference to trunk / branches.
- Cut into small pieces to facilitate complete drying .
- Do not remove all the branches of plant.
- Harvest only mature branches for stem.
- Dry the herbs properly before packing and storing.
- Leaves, flowers, fruit seeds and floral should be harvested when they are mature.
A preservative is a substance which is added to pharmaceutical formulations to prevent or inhibit the growth of micro organism in the preparations. They are added to all formulations which are to be stored for long period of time and the ingredients of which support microbial growth. The emulsions and suspensions (eg., Phanta, Kvatha) containing H2O and carbohydrates as emulsifying and suspending agents respectively must be suitably preserved because water and carbohydrates provide very good medium for the multiplication of bacteria and molds.
A preservative is unnecessary in multi dose containers prepared by heating with bactericide because they already contain a lethal substance, nor they are necessary in preparations which contain medicament having bactericidal properties.
Choice of preservative
- It should be effective against a wide rage of microorganisms.
- It should be compatible with other ingredients of the formation.
- It should be soluble in aqueous phase when used in emulsion.
- It should be non-toxic.
- It should be free from odour and taste.
- It should preserve the preparation and remain stable for the shelf life of the products.
No single preservative possess all the qualities, therefore it becomes necessary to use a combination of preservatives to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The most commonly used preservatives are as follows:-
- Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate 0.1 to 0.2%
- Salicylic acid 0.1%
- Phenol 0.2 – 0.5%
- Chlorocresol 0.05 – 0.1%
- Alcohol 15 – 20%
- Chlorobutanol 0.5%
- Phenylmercuric nitrate 0.002 – 0.005%
- Scorbic acid & its salt 0.05 – 0.2%
- Benzalkonium chloride 0.004 – 0.02%
- Methyl paraben & propyl paraben 0.1 – 0.2%
Rasa shala= Bheshajgara= Ayurvedic Pharmacy
In Ayurvedic pharmacology, pharmacy is a well advanced branch. Crude drugs are rarely administered, various formulations ranging from simple distillates (arka), decoctions (Kwatha), linctus (leha, avaleha) and powders (churna) to elaborate pharmaceutical preparations like pills of different sizes and medicated oils are available. In liquid formulation too a wide range exists. These are swarara kwatha, phanta and alcoholic extracts. The potency is highest in fresh juice and lowest in cold water.
Before entering into the selection and processing of aushadhi for therapeutic purpose, it is necessary to get acquainted about the selection of place and construction of the pharmacy.
Construction of Ayurvedic Pharmacy
While selecting a place for the establishment of a pharmacy and during construction, following points should be kept in view:
1. It should be free from impediments – both man-made and providential.
2. Green & dried herbs should be available in the campus or nearby or they can be cultivated and stored inside.
3. It should look beautiful and be located near the sources of water like well, ponds and river.
4. The area should be surrounded by a boundary wall.
5. The statue of Rasa Bhairava should be located in the eastern side.
6. In agni kona (south-east direction) fire place should be located in the southern side.
7. Equipment for trituration, making paste, etc., should be located in the southern side.
8. Nairutya kona (place in the south-east direction) should be used for manufacturing and storing yantra (cooking equipment).
9. The place in western side should be used for washing.
10. Green herbs and freshly prepared medicines should be dried in the vayuvya kona.
11. The place in the northern side should be used for processing mercury and other metals as well as minerals.
12. Bhasma (processed fine powders of mercury, metals and minerals) tablets, medicated oils, medicated ghee, linctus should be stored in the house located in the ishana kona (north eastern direction).
Equipment & raw drugs used in Ayurvedic pharmacy
The following equipment and raw drugs which are frequently required should be stored in the pharmaceutical laboratory:
1. Pestles & mortars of different size and shape. These are made of either stone or iron or crystals.
2. Bottles, pots, cups, plates, utensils & jars made of glass, mud, wood as well as metals for storing raw drugs and finished products.
3. Equipment like forceps, spatula, spoon, knife, scissors, sieves, crucibles & yantras.
4. Weighing machines and balances of different capacity & shape.
5. Different types of fuel like wood, cow-dung cake, coal, charcoal & husk.
6. Mercury, other metals, minerals, drugs of vegetable origin, animal products, poisons of vegetable origin, salts, alkalies, gems & jewels.
Plan for pharmacy
According to modern pharmaceutics, the pharmacy should be constructed near to hospital. The space and equipment required for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals depends on the number and type of products to be prepared and the processes involved in the production. Since each dosage from required specialized production equipment and techniques, there may be separate areas of production for tablets, capsules, liquids, ointments and parenteral preparation, etc. In the manufacture of all sorts of preparations, various steps are involved which require space and special equipment. The total pharmacy is planned in the form of square shape, it will be divided into two parts the space is allowed for the passage. In one part, the total area is divided into three divisions, first division is meant for sterilization purpose which is called aseptic section. Second division contains different machines related with manufacturing of medicines. The next division is divided further into three parts in one part raw material is stored, in second part, the semi processed raw materials will be stored and on the third part the finished products will be stored.
The second major division of the pharmacy is again further divided into one small part and large part in small part the administrative unit is arranged , the large part contains different types of counters meant for dispense different types of medicines this part also includes reception.
1. Manufacturer should have adequate space –
a) Receiving & storing raw materials (it may be animal / herbal origin).
b) It should have adequate space for manufacturing process area.
Eg. In Ayurvedic pharmacy they prepare taila, Aasava, Arista, etc. there are some particular places are mentioned for preparation of pisti there should be 100 sq.ft. for
Churna, Aasva, Arista – 200 sq.ft.
Kajjali – 100 sq.ft.
Syrups – 150 sq.ft.
All the section of these preparation should be separately made.
c) Each Ayurvedic pharmacy / factory should have adequate space for quality control. Each and every batch of medicine should be experimented by giving to animals. This is known the efficiency of medicine.
d) Should have adequate space for finished good store. The finished product should be stored in well hygienic place.
1. Adequate space for rejected gods / drugs. By quality control some of the products of medicines are rejected. Even the breakage goods should be discarded. Even some of the raw materials also rejected.
2. Location & surroundings
Medicine should be prevented by contamination products like –
- Open sewage
- public factory which produces some dust fumes or some chemical gases.
Some minimum standard of materials should be used to construct a building.
The building should have –
- Adequate light and ventilation
- The walls should not be damped, i.e., moisture which may spoil the medicine.
Arrangement of section is done to avoid the mixing of some drugs contamination, etc. Thus the building should be like this where no step of manufacture should be missed.
4. Building should be constructed such a way that the insect, worms should not enter.
5. Flooring should be smooth and even, should not permit the accumulation of dust and waste product –
- water supply
- disposal of waste
- workers health
- some records should be maintained
- record of market complaints.
In ancient day certain rules and regulations, to construct pharmacy, they constructed in such a way that they give importance to all things like raw drug collection, preservation and preparation. It is adopted in 1940 June 22.
The concept of ancient, modern pharmacy are same but techniques are different:
6. Water supply
Water used in manufacture of medicine should be pure and potable quality, adequate, provision of water supply.
7. Disposal of waste
There should be separate chamber for disposal of waste. To avoid the contamination of the medicine, the waste should be disposed in such a way that it should not hamper the environment.
8. Containers cleaning
In pharmacy some containers like bottle, jars, vessels, there should be adequate arrangement to wash clean and drying of the containers and such others.
Storage should have proper ventilation and free from dampness.
It should have adequate space for storage of raw material:
- package material
- finished products
10. Raw materials are of different category:
- metallic origin
- mineral origin
- animal sources
- fresh herbs & dry herbs
11. Packing materials
Bottles, jars, capsules
All packing materials should be moist free.
12. Finished goods store
means the prepared medicine, packed labelled finished goods are dispatched from the production area and this is moved to approved goods store are and then it should be marketed. Along with this a minimum quality standard of equipment should be used in the preparation of medicine.
13. Batch manufacturing records.
Record of market complaints through some medical representatives, the medicine is dispatched. The medical representatives should consult with the physician and then it is dispatched to the market.
Quality control section
1. Quality control section shall verify all the raw materials, monitor in process quality checks and control the quality of finished product being released to finished good store. Preferable for such quality control there should be separate expert quality control section.
2. For identification of raw drugs, reference book and reference sample should maintain. Manufacturing record should maintain for various process.
3. To verify the finished product controlled sample of finished product of each batch will be kept for 3 years.
4. Manufacturers who are manufacturing patent proprietary ayurveda medicine shall provide their own specification and control references in respect of such formulation drug.
5. The record of specific method and procedure of operation i.e., Bhasma, Mardana, Puta of every process carried out by the manufacture shall be maintained.
6. The standards for identity, purity and strength as given in respective pharmacopoeias of Ayurveda system of medicine published by Govt. of India shall be compiled with.
7. All the new material will be monitored for fungal, bacterial contamination with a view to minimize such contamination.
8. Quality control section will have minimum of 1 person with degree qualification in Ayurveda as per Schedule II of Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1990 of a recognised university or Board provided the Bachelor of Pharmacy, Pharmacognacy & Chemistry may be associated with quality control section.
A site for the Ayurvedic pharmacy is chosen where there is no obstacle of any kind where all medicinal herbs are available which is beneficial and beautiful to look at and consists of a well pharmacy building is built at the north position and north-west portion or eastern part of a site this Rasashala should be equipped with all kind of equipment and is beautiful to look at and should be surrounded with the compounds.
Rasa Bhairava is installed at the eastern side of the pharmacy all the instrument relating to fire work are assembled at the southern part grinding work is performed. An arrangement is made for the process using sharp instrument at the south west position of pharmacy. In the western region, there should be facility for all kinds of cleaning, washing, etc. drying operation should be done at north western corners and the vedha karma is carried out at southern region of pharmacy. At north eastern part, arrangement is made for storage of prepared medicine as well as raw mineral drug.
Equipment & Raw Drugs
All the equipment such as Kosti like Satava Pathana, Pathala Kosti, , water storage tank or container of different stage or Vastrika metalic and bamboo, pipes, vessels and utensils of gold, iron, copper, bronze, leather and many other useful instrument equipment as well as material drugs, etc. are collected and stored in the pharmacy. Similarly, different type of Peshani, Droni, kinds of mortars and suitable pestles, the sieves consisting 1000 of tiny holes for filtering of liquid, knives and such other things are kept, ready in the Ayurvedic pharmacy apart from these mud used for preparation of Musa, tula, cotton, cow-dung cakes, floor and all the 3 kind of drugs are stored also coal dried cow-dung powder, sand bottle made of glass mud, etc., should be preserved in the pharmacy various type of pot and vessels specially for heating, cooking the medicine and large knife for cutting are stored.
The following equipment and raw drugs which are frequently required should be stored in Ayurvedic pharmacy:
1. Pestles & mortars of different size & shape – these are made of either stone or iron or crystals.
2. Bottles, pots, cups, blades, utensils and jars made of glass, mud, wood as well as metals for storing raw drugs and finished product.
3. Equipment like forceps, spatula, spoon, knife, sieves, yantras, weighing machines and balances of different capacity and shape.
4. Different types of fuel like wood, cow-dung cake, coal, charcoal & husk.
5. Hg other metals, minerals, drugs of vegetable origin, animal products, poison of vegeable / animal origin, salt, alkalies, gems & jewels.
Ashtanga Ayurveda (अष्टांग आयुर्वेद) literally means eight parts or division of Ayurveda.
Ashta= eight + anga= parts
It is mentioned in Ayurvedic scriptures that Lord Brahma divided Ayurveda into eight parts to make it easy to learn, understand and remind. We can also say the Astanga Ayurveda as 8 super speciality branches of Ayurveda practised since the classical era.
Ashtanga Ayurveda (eight parts) are as follows :
- Kaya Chikitsa (Internal Medicine) : kaya= body, chikitsa= treatment
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the treatment of the body with the help of administration of various Ayurvedic medicines internally or externally.
- Shalya Tantra (Ayu. Surgery) : shalya= harmful foreign particle, tantra= science
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the management of diseases caused by shalya.
- Shalakya Tantra (Ophthalmology & ENT) : shalaka= a rod-like instrument, shalakya= related to shalaka
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals the treatment and management of diseases of supraclavicular (urdhva jatrugat) organs. Shalaka is used in the treatment of most of the diseases of eye, ear, nose and throat in Ayurveda.
- Koumarabhritya/ bala roga (Paediatrics) : Koumara= children, bhritya= nutrition, parental care
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to preconception, pregnancy, childbirth (delivery) and diseases of children. It also deals with the care of a child from before its birth up to 16 years.
- Bhoot Vidya (Ayu. psychiatry) : Bhoota= invisible presence, Vidya= knowledge
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with diseases acquired or inherited from apparently unknown causes. We can compare it with modern terminology as treatment of idiopathic diseases in which the exact cause of the disease is unknown.
- Agad Tantra/ Danshtra (Ayu. toxicology) : Agada= toxin, danshtra= poisonous bite
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with knowledge of toxins, poisonous animals and management of toxicological problems.
- Rasayana Tantra (Geriatrics) : Rasayan= any medicine, material or behaviour which enhance longevity and slows down the process of ageing.
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with various aspects of preventive health care.
- Vajikaran Tantra (Science of fertility & virility) : Vaji= horse, a symbol of vital power or sexual power.
It is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with sexual problems. It covers the management and treatment of sexual disorders.
Read: Introduction to Ayurveda
Introduction to Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद परिचय)
आयुर्वेद के पर्याय वाचक शब्द (Synonyms of Ayurveda)
महर्षि चरकानुसार- आयुर्वेद, शाखा, विद्या, सूत्र, ज्ञान, शास्त्र, लक्षण, तंत्र
(सन्दर्भ: च. सू. ३०/३१)
आयुर्वेद की निरुक्ति
आयुर्वेद = आयुष + वेद
आयुर्वेद दो शब्दों “आयुष” और “वेद” के योग से बना है |
आयु = जीवन, वेद = शास्त्र, जानना, ज्ञात होना, पाना,
|| आयुर्वेदयतीत्यायुर्वेद: || च.सू. ३०/२२
|| आयुरस्मिन् विद्यते अनेन वा आयुर्विन्दतीत्यायुर्वेद: || च.सू. १/१३
अर्थात् जिसके द्वारा आयुर्वेद का ज्ञान प्राप्त हो उसे आयुर्वेद कहते हैं |
चतुर्विध आयु अर्थात् हितायु, अहितायु, सुखायु एवं दुखायु के अनुसार पथ्य- अपथ्य का वर्णन जिसमें किया गया हो; आयु का प्रमाण एवं आयु का स्वरुप जिसमे कहा गया हो उसे आयुर्वेद कहते हैं | यही आयुर्वेद का लक्षण है |
|| हिताहितं सुखं दु:खमायुस्तस्य हिताहितम्
मानं च तच्च यत्रोक्तम् आयुर्वेदः स उच्यते || च.सू. १/४१
आयु का स्वरुप एवं आयु के पर्याय
|| शरीरेन्द्रियसत्वात्मसंयोगो धारि जीवितम्
नित्यगस्चानुबंधस्च पर्यायेरायुरुच्यते || च.सू. १/४२
आयु के पर्याय वाचक शब्द शरीरेंद्रियसत्वात्मसंयोग, धारि, जीवित, नित्यग, अनुबंध हैं, एवं ये ही आयु के स्वरुप हैं | मतलब, इन शब्दों का अर्थ ज्ञात होने से आयु का स्वरुप ज्ञात होता है |
जैसे- शरीरेंद्रियसत्वात्मसंयोग का अर्थ है- पांचभौतिक शरीर, चक्षुरादि इन्द्रियां, सत्व (मन) और आत्मा, ये सभी जितने समय तक किसी पुरुष में संयोगात्मक रूप से रहते हैं, उतनी उस पुरुष की आयु होती है |
धारि- पांचभौतिक शरीर, चक्षुरादि इन्द्रियां, सत्व (मन) और आत्मा के परस्पर संयोग को धारण करने वाले को धारि कहते हैं |
जीवित- इन सभी को जीवितावस्था में रखने वाले को जीवित कहते हैं |
नित्यग- नित्य (सदैव, प्रतिक्षण) गमनशील होने वाले को नित्यग कहते हैं |
अनुबंध- (bonding) हमेशा बंधित रहना, एक साथ रहना, एक दूसरे के बिना अस्तित्वहीन होना; इस प्रकार सभी का एक साथ संयोग रूप से अनुबंधित रहने के कारण आयु को अनुबंध भी कहते हैं |
Ayurveda is the ancient Indian system of medicine practised since the classical time. Sanskrit, which is accepted as the mother of all languages, was the only language used in India at that time. All the Ayurvedic classical texts were written in Sanskrit (mostly in shloka form) by great Indian saints (Acharya & maharishi). Since then, almost all the Ayurvedic terminology, are still in its original Sanskrit form. For the peoples around the world, it is very difficult to understand what did these Ayurvedic terminology mean.
This article may act as a reference for all of them. I have compiled most of the Ayurvedic terms and their English translation in this article below.
List of Diseases in Ayurveda, Ayurvedic terminology and their English equivalents –
- Abhighatabhicari Jvara- Fever due to physical or psychological trauma
- Abhinyasa Jvara- Meningitis
- Abhishyanda- Conjunctivitis
- Adhimantha- Glaucoma
- Adhmana- Flatulance with gurgling sound
- Adhyavata- Gout
- Adrishti- Loss of eyesight
- Aghata- Trauma
- Agni Vikrti- Impaired digestion
- Agnidagdha- Burn injury
- Agnimandya- Digestive impairment
- Agnivikara- Diseases due to vitiation of Agni
- Ajirna- Dyspepsia
- Akshepa- Convulsions
- Akshiroga- Eye disease
- Alasaka- Intestinal atony
- Alasya- Laziness
- Amadosha- Products of impaired digestion and metabolism / consequences of Ama
- Amagrahani – Sprue associated with indigestion
- Amaja shoola- Intestinal colic due to indigestion
- Amajirna- Indigestion due to Ama
- Amajvara- Fever due to indigestion
- Amashoola- Colicky Pain due to Ama
- Amatisara- Diarrhoea due to indigestion/ Ama
- Amavata- Rheumatism
- Amladaha- Hyperacidity
- Amlapitta- Dyspepsia
- Amsaphalaka shoola- Pain in Scapular region
- Amsatapa- Burning sensation in scapular region
- Anaha- Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools
- Anda shoola- Testicular pain
- Andhatva- Blindness
- Angadaha- Burning sensation all over the body
- Angamarda- Body ache
- Angastambha- Body stiffness
- Anidra- Insomnia
- Antardaha- Internal Burning sensation
- Antarvidradhi- Internal abscess
- Antarvidradhi- Internal abscess
- Antra Vrddhi- Hernia
- Antrashoola- Intestinal colic
- Apachi- Chronic lymphadenopathy / scrofula
- Apana Vayu Nirodha- Obstruction of flatus
- Apasmara- Epilepsy
- Apatanaka- Tetanic convulsions
- Apatantraka- Hysteria with loss of consciousness
- Arbuda- Tumor
- Ardhavabhedaka- Migraine
- Ardita- Facial palsy
- Ardita vata- Facial palsy
- Arma- Pterygium
- Arochaka- Tastelessness
- Arsha- Haemorrhoids
- Arshoroga- Haemorrhoids
- Artava Ruja- Dysmenorrhoea
- Artava Vedana- Dysmenorrhoea
- Artavadosha- Vitiation of Artava
- Aruchi- Tastelessness
- Ashmari- Calculus
- Ashmarikshaya- Urinary calculus
- Ashta Jvara- Eight types of Fever
- Ashthila- Prostatic Hyperplasia
- Aspashta bhashana- Incoherent speech
- Asrigdara- Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia or both
- Asrigdara Ruja- Dysmenorrhoea
- Asthi Bhanga- Bone fracture
- Asthi Chyuti- Dislocation of bones, joints
- Asthi Ruja- Ostealgia
- Asthi Srava- Discharge from bones
- Asthichyuta – Dislocation of bones, joints
- Asthigata Vata- Vata confined to bones
- Asthishosha- Osteoporosis
- Asthivata- Bone diseases due to Vata dosha
- Asya Roga – Diseases of buccal cavity
- Atisara- Diarrhoea
- Atopa- Gurgling found in abdomen with pain
- Audumbara Kushtha- Patchy leprosy / lepromatous leprosy
- Avabahuka- Brachialgia, Frozen shoulder
- Avrana shukra- Corneal opacity
- Ayama- Stretching
- Baddhapurisha- Hard stools
- Badhiratva- Deafness
- Badhirya- Deafness
- Bahu shosha- Muscular wasting of forearm
- Bahumootra- Polyuria
- Bahushoola- Pain in arm
- Bahyadaha- Burning sensation
- Bahyayama- Opisthotonos
- Bala Graha- Specific disorders of children
- Bala Roga- Diseases of children
- Bala shosha- Emaciation in children
- Bala- Strength / Immunity
- Bala- Strength / Immunity
- Balakshaya- Loss of strength / immunity
- Balavarna Kshaya- Loss of physical strength and complexion
- Balya Improves physical strength
- Basti roga- Diseases of urinary system
- Basti ruja- Pain in urinary system
- Bastigata roga- Disorders of urinary system
- Bhagandara- Fistula-in-ano
- Bhasmaka- Polyphagia with emaciation
- Bhoota Badha- Psychological disorder
- Bhoota Visha- Microbial infection
- Bhootonmada- Exogenous psychosis
- Bhrama- Vertigo
- Bhroo-shankha-Karnashoola- Trigeminal neuralgia
- Bhuja bala- Physical Strength
- Bradhna Vriddhi- Hernia
- Buddhi Bhrama- Dementia
- Buddhi Daurbalya- Weak intelligence
- Buddhi kshaya- Impaired intelligence
- Buddhimandya- Low intelligence
- Chaladanta- Loose tooth
- Charmadala- Exfoliative dermatosis
- Charmaroga- Skin disorders
- Chhardi- Emesis
- Dadru kushtha- Taeniasis
- Dadru- Taeniasis
- Dagdha Vrana- Burn ulcer
- Daha- Burning sensation
- Damsha Vrana- Ulcer due to bites
- Damshtra Visha- Poisonous bite
- Dandapatanaka- Tetanus / Plenosthotonus
- Danta bandha- Lock jaw
- Danta Chalana- Loose tooth
- Danta Krimi- Dental caries
- Danta- Nakha Kshata- Injury caused to teeth and nails
- Danta roga- Dental disease
- Danta Roga- Disease of tooth
- Danta shoola- Dental Pain
- Dantapida- Pain in Teeth
- Dantasaushirya- Dental caries
- Dantodbhava Jvara- Dentitional fever
- Dantodbhava Kalina Jvara- Fever during dentation
- Daruna Vishoocika- Severe gastro enteritis
- Daurbalya- Weakness
- Deha shithilata- Unenergetic body
- Deha shoola- Bodyache
- Dhanurvata- Tetanus / Plenosthotonus
- Dhatu Kshaya- Tissue wasting
- Dhatugata Atisara- Diarrhoea resulting in tissue wasting
- Dhatushosha- Cachexia
- Dhatustha Jvara- Fever due to dosha residing in particular Dhatu
- Dhvajabhanga- Failure of penile erection
- Doora drishti- Hypermetropia / Hyperopia
- Drishti Daurbalya- Weakness of vision
- Drishti Lopa- Defects in eye sight
- Dukha Prasava- Difficult labour
- Dushta nadi vrana- Infected/ non healing fistula
- Dushta pinasa- Infected/ non responding rhinitis
- Dushta Vrana- Non-healing ulcer
- Ekanga shosha- Wasting of one limb
- Gadha vitkata- Constipation
- Gala Roga- Diseases of throat
- Galaganda- Goitre
- Galagraha- Difficulty in swallowing
- Galashosha- Dryness in throat
- Gambhira Vrana- Deep ulcer
- Ganda mala- Cervical lymphadenitis
- Ganda- Maxillar prominence
- Gandoopada Krimi Roga- Ascariasis
- Gara dosha- Effects of slow / accumulated poison
- Gara- Slow / accumulated poison
- Gara Udararoga- Abdominal disorder due to slow / accumulated poison
- Gara Visha- Slow / accumulated poison
- Garbha dosha- Foetal anomaly
- Garbha shrava- Threatened abortion
- Garbhapata- Abortion
- Garbhashaya chyuti- Uterine prolapse
- Garbhashaya Dosha- Uterine disorder
- Garbhashaya roga- Disorders of Uterus
- Garbhini Daha- Burning sensation during pregnancy
- Garbhini Jvara- Pyrexia during pregnancy
- Garbhini Roga Disorders during Pregnancy
- Garbhini Roga- Disorders during pregnancy
- Gatra Kampa- Tremors
- Gatra Kandoo- Generalised pruritus
- Gatra shaitya- Cold calm extremities
- Gatrashoola- Bodyache
- Gatrashosha- Wasting of limbs
- Graha Dosha- Psychosis
- Graha roga- Psychosis
- Grahani Dosha- Disorders of small intestine
- Grahani- Malabsorption syndrome
- Grahani Roga- Malabsorption syndrome
- Granthi- Cyst
- Granthiruk- Pain in cyst
- Gridhrasi- Sciatica
- Griva shushkata- Wasting in cervical region
- Griva Stambha- Neck Stiffness
- Guda Nihsarana- Rectal prolapse
- Guda Roga- Anorectal disease
- Guda Ruja- Pain in the anorectal area
- Guda shoola- Pain in the anorectal area
- Guda shopha- Swelling in the anorectal area
- Guda shotha- Inflammation of the rectum
- Gudabhramsha- Prolapse of the rectum
- Gudankura- (Arsha) Piles
- Guhya vrana- Ulcer in genitalia
- Gulma- Abdominal lump
- Halimaka- Chronic obstructive Jaundice/Chlorosis/Advanced stage of Jaundice
- Hanu graha- Lock jaw
- Hanu shopha- Swollen Jaw
- Hanu stambha- Lock jaw
- Hasta kampa- Tremors in hands
- Hasta Pada Daha- Burning sensation in palms and soles
- Hasta pada Roga- Disease of the limbs
- Hidhma- Hiccup
- Hikka- Hiccup
- Hinamamsa- Lack of muscle tissue
- Hricchhoola- Angina pectoris
- Hrid daha- Burning sensation in heart region
- Hrid daurbalya- Weakness of the heart
- Hridaya daurbalya- Weakness of heart
- Hridaya shoola- Angina pectoris
- Hridayagra Vridhhi- Ventricular Hypertrophy
- Hridroga- Heart disease
- Hridruja- Angina pectoris
- Hridyavirecaka – laxative
- Hrillasa- Nausea
- Hritgraha- Cardiac failure
- Hritkampa- Cardiac fibrillation
- Hritshoola- Angina pectoris
- Indralupta – Alopecia
- Jalamrita – Drowning
- Jalodara – Ascites
- Jangha Janugata – Vata Pain in calf and knee
- Jangha Ruja – Pain in thigh
- Jangha shoola – Pain in calves
- Jangha shopha – Swelling in the thigh
- Janghoru-Prishtha-Trikasthana-Vastigatashoola – Pain in calves-thighs-back-sacral and bladder region
- Janu shoola – Pain in the knee
- Janu Stabdhata – Stiffness of the knee
- Jara – Senility/ Progeriasis
- Jara dosha – Senility
- Jarayu Dosha – Vitiation of placenta
- Jathara – Stomoch
- Jatharagni – Digestive fire
- Jatumani – Congenital mole
- Jihvastambha Glossal palsy
- Jirna jvara – Chronic fever
- Jirna Kasa – Chronic cough
- Jvara- Fever
- Jvaratisara- Diarrhoea with fever
- Kacchoo- Itching
- Kacha- Cataract
- Kamala- Jaundice
- Kampa- Tremor
- Kandoo- Itching
- Kantha daha- Burning sensation in throat
- Kantha Roga- Disease of throat
- Kantha roga- Disorders of Throat
- Kanthabandha- Feeling of bandage around neckDrishti Lopa- Defects in eye sight
- Kapha dosha- Vitiation of Kapha dosha
- Kapha Jvara- Fever due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphaja Agnimandya- Impaired digestive fire due to diminished agni
- Kaphaja Hridroga- Heart disease due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphaja Kasa- Cough due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphaja Roga – Disease due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphaja sandhibandha- Stiffness in joints due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphaja shoola- Pain due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphapitta- Disease due to Kapha dosha and Pitta dosha
- Kaphapitta- Kushtha Skin disease caused by Kapha and Pitta dosha
- Kaphapittajashoola- Pain due to Kapha and Pitta dosha
- Kaphapittaroga- Disease due to Kapha dosha and Pitta dosha
- Kaphapraseka- Excessive salivation
- Kapharoga- Disease due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphavataja- Nadi Vrana Fistula due to Kapha, Vata
- Kaphavataroga- Disease due to Kapha and Vata dosha
- Kaphavikara- Disorders due to vitiation of Kapha dosha
- Kaphonmada- Psychosis due to Kapha dosha
- Kaphotklesha- Nausea
- Karna Krimi- Worm infestation in Ear
- Karna Roga- Disease of ear
- Karna Shrava- Otorrhoea
- Karnagata- Nadivrana Fistula in Ear
- Karnanada- Tinnitus
- Karnapaka- Otitis externa diffusa
- Karnaruja- Otalgia
- Karnashoola- Otalgia
- Karshya- Emaciation
- Kasa- Cough
- Kashta artava- Dysmenorrhoea
- Kati Graha- Stiffness in lumbo-sacral region
- Kati shoola- Lower backache
- Kati-ooru-Prishtha Daurbalya- Weaknes and lower backache radiating to thighs
- Katiruja- Backache
- Katistambha- Restricted movement of the lumbo-sacral region
- Kativata- Disorders of lumbo-sacral region due to vitiated Vata dosha
- Kaubja- Hump/Kyphosis
- Kesha- Patana Falling of hair
- Keshapata- Falling of hair
- Keshashata- Loss of hair
- Khalitya- Alopecia
- Khanja- Limping
- Khanja- Vata Limping
- Khudaka- Limping
- Kilasa- Vitiligo
- Kitibha- Depigmentation
- Klama- Tiredness without exertion/Langour
- Kledi- Vrana Oozing/weeping ulcer
- Koshtha shoola- Pain in abdomen
- Koshtha Vikara – Disorders of abdomen
- Koshtharuja – Pain in abdomen
- Kotha – Urticaria
- Kricchrartava – Dysmenorrhoea
- Krimi – Helminthiasis/Worm infestation
- Krimi Roga – Worm infestation
- Krimija Hridroga – Bacterial endocarditis
- Krishata – Emaciation/Cachexia
- Krishatva – Emaciation
- Kritrima Visha – Synthetic poison
- Kroshtuka Sirsha – Synovitis of Knee joint
- Kshata Kshaya – Emaciation due to injury
- Kshata Kshina – Debility due to chest injury
- Kshata – Wound
- Kshataja Kshaya – Emaciation due to injury
- Kshaya – Pthisis
- Kshayaja Kasa – Cough due to Pthisis
- Kshina Retas – Oligospermia
- Kshina shukra – Oligospermia
- Kshinendriya – Impaired senses
- Kshudra Kushtha – Group of minor skin diseases
- Kubja – Hump-back/Kyphosis
- Kubja Roga – Hump-back/Kyphosis
- Kubja Vata – Kyphosis
- Kubjata – Dwarfism
- Kukoonaka – Ophthalmia neonatorum
- Kukshi Ruja – Pelvic pain
- Kukshishoola – Pelvic pain
- Kumbhakamala – Hepatitis
- Kushtha – Diseases of skin
- Lalajihvata – Excess salivation
- Loota Visha – Poison of Spider
- Loota-Vrshcika-Sarpavisha – Poison of Scorpion, Spider and Snake
- Mada – Intoxication
- Madatyaya – Alcoholism
- Madhumeha – Diabetes mellitus
- Madyapanaja Vikara – Ailments due to Intoxication of Fermented liquids
- Mahakushtha – Group of major skin diseases
- Mahatapa – Severe body temperature
- Mahavata Roga – Major neurological disorder
- Majjagata Vata – Bone marrow related disorder
- Majjavata – Bone marrow disorder
- Malabandha – Constipation
- Malashodhaka – Laxative
- Mamsa Kshaya – Muscle Atrophy
- Mamsa – Muscle
- Mamsa Vriddhi – Muscle Hypertrophy
- Manasa Dosha – Mental disorders
- Mandabuddhitva – Retarded intellect
- Mandadrishti – Diminished vision
- Mandagni – Impaired digestive fire
- Mandajvara – Low-grade fever
- Mandala Kushtha – Lepromatous lesion
- Mandala Vrana – Ulcers
- Manodaurbalya – Mental weakness
- Manodosha – Mental disorder
- Manoglani – Depression
- Manoroga – Psychological Disorder
- Manovibhrama – Delirium
- Manovikara – Mental disorder
- Manya Stambha – Neck rigidity/Torticollis
- Manyaroga – Diseases of Neck
- Manyastambha – Neck rigidity/Torticollis
- Marma vikara – Disorders of vital points
- Marmashrita vrana – Ulcers in vital points
- Marmavata – Vitiation of Vata in Vital points
- Mashaka – Mole
- Masoorika jvara – Eruptive fever
- Mastaka Bhrama – Vertigo
- Mastishka roga – Disorders of Brain
- Meda – Adipose tissue
- Medha – Intelligence
- Medhalpata – Retarded intelligence
- Medhra roga – Penile diseases
- Medhya – Brain tonic/nootropic
- Medo roga – Obesity
- Medo vikara – Disordes of Fat
- Medo vriddhi – Obesity
- Medodosha – Disorder of adipose tissue
- Medogata vata – Disease of adipose tissue affected by vitiated Vata
- Meha – Excessive flow of urine
- Moha – Delusion
- Moodha Garbha – Malpresentation of the foetus
- Moodha Vata – Obstructed movement of Vata dosha
- Moodhata – Entrapment of Vata
- Mookata – Aphasia
- Moola Visha – Poisoning due to roots of plants
- Moorccha Kampa – Tremors due to syncope
- Moorccha – Syncope
- Mooshika Visha – Rat poisoning
- Mootra sharkara – Urinary calculus
- Mootra Vibandha – Retention of urine
- Mootra virechanartha – Diuresis
- Mootrabandha – Retention of urine
- Mootradosha – Urinary disorders
- Mootraghata – Urinary obstruction
- Mootrakricchra – Dysuria
- Mootraroga – Urinary diseases
- Mootrasada – Oligouria
- Mootrasanga – Obstruction in urinary tract
- Mootratisara – Polyurea
- Moudhyam – Stupidity
- Mukha Daurgandhya – Halitosis
- Mukha Paka – Stomatitis
- Mukha Roga – Disease of mouth
- Mukha Roga – Disease of mouth
- Mukha shosha – Dryness in mouth / buccal cavity
- Mukhadurgandha – Halitosis
- Mukhadurgandhya – Halitosis
- Mukhajadya – Restricted movement of jaw
- Mukha-Karna-Nasa-Akshi Vikrti – Disorders of Mouth, Ear, Nose and Eyes
- Mukhapaka – Mouth ulcer
- Nabhi shoola – Pain in umbilical region
- Nadi vrana – Fistula
- Naktandhya – Night blindness
- Naktandhya – Night blindness
- Napumsakata – Impotency
- Nasa Roga – Disease of nose
- Nashta Pushpa – Amenorrhoea
- Nashtashukra – Oligospermia/ Azoospermia
- Nasika durgandha – Ozena
- Nava jvara – Acute fever
- Nayana Roga – Disease of the eye
- Netra Adhimamsa – Pterygium
- Netra Daha – Burning sensation in eyes
- Netra drishti – Eyesight
- Netra Kandoo – Itching in eyes
- Netra Ruja – Pain in eyes
- Netra vikara – Disorder of eye
- Netra Vrana – Corneal ulcer
- Netrabhishyanda – Conjunctivitis
- Netradrishti – Eye sight
- Netraroga (Dhavanartha) – Eye disorder (for cleansing)
- Netraroga – Eye disorder
- Netrasrava – Chronic dacrocystitis/epiphora
- Nilika – Mole
- Nyaccha – Naevus/mole/ blemishes
- Oja kshaya – Loss of body strength (immunity)
- Ojo kshaya – Loss of body strength (immunity)
- Pada daha – Burning sensation of feet
- Padminikantaka – Papilloma of skin
- Paittika Netra Roga – Eye disease due to Pitta dosha
- Pakshaghata – Paralysis/Hemiplegia
- Pakshavadha – Paralysis/Hemiplegia
- Pakshmakopa – Trichiasis/Entropion
- Paktishoola – Duodenal ulcer
- Pakvatisara – Chronic diarrhoea
- Palita – Greying of hair
- Palitya – Greying of hair, particularly of scalp
- Pama – Eczema
- Pana vibhrama – Delirium due to alcohol intoxication
- Panajirna – Alcoholic intoxication
- Panatyaya – Acute alcoholism
- Pandu – Anaemia
- Pandu Roga – Anaemia
- Pangu – Paraplegia
- Pangu vata – Paraplegia
- Pangutva – Paraplegia
- Parigarbhika Roga – Kwashiorkor
- Parikarta/ parikartika – Fissure-in-ano
- Parinama shoola – Duodenal ulcer
- Parisarpa – Erysipelas
- Parshva shiroruja – Hemicrania
- Parshva shoola – Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia
- Parshva shopha – Pleural effusion
- Parshva shopha – Swelling in lateral part of chest region
- Parshvaruja – Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia
- Patala Arbuda – Growth in layers of eye
- Patala – Layers of Eye
- Patala Roga – Disorders of layers of eye
- Phakka Roga – Ricketts
- Phiranga Roga – Syphilis
- Phiranga – Syphilis
- Phirangaja Vrana – Chancroid
- Phupphusa Roga – Lung disorders
- Picchasrava – Mucoid discharge
- Pidaka – Carbuncle
- Pinasa – Chronic rhinitis/sinusitis
- Pipasa – Thirst
- Pitaka – Boil/Carbuncle
- Pitta Daha – Burning sensation due to Pitta dosha
- Pitta Jvara – Fever due to Pitta dosha
- Pitta Roga – Disease due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja Gulma – Tumour due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja Kushtha – Skin disorders due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja Netra Roga – Eye disease due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja Pandu – Anaemia due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja Roga – Disease due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja shirahshoola – Headache due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja shiroruja – Headache due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja shvasa – Asthma due to Pitta dosha
- Pittaja Unmada – Insanity due to Pitta dosha
- Pittarsha – Piles due to Pitta dosha
- Pittatisara – Diarrhoea due to Pitta dosha
- Pittavikara – Disorder of Pitta dosha
- Pittavyadhi – Disease of Pitta dosha
- Pliha Roga – Splenic disease
- Pliha – Splenic disease
- Pliha Vriddhi – Splenomegaly
- Plihamaya – Splenic disease
- Pliharuja – Pain due to splenic disease
- Pliha-Yakrid roga – Disorder of Spleen and Liver
- Plihayakritvriddhi – Enlargement of liver and Spleen
- Plihodara – Disorder of Spleen, Ascites associated with spleenomegaly
- Pooyasrava – Secretion of pus
- Pradara – Excessive vaginal discharge
- Pralapa – Delirious speech
- Pralepaka Jvara – Hectic fever
- Prameha and Mootramarga Roga – Polyurias and diseases of Urinary tract
- Prameha – Pidaka Diabetic carbuncle
- Prameha – Urinary disorders
- Praseka – Excessive salivation
- Prasoota vata – Puerperal disorder
- Prasveda – Excessive sweating
- Pratishyaya – Coryza
- Pratitooni/ pratooni – Renal/ureteric colic
- Pratyashthila – Distended, Regid abdomen resembling paralytic Ileus
- Pratyashthila – Rectovesical tumour
- Pravahika – Dysentery
- Prishtha Ruja – Pain in the lower back
- Prishtha shoola – Backache
- Prishtha Stambha – Stiffness of the Lower back
- Purana jvara – Chronic fever
- Purana Tvagroga – Degenerative/Chronic Skin disorder
- Rajahkricchra – Scanty menstruation (Oligomenorrhea)
- Rajayakshma – Tuberculosis
- Rajo shoola – Dysmenorrhea
- Rajodosha – Menstrual disorder
- Rajorodha – Obstruction to menstrual flow
- Rakta Dosha – Vitiation of Blood and its components
- Rakta Nishthivana – Blood stained sputum
- Raktakasa – Coughing up blood from the respiratory tract-hemoptysis
- Raktakshaya – Blood loss
- Raktapitta – Bleeding disorder
- Raktapradara – Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia or both
- Raktapravahika – Bacillary dysentery
- Raktaroga – Diseases of blood
- Raktarsha – Bleeding haemorrhoids
- Raktasrava – Haemorrhage
- Raktatisara – Diarrhoea with Bleeding
- Raktavami – Haematemesis
- Raktavataja shopha – Inflammation due to Rakta and Vata dosha
- Raktavikara – Disorders of blood
- Rasayana – Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrino-modulator properties
- Rasayanarthi – Person seeking Rasayana effect
- Ratryandha – Night blindness (Nyctalopia)
- Retovikara – Diseases of Semen
- Ruja – Pain
- Sahaja Arshoroga – Congenital haemorrhoids
- Samadosha Dosha – afflicted by Ama
- Samipa Drishti – Myopia
- Samnyasa- Coma
- Sandhi Pida – Joint pain
- Sandhigata Vata – Osteoarthropathy
- Sandhivata – Osteoarthritis
- Sanjnanasha/ Sangyanasha – Loss of consciouness
- Sannipata Jvara – High grade fever due to vitiation of all Dosha
- Sannipata Roga – Disease due to vitiation of all Dosha
- Santatajvara – Continuous Fever
- Sanyasa – Coma
- Saptadhatugata Jvara – Fever due to involvement of all seven dhatu
- Sarpa Visha – Snake poison
- Sarpadamsha – Snake bite
- Sarpadamshta – Snake bite
- Saruja Vrana – Painful ulcer
- Sarva Balaroga – All types of Pediatric conditions
- Sarva Dhatu shosha – Emaciation of all tissues
- Sarva Jvara – All types of fevers
- Sarva Kricchra Sadhya Roga – All types of disorders with difficult prognosis
- Sarva Roga – All diseases
- Sarva shoola – All kinds of pain
- Sarvajvara – All types of fevers
- Sarvanga Graha – Stiffness and Tightness in all limbs
- Sarvanga Grahana – Stiffness and Tightness in all limbs
- Sarvanga Kampa – Generalized tremors
- Sarvanga shotha – Anasarca
- Sarvanga shotha – Generalized tremors
- Sarvanga Vata – Quadriplegia
- Sarvatisara – All types of diarrhoea
- Satatadi Jvara – Continous fever and the like
- Savrana shukra – Corneal ulcer/Ulcerative keratitis
- Sharira Varna Hani- Change in body complexion
- Sharkara- Gravel in urine
- Sharkarameha- Crystalluria
- Shastraprahara Vrana- Wounds due to sharp weapons
- Shighra shukra Skhalana- Premature ejaculation
- shirahkampa- Tremor/Shaking of head
- shirahshoola- Headache
- shirodaha- Burning sensation in the head
- shirogata Vata- Neurological disorders of head
- shirograha- Stiffness in head
- shirogriva Stambha- Stiffness in head and neck
- shiroroga- Disease of head
- shiroruja- Headache
- Shita Jvara- Fever with chills
- Shitapitta- Urticaria
- Shleshma jvara- Fever due to Kapha dosha
- Shleshmapittaja Kasa- Cough due to Kapha and Pitta
- Shleshmavikara- Disorder due to Kapha dosha
- Shleshmodara- Ascites due to Kapha dosha
- Shlipada- Filariasis
- Shmashru Patana- Falling of hair of beard and moustache
- Shookadosha- Ulcer on penis due to chemical agents
- Shoola- Colicky Pain
- Shoolaroga- Gastric ulcer/Duodenal ulcer/Colic
- Shootikaroga- Post Partum disease
- Shopha- Oedema
- Shosha- Cachexia
- Shotha- Inflammation
- Shotha Roga- Inflammatory disease
- Shrama- Fatigue/ lethargy
- Shravana Lopa- Impaired hearing
- Shroni shoola- Pain in pelvic region
- Shukla- Opacity
- Shukra Dosha- Vitiation of semen
- Shukra Kshaya- Deficiency of semen
- Shukra- Semen
- Shukra Vikara- Disorders of semen
- Shukrakshaya- Oligospermia
- Shukrameha- Spermatorrhoea
- Shukraroga- Diseases of semen
- Shushkarsha- Non bleeding Haemorrhoids
- Shvasa- Dyspnoea/Asthma
- Shvasanaka- Jvara Pneumonia
- Shvayathu- Oedema
- Shveta Pradara- Leucorrhoea
- Shvitra- Leucoderma/ Vitiligo
- Shvitra roga- Leucoderma/ Vitiligo
- Sidhma – Pityriasis versicolor
- Sikata Vartma – Granular Eyelid disorder
- Skandha shushkata – Emaciation of shoulder
- Smriti bhrama – Impairment of memory
- Smriti Bhramsha – Impairment of memory
- Smriti Daurbalya – Weak memory
- Smriti hani – Loss of memory
- Smriti Kshaya – Loss of memory
- Smriti kshina – Decrease in memory
- Smriti – Memory
- Smriti nasha – Loss of memory
- Smritiprada – Improves memory
- Snayu Bhagna – Tendon tear
- Snayu daurbalya – Rupture of ligaments
- Snayu ruja – Pain in tendons
- Snayu vata – Inflammation of ligaments
- Soma roga – Polyuria in females
- Sooryavarta – Sinusitis
- Sootika Jvara – Post-partum Fever puerperal fever
- Sootika Roga – Puerperal disease
- Sootika Vata – Neurological disorders of puerperium
- Sparsha shoonyata – Lack of tactile sensation
- Sphota – Boil
- Sphotaka – Boil
- Srotorodha – Obstruction to srotas
- Stana shoola – Pain in breast tissue
- Stanya Dushti – Vitiation of breast milk
- Stanya dvesha – Aversion to breast milk
- Stanya Kshaya – Decrease in breast milk
- Sthaulya – Obesity
- Sthavara Visha – Poison of plant and mineral origin
- Sthoolata – Obesity
- Stimita – Feeling of Numbness
- Stri roga – Gynaecological disorders
- Supta jihvatva – Numbness of tongue
- Supta Vata – Numbness
- Svapna dosha – Nocturnal emission
- Svara bheda – Hoarseness of voice
- Svara hina – Aphasia
- Svara karshya – Aphasia
- Svara Kshaya – Aphasia
- Sveda – Sweat
- Svedadhikya – Excessive Sweating
- Tamaka shvasa – Bronchial asthma
- Tandra – Lassitude
- Taruna Jvara – Acute fever
- Tilaka – Non-elevated mole
- Timira – early stage of Catract
- Timira Roga – Blindness
- Tooni – Neuralgic pain renal/ureteric colic
- Tridoshaj atisara – Diarrhoea due to all Dosha
- Trika Ruja – Pain in sacral region
- Trika shoola – Pain in sacral region
- Trika shopha – Swelling in sacral region
- Trishna – Thirst
- Trit – Thirst
- Tvag dosha – Skin disorder
- Tvag roga – Skin disease
- Tvagrakta dosha – Skin and blood disorder
- Tvak rakta rog – Skin and blood disorder
- Tvak raukshya – Dryness of skin
- Udakodara – Ascites
- Udara – Diseases of abdomen / enlargement of abdomen
- Udararoga – Ascites
- Udararuja – Pain in the abdomen
- Udarashoola – Pain in the abdomen
- Udarda – Urticaria
- Udavarta – Condition in which there is upward movement of vayu
- Ugra Atisara – Severe Diarrhoea
- Unmada Hridroga – Insanity Heart disease
- Unmada – Mania/Psychosis
- Upadamsha – Syphilis/Soft chancre
- Upadamshaja Vrana – Chancroid
- Upajihvika – Epiglottis
- Urahkshata – Chest wound / injured chest/ disease of lungs
- Urastoya – Pleural effusion/ Hydrothorax
- Urdhva Jatrugata Roga – Diseases of head and neck
- Urdhva raktapitta – Bleeding from orifices of the upper part of the body
- Urdhvagata Raktapitta – Bleeding from orifices of the upper part of the body
- Urdhvajatrugata Roga – Disorders of body parts above clavicle
- Urdhvanga Ratkapitta – Bleeding from orifices of the upper part of the body
- Urdhvanga Roga – Disordrs of Head and brain
- Urdhvashvasa – Shallow breathing/ Shortness of breath
- Uro graha – Stiffness and Tightness in the chest
- Uro roga – Disease of thorax
- Uru graha – Stiffness in thighs
- Uru shoola – Pain in thighs
- Uru shopha – Swollen thighs
- Uru stambha – Stiffness in thigh muscles
- Used as Rasayana, Vajikara, Medhya, Smrtivardhaka Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrino-modulator properties, Aphrodisiac, Brain Tonic / Nootropic, Improves memory
- Utklesha – Nausea
- Vaak- Speech
- Vaivarnya – Discolouration
- Vajikara and Rasayana – Aphrodisiac and Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro endocrino-modulator properties
- Vajikara – Aphrodisiac
- Vajikarana – Aphrodisiac
- Vajikaranartha – For aphrodisiac property
- Vakdosha – Disorder of speech
- Vaksha shushkata – Emaciation of chest muscles
- Vaksvara Bhanga – Impairment of speech and voice
- Vaktra ruja – Pain in mouth
- Vali Palita – Wrinkles in skin and greying of hair
- Vali – Wrinkles in the skin
- Valmika Arbuda – Malignant growth (Cancer)
- Vami – Vomiting
- Vandhyaroga – Infertility
- Vandhyatva – Infertility
- Vankshana Ruja – Pain in groin
- Vankshana shoola – Pain in the groin
- Varcho vibandha – Impaction due to Hard stools
- Vardhma – Hernia
- Varna – Complexion
- Varna Vikara – Pigmentation disorder
- Varna Vikriti – Pigmentation disorder
- Vartma Roga – Disease of eye lids
- Vasti roga – Diseases of urinary bladder
- Vasti shoola – Pain in urinary bladder
- Vata Gulma – Lump due to Vata dosha
- Vata Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha
- Vata Kapha Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
- Vata Kapha Roga – Disease due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
- Vata Kaphaja Gulma – Lump due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
- Vata Kaphaja Roga – Disease due to Vata dosha and Kapha dosha
- Vata Pittaja Roga – Disease due to Vatadosha and Pitta dosha
- Vata shleshma Roga – Disease due to Vata and Kapha dosha
- Vata Vaigunya – Abnormality of Vata dosha
- Vata Vidradhi – Abscess due to Vata dosha
- Vata Vyadhi – Disease due to Vata dosha
- Vataja Grahani – Malabsorption due to Vata dosha
- Vataja Kasa – Cough due to Vata dosha
- Vataja shiroruja – Headache due to Vata dosha
- Vataja shoola – Pain due to Vata dosha
- Vatajaroga – Disease due to Vata dosha
- Vatakapha roga – Disease due to Vata Kapha dosha
- Vatakaphaja Grahani – Malabsorption due to Vata Kapha dosha
- Vatakundalika – Scanty and painful flow of urine
- Vatapitta Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha and Pitta dosha
- Vatapitta Roga – Disease due to Vata dosha and Pitta dosha
- Vatapittaja – Vastiroga Disorder of Urinary tract and Bladder due to Vata Pitta dosha
- Vatapittakapha Vrana – Ulcer due to Vata Pitta Kapha dosha
- Vatarakta – Gout
- Vataraktaruja – Pain due to Vatarakta
- Vataroga – Disease due to Vata dosha
- Vatashleshma Jvara – Fever due to Vata dosha and shleshma dosha
- Vatashleshma Pratishyaya – Rhinitis due to Vata dosha and shleshma dosha
- Vatashleshmaja kshaya – Pthisis due to Vata dosha and shleshma dosha
- Vatashleshmaja Roga – Disorders of Vata Kapha dosha
- Vatashleshmaja Vrishana shotha – Inflammatory swelling/ ulceration of scrotum due to Vata Kapha dosha
- Vatashleshmatisara – Diarrhoea due to Vata and Kapha dosha
- Vatashonita – Gout
- Vatashoola – Pain due to Vata dosha
- Vatavikara – Disorder due to Vata dosha
- Vatodara – Distention of abdomen due to gases
- Vayushoola – Colicky Pain due to Vata dosha
- Vibandha – Constipation
- Vicharchika – Eczema
- Vidradhi – Abscess
- Vidvibandha – Constipation
- Vipadika – Scaly lesions on palms and soles
- Vipluta Yoni roga – Disorder of Vagina(vaginismus)
- Virecaka – Purgative
- Virechanartha – For purgation
- Virya kshaya – Azoospermia
- Visarpa – Erysipelas
- Visha – Poison
- Visha Vikara – Disorders due to poison
- Visha vikara – Morbidity due to Poisonous substance
- Vishamagni – Impaired digestion power
- Vishamajvara – Intermittent fever
- Visharpa – Erysipelas
- Vishoochi – Gastro-enteritis with piercing pain
- Vishoochika – Gastro-enteritis with piercing pain
- Vishtambha – Constipation
- Vishvachi – Brachial neuralgia
- Visphota – Blister
- Visphotaka – Blisterous eruption
- Vitbandha – Constipation
- Vitsanga – Constipation
- Vrana Dosha – Ulcer
- Vrana – Ulcer
- Vranopachara – Ulcer debriding agent
- Vriddhi – Inguino-scrotal swellings
- Vriddhi roga – Inguino-scrotal swellings
- Vrikka roga – Disorders of Kidney
- Vrikka shola – Kidney Pain
- Vrishya Rasayana Medhya – Aphrodisiac and Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrino-modulator properties, Brain Tonic / Nootropic
- Vrishya shakti – Vigour/Aphrodisiac strength
- Vyadhikarshita Nashtashukra – Oligospermia due chronic illness
- Vyanga – Pigmentation disorder
- Yakrit roga – Disease of liver
- Yakrit vikara – Disorder of liver
- Yakrit vriddhi – Enlargement of liver (Hepatomegaly)
- Yakritodara – Enlargement of liver (Hepatomegaly)
- Yakritpliha roga – Disorder of Liver and Spleen
- Yakritpliha Shoola – Pain due to hepatic and splenic diseases
- Yakritpliha vriddhi – Enlargement of liver and spleen
- Yakritplihodara – Disease of liver and spleen
- Yakshma – Tuberculosis
- Yauvana Pidika – Acne vulgaris
- Yoni bhramsha – Prolapse of Vaginal wall
- Yoni dosha – Disorder of female genital tract
- Yoni roga – Disease of female genital tract
- Yoni ruja – Vaginal Pain
- Yoni sankochaka – Vaginal constricting agent
- Yoni shoola – Pain in female genital tract
- Yoni Vikara – Disorder of Vagina
Hence, in this article, 839 types of commonly used Ayurvedic terminology and their English equivalents has been compiled. These Ayurvedic terminology now can be easily undertandible, and translated to other languages with reference to their English translations.
Explore Ayur Guides to learn basics of Ayurveda and other related topics.
What are Ayurvedic Treatments and Therapies – An Introduction
The main aim of Ayurveda is the preservation of Swasthya (health) and cure of ailments. The object of Ayurvedic treatments is to restore the patient’s natural balance of doshas. The main discipline in the practice of Ayurvedic medicine consists of two primary procedures- Brimhana and Langhana. Brimhana is nourishing and Langhana is reducing the body. Most of the diseases need langhana type of management. Langhana is of two types- Shamana (palliation) and Shodhana (purification).
When aggravation of doshas and accumulation of doshas are mild, they can be pacified by appropriate Samana medicines or treatment procedures. These comprise of Deepana-pachana drugs (Amapachana), Trit (restriction of fluid intake), Maruta sevana (exposure to fresh air), Atapa sevana (sunbath), Upavas (fasting), Vyayama (proper exercise). Since the elimination of root cause is not completely possible by these methods, the chances of recurrence are more.
The elimination therapy is employed when the vitiated doshas are more, or in other words the accumulation of impurities at an extreme level. Different methods are described for elimination, which suit to different disease conditions- Vamana (emesis), Virechana (purgation), Nasya (nasal medication), Vasti (medicated enema), and Raktamokshana (blood letting).
The group of five purification measures comprising of Vamana, Virechana, Vasti, Nasya and Raktamokshana are technically termed as Panchakarma in Ayurveda. Pancha means five and Karma means action. These are bio cleansing procedures used in Ayurveda. By these methods the toxins accumulated and adhered to the body channels (shrotas), due to derangement of doshas are expelled through the natural orifices of the body. (By Vamana through mouth, by Virechana and Vasti through anus and by Nasya through nostrils).
Since these are major operations (Pradhana karma), they require preoperative and post-operative procedures. The preoperative procedures are known as poorvakarmas. Snehana (oleation) and Svedana (sudation) are the two major preoperative measures. By snehana vitiated doshas adhere to the channels (Shrotas), tissues (Dhatus) and organs are moisturized and transformed in to a form suitable for elimination. Svedana is intended to liquefy the doshas and lead them to the gastro intestinal tract (Mahashrotas). After this, by administering appropriate Panchakarma, doshas are expelled through the nearest natural orifice of the body.
Then by using specific post operative measures, prescribed for each karmas, the body regains normalcy.
Prabhava in Ayurveda is an important topic every Ayurveda expert should know. It is the factor or power which changes the pharmacodynamics of a herb or drug. Generally, the drug shows their effects on the body by the virtue of their properties and active potent constituents. But, the Prabhava is a factor which changes the effects or action of the drug generally shows. This article will explain in brief about Prabhava, it’s characteristics and why it is very important to understand the drug action.
Prabhava in Ayurveda
Dravya (Aushadha or medicine) the important tool in the physician performance and one of the four limbs of treatment should be known by name form, properties and actions.
Read: What is Dravya according to Ayurveda
Read: Shada Padartha: Superiority Concept in Ayurveda
Prabhava is the non-specific activity or specific power which is one among Dravya sapta padarthas.
- Prabhava in Ayurveda is the one which is specific and special power of the Dravya.
- The property which is responsible for the special or peculiar action of Dravya is known as prabhava.
- The prabhava is the non-specific effect of a Dravya.
- Prabhava may be defined as the special property which produces actions which are different from and contrary to those attributed to rasa, guna, veerya and vipaka.
Synonyms of Vipaka in Ayurveda
- Vichitra pratyarabdhatwa
- Vikriti Vishama samaveta
- Achinthya virya
Prabhava in Ayurveda is the property which is characterised by specific actions of substances which can not be explained in terms of the pharmacological actions of various constituents of Dravya when they are considered individually in relation to each other.
Even though rasa, virya, vipaka are equal karma is mentioned especially because of one specific power. That specific property is known as Prabhava.
Prabhava in Ayurveda is the unimaginable effect of the drugs as it happens in the case of Mani (precious stones). Manthra (sacred chanting) and celestial herbs. They act in a manner entirely different from the expected action without depending on taste, potency, quality and digested taste existing in them. The term shakti or prabhava indicates the special or extreme capability of a drug this is always explained comparing two drugs, one with prabhava and one without.
Concept of Prabhava
Prabhava in Ayurveda has been explained while describing virya like, Dravya gat shakti of 2 types
Chintya is one which has got the base of karya karanabhava, hence it is called as chintya other one is Achintya. It is told that due to sahaja dravya swabhava. i.e., Yuktipratipadya but not Buddhigamya. Swabhava is Achintya hence prabhava also dravya- swabhavagata hence that is Achintya. But it can not be considered under the base of karyakaranabhava action of the Dravyagata rasadi padartha’s will be changing because of prabhava and cause of this variation can not be predicted hence it is Achintya.
Prabhava as Achintya (unpredictable) generally from the constituents of a Dravya. It is also told the virya as Achintya and chintya. The ‘Achintya virya’ is considered as prabhava in Ayurveda.
Prabhava can be explained through the concept of ‘Achintya virya’ Prabhava janya karma is Achintya (unpredictable) and unquestionable.
On the basis of Panchabhoutika composition dravya are divided into 2 groups-
- Samanya pratyarabdha dravya
- Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya
- Samanya pratyarabdha dravya are which exhibit structure related pharmacological activities and therapeutic effects.
- Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya are which do not have structural similarity among the constituents.
There is another classification:
- Prakritisama samaveta
- Vikrit vishama samaveta
Basically, there is no difference between samanya prathyarabdha dravya and prakritisama samveta dravya but vikriti vishama samaveta differs from vichitra prathyarabdha dravyas. Vikriti vishama samaveta dravya will have similarity among the constituents but exhibits the special therapeutic effect independent of constituents. Thus prabhava may be tentatively divided into two categories.
- Vikriti- vishama samaveta: structurally similar but functionally dissimilar
- Vichitra pratyarabdha: structurally dissimilar but functionally similar.
EXAMPLES FOR VICHITRA-PRATYARABDHA DRAVYA:
Ushna, virya rachana
|8||Madya||Vichitra prathyarabdha||Katu vipaka||Pitta shamaka|
|9||Vasa||Vichitra prathyarabdha||Ushna virya||Agni sadana|
|10||Phanitha||Vichitra prathyarabdha||Guru, snigdha ushna||Vatakara|
|Katu, vipaka, ushna virya|
Katu, vipaka ushna virya
EXAMPLES FOR VIKRITI-VISHAMA SAMAVETA:
|1||Mahat Panchamula||Madhura, kashaya, Tiktha||Ushna|
|2||Anupa mamsa||Madhura, kashaya, Tiktha||Ushna|
Other examples of Prabhava in Ayurveda
- Mani dharana :Diamond which is a C5- isotope emits certain radiations which may help in various disease condition including cancer.
- Pumsavana karma: Human foetus is bisexual till 2-3 months of Intra-uterine life. Though sex is genetically predictable a substance called “ Differentiator” is finally deciding the sex of the human foetus before the third month.
- Virechanopaga: These are the prodrugs and analogues prodrugs are used to improve pharmacological or biological properties. Analogies are used to increase potency and to achieve specificity of action.
- Ubhaya bhagahara: The dosage of virechana dravyas and vamana dravyas is different therefore their actions, emesis and purgation are dose dependent.
- Bhallataka: When Bhallataka applied externally produces blisters because of its ushna virya. Same results virya subsides the Kapha and also results in Rasayana property, when Bhallataka is applied or used internally. The former utility is the examples of Nipatha or Adhishava and the later utility is the examples of Adhivasha. The invisible effects which are the outcome of Nipata might have been quoted as Achintya virya or prabhava.
- Kshira and grita are shamana pratyarabdha dravyas but the kshira reduces appetite while the gruta is an appetiser.
- Loshuna which has katu rasa, snigdha, guru guna, katu vipaka, it acts as kaphavatahara instead of increasing it.
- Raktashali and yavaka have similar properties but the former is Doshahara while the later is Doshavardhaka.
- Shirisha etc. acts as antidotes.
- Sometimes exposing the individual suffering from poisoning to the antidote. May yield a good result.
Prabhava janya karma
Prabhavajanya karma is of 3 types.
- Dravya prabhava: Drug action independent of the constitution. Example- Some of the drugs which are Dosha prashamana, dhatu pradushana, swastahitha.
- Guna prabhava : Drug action depends on upon the constituents.
- Dravya-guna prabhava: Drug action depending upon the Dravya as well as guna.
The following actions are exhibited through Prabhava.
- Agadiya karma ( antidote activity)- eg- Shirisha.
- Virechana karma ( Purgative property)- eg- Danthi
- Rakshoghna karma ( Antimicrobial property)- eg- Guggulu, jatamamsi
- Manasa karma (Psychological activity)- eg- Kushta, Raktachitraka
- Bhowtika karma ( Physical activity).
Prabhava – Acc. to modern pharmacology
According to Modern Pharmacology Prabhava can be explained in following ways-
Prabhava is considered as a non-specific activity of drugs. There are many pharmacological properties mentioned in Modern pharmacology which results in non-specific activity. Usually, it is believed that drugs with similar chemical structure will have similar pharmacological actions. But it is not possible to predict their activity on the basis of chemical structure alone.
Sometimes drugs with similar chemical structure may have entirely different actions. Exapmle- Morphine and papaverine are structurally similar but their pharmacological action is different, the former is narcotic and CNS depressant while the later is non-narcotic and muscle relaxant. There are certain drugs like phenobarbitone chloral hydrate paraldehyde etc, which are structurally different but all are CNS depressants.
In pharmacology, the drug activity can be classified as
- Structurally non-specific
- Structurally specific
- Structurally Non- specific: This activity is dependent on physical properties like solubility partition coefficients and vapour pressure and not on the presence or absence of some chemical group. Substances such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols amides, ethers, ketones & chlorinated hydrocarbons exhibit narcotic activity and potency of each substance is related to its partition coefficient structurally non-specific action results from the accumulation of a drug in some vital part of a cell with lipid characteristics.
- Structurally specific: This activity is dependent upon the factors such as the presence or absence of certain functional groups, intra-molecular distance and shape of the molecule.
Activity is not easily correlated with any physical property and small changes in structure often lead to changes in activity structurally specific activity is dependent upon the interaction of the drug with a cellular receptor.
EXAMPLES OF DRAVYAs WHICH HAVE PRABHAVA
|20||Paraseekayavani||Vedanastapana||Madaka and Vedanastapana|
|54||Kebuka||Garbhashaya- sankochaka||Garbhashaya Sankochaka|
Superiority of Prabhava in Ayurveda
The drug action is ultimately controlled by prabhava because that is the special or specific power of drug and it is superior among the drug constituents.
The different factors which highlight the superiority of Achintya virya i.e., Prabhava are as follows
- Achintya ( Unpredictable): Its effects are quite unpredictable and therefore it is considered as superior.
- Daiva pratighata( Supernatural power): It exhibits supernatural power. Hence it is important.
- Visha pratighata ( Antidote effects): It helps in antidote activity irrespective of drug constituents hence it is superior.
- Darshana ( Practically visible) : Its extraordinary effects are practically seen.
- Shravana( praise): Many scholars praise its efficacy and superiority.
- Tulya-rasa-guna vishesha ( non-specificity): it will exhibit very special action independent of other drug constituents.
- Adhbhuta karma ( Magic effects): using precious stones hypnotism hymns chanting etc, will yield some magic effects. Hence prabhava is superior.
- Agama ( classical treatise): All the classical texts highlighted prabhava as the main quality of a dravya.
Therefore, prabhava in Ayurveda is considered as superior among sapta padarthas.
Discussion & Conclusion
Prabhava in Ayurveda is the Non-specific effect of the Dravya. It includes both internal usage and external usage of drugs like Manidharana etc.
Prabhava is the unimaginable effect of the drugs as it happens in case of Mani, Mantra Dravyas. They act entirely different from other padarthas. It is the term i.e., shakthi or prabhava indicates the special or extreme capability of a drug. This is always explained by comparing 2 drugs, one with prabhava and one without.
Normally, the drug action basing on the predominance i.e., if rasa is powerful, the drug action in an accordance with rasa even if the guna, karma etc are different from rasa.
Ex: Guduchi is tikta in taste and in spite of its ushna virya it acts as pittahara ( pitta) which means Rasa, the taste is more active in this drug Brahat panchamoola drugs though have kashaya rasa which increases vata acts as a palliative of vata by virtue of ushna virya. Shunti( dry ginger) has tikta rasa which has to increase vata but it is palliated vata by the virtue of madhura vipaka. The action of a drug which is not corresponding to any of first 4 pharmacological entities like Rasa, guna, virya vipaka is known as shakthi or prabhava, the special effect.
Dravya, guna, karma will have similarity is genesis usually due to panchamahabhootha configuration. This is because similar will produce similarly. However, it need not be compulsory always. When there is equality or similarity there will be sajatheeya karma will occur ( samana prathyarabdha) otherwise vijatheeya karma will occur ( vidhitra prathyarabdha).
If we consider prabhava as karma; karma can not produce another karma so it is not possible to consider prabhava as karma. Hence it is concluded that prabhava is shakthi. It is sadhana for particular karma. Totally it can be considered as Dravya swabhava which is Achintya ( unpredictable) and vishista karma or specific or special action of the Dravya.
Totally the prabhava in Ayurveda, can be considered as specific and special power of the Dravya it is also called a shakthi, Achinthya virya swabhava of the dravya. The prabhava can be considered as the property which is responsible for the specific or peculiar action of dravya which is unpredictable. This is the total concept of prabhava which is nothing but a special or specific property or power of the dravya.
Guna in Ayurveda is one which is located in Dravya (a drug) inherently, acts as a causative agent and devoid of property and action. It means Guna itself has no action but it is a responsible agent in Dravya for such action.
Characteristics of Guna in Ayurveda
|| samavayee tu nischesthaha ||
Here the word nischestha has been intentionally added to the characteristic of Guna in order to differentiate it from Karma. If only the word Samavayee would have been used, it might have been transgressed the characters of Gunas, since Karma also has a non-separable relationship to Dravyas and resides in Dravyas.
Dravya sustains Guna, Karma, but Guna can’t sustain Guna and Karma. Karma also resides in Dravya and it is a non-essential cause as well. Yet, it is the cause of aggregation and segregation at the same time.
The author of text “Rasa vaisheshika” describes Gunas as “ Vishwa lakshana Gunah”. As these are responsible for the presence of various characteristics of Padarthas.
Gunas acts as a medium for understanding the peculiarities of Dravyas. It is an acceptable principle that every Guna has a definite action a single Dravya may have many Gunas and single specific Guna may be present in many Dravyas.
Classification of Gunas
Guna in Ayurveda is classified mainly into three types i.e., vaisheshika Guna, Samanya Gunas, and Atma Gunas. The Vaisheshika Gunas are- a) Shabda; b) Sparsha; c) Roopa; d) Rasa; e) Gandha.
The Samanya Gunas (general Ayurvedic properties of material/ object) are 30 in number. They are divided into Guruvadhi and Paradi Guna.
|Guruvadi Guna||Paradi Guna|
Atma Gunas are 6 in number. They are- Ichchha, Dwesh, Sukha, Dukha, Prayatna and Buddhi. In total 41 Gunas are considered.
Significance of Guna
The references for Guna in Ayurveda are available in all the classics.
In the definition of sharira- “dosha dhatu mala mulam he shariram”, three factors dosha, dhatu and mala are exhibited through Gunas.
In chikitsa aspects samanya vishesha siddhantha, samanya Guna will increases the dhatus etc. and Vishesha Gunas will decreases the dhatus etc.
Importance of Guna
The importance of Guna in Ayurveda may be summed up as below-
- Rasabibhavata :- Actions of rasa that are present in Dravya are super seated by Guna.
- Rasanugraha :- The Gunas of Dravyas are cohesive to rasas only.
- Vipakakarantvata :- The vipaka super seats the rasas, but this vipaka is transformed mainly due to the Gunas.
- Sankyabahulyata :- In number also it is more.
- Prayogabahulyata :- In the aspect of usage the Gunas are widely used in clinical application.
- Karmabahulyata :- Guna is associated with and helps to bring action in various manner.
- Upadesha :- Many of granthas (Indian scriptures) explained about Gunas.
- Apadeshath :- It means description while describing an object we mentions its Gunas only.
- Anumanat :- The inference is also by Gunas
Doshas and its Gunas
Tridosha viz. Vata, Pitta and Kapha also have Guna (physical properties). See below-
- Vata dosha :- ruksha , laghu, sheeta, khara, sukshma, chala.
- Pitta dosha :- sneha, tikshna, ushna,laghu, visra, sara, drava.
- Kapha dosha :- snigdha, sheeta, guru, manda, slakshana, sandra, mridu.
This is all about Guna in Ayurveda in brief.
Read: Shada Padartha & Superiority Concept in Ayurveda
The word Veerya is derived from ‘veer’ that means a dynamic property of a substance which brings about the action. Veerya in Ayurveda is a unique concept which is very important to understand the pharmacodynamics and action of a drug.
The actions of Rasa are already described in my previous posts, the remaining actions are due to Veerya.
Characteristics of Veerya in Ayurveda
It is observed that drugs which effectively act on Dosha, Dhatu and Mala at a particular time become ineffective after sometimes. This is so because the potency of a substances or the Veerya which is responsible for the effective action, is lost when old.
For this reason, all Samhitas (Ayurvedic classics) advise to use fresh Dravyas instead of old.
A drug works through Veerya. If its Veerya gets depleted due to the effect of adverse conditions, it looses its dynamic potency because of which it becomes ineffective. Action only takes place if the drug possesses Veerya, if it doesn’t, actions are not seen.
Different opinions exists regarding the form of Veerya. Some ancient Acharya mentions Veerya as a substances, some as Guna and Karma. Some describes Veerya as a dynamic potency and therefore consider it as a part of Guna. Modern scholars consider Veerya as ‘active principle’ and hence a part of special substances.
Types of Veerya
Veeryas are mainly divided into two types based on Charaka Samhita and Vagbhatta Samhita (Ashtangahridayam). i.e.,
- Numerable (Vagbhata)
⇒ Astavidha Veerya (8 types of Veerya)- Guru, Laghu, Sheeta, Ushna, Snigdha, Ruksha, Mridu, Tikshna
⇒ Dvividha Veerya (2 types of Veerya)- Sheeta, Ushna
Dvividha Veerya and its Mahabhoota, Karma/ effect on Dosha
|Veerya||Mahabhootha||Karma||Karma on dosha|
|Sheeta||Prithvi+ Jala||Pleasurable, stabilizing, cleaning,life giving||Pitta shamaka, Kapha- Vata vardhaka|
|Ushna||Agni||Burning, fainting, loss of senses, sweating, emesis, purgation||Vata- Kapha shamaka, Pitta vardhaka|
Asthavidha Veerya and its Mahabhoota, Karma/ effect on dosha
|Veerya||Mahabhootha||Karma||Effect on dosha|
|Sheeta||Prithvi + Jala||Pleasurable, stabilizing, cleaning,life giving, heavy||Pitta shamaka, Kapha- Vata vardhaka|
|Ushna||Agni||Burning, digestion, fainting, loss of senses, sweating and emesis||Vata- Kapha shamaka, Pitta vardhaka|
|Snigdha||Jala||Snehana, restorative, anti aging, aphrodisiac||Vata hara|
|Ruksha||Vayu||Constipative, drying, heating, painful||Vata vardhaka, Kapha shamaka|
|Guru||Agni+ Vayu||Applicative, promotive, aphrodisiac||Vata hara|
|Lagu||Agni+ Vayu||Scrapping, absorption, drying, healing||Kapha hara|
|Mridu||Jala+ Akasha||Blood & muscle promoting||Pitta shamaka|
|Tikshna||Agni||Collective, aspiration, drying, oozing||Kapha hara|
According to some Acharyas, Vishada replaces the Lagu and Pichchhila replaces Guru Veerya.
Relations between rasa and Veerya
Generally dravyas having Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya rasas are Sheeta Veerya and those having Amla, Lavana and Katu rasa, are Ushna Veerya. All these rasas which are related to Agni mahabhoota are Ushna Veerya, and rest are Sheeta Veerya. But there is a exception, even though Rasa is useful in arriving at an inference about Veerya , Vipaka, Guna. So it is wrong to decide the Veerya.
Importance of Veerya in Ayurveda
- Drug contains different entities like Rasa, Veerya, Vipaka etc. among all these Veerya is predominant because it brings about action of Dravya.
- Only Dravyas which are predominant in Veerya are used in Chikitsa (treatment/ therapeutic purpose).
- Action of Dravya is due to Veerya.
- Veerya supersedes Rasa, Vipaka and Guna, therefore even when Rasa, Vipaka and Guna of a Dravya act in accordance with each other. Veerya brings about total action difference.
Veerya is mentioned as extremely importance even by Aptavachas in literatures.
Read: Shada Padartha & Superiority Concept in Ayurveda
The word Vipaka in Ayurveda is originated from “vi-puch” (वि-पच) which means pachana. The synonyms are parinama, durgati, swadhu, nayati and ayu.
Transformation of rasas after food is digested completely in the koshtanga (digestive system) by the help of Jatharagni (digestive fire) is called vipaka. When Ahara (ingested food) undergo digestion the Ahara rasa (chyle) is divided into Sara bhaga (useful parts/ nutrients) and Kitta bhaga (waste).
Classification of vipaka in Ayurveda:
Vipaka is classified into 2 types- a) Prapaka; b) Vipaka.
Prapaka :- It is the first stage of digestion. Here the Ahara (food) undergoes Paka (digestion) in Koshthanga levels (alimentary canal), nourishes the Tridoshas (Ayurvedic humour- Vata, Pitta and Kapha) respectively. It is also called Awasthapaka. It is of three types-
i). Madhura avastha paka: It takes place from mouth to Amashaya (stomach) and nourishes Kapha dosha.
ii). Amla avastha paka: It takes place at Amapakwashaya madhya (between the stomach and large intestine means duodenum and small intestine) and nourishes Pitta dosha.
iii). Katu avastha paka: It takes place at Pakwashya (large intestine) and nourishes Vata dosha.
Sushruta mentioned two types of prapaka i.e, Guru prapaka which does kapha vardhana (nourishes and increases Kapha) and Vata Pitta shamana (pacify) and second Laghu prapaka which does Vata Pitta vardhana and Kapha shamana.
Vipaka :- It is done by bhootagni and dhathu agni. It is the final stage of Rasa which nourishes the respective Dosha, Mala and Dhatu by doing Ahara Rasa Paka by its respective Agni.
Vipaka and its Guna and effect on Doshas:
|Vipaka||Guna||Effects on Dosha|
|Madhura||Snigdha, Guru||Kapha vardhaka|
|Amla||Snigdha, Lagu||Pitta vardhaka|
|Katu||Ruksha, Lagu||Vata vardhaka|
Karmas of Vipaka on Dosha, Dhatu and Mala:
|Madhura||Kapaha vardhaka||Shukra vardhaka||Laxative|
|Amla||Pitta vardhka||Shukra nashaka||Laxative|
|Katu||Vata vardhaka||Shukra nashaka||May cause Constipation|
General rule of Vipaka in Ayurveda:
Always Madhura Rasa Dravyas undergo Amla vipaka and katu, tikta and kashaya rasas undergo Katu vipaka. But Maharishi Parashara opines that Madhura, lavana, tikta and kashaya rasas undergo Madhura vipaka, Amla rasa to Amla vipaka and Katu rasa to Katu vipaka.
Perception of vipaka:
Vipaka of the dravya is ascertained by Anumana. When food undergoes vipaka it shows an effect, by this we can infer the vipaka of the food/ drug but in Pratyaksha, it can not be possible to ascertain.
Importance of vipaka:
Vipaka is one in which the Ahara (food) or Aushadhi (medicinal drugs) will attain the last stage of the homologous stage and nourishes the definite Dosha, Dhatu, Mala etc. respectively.
- Even though it is not possible to see directly we can elicit by inference.
- Even though it is of different Rasa, Guna etc. due to the Vipaka it undergoes to nourish Tridosha specifically by its action.
- It is a micro-digested particle of food and medicine.
- Vipaka is important among all other qualities like Rasa within Dravya, because Guna or dosha of Dravya depend on proper and improper digestion.
Gunas are evolved due to the proper digestion of Dravya by balanced digestive fire and Doshas due to incorrect digestion.
Vipaka is more important because both aggravation and alleviation of Doshas are due to vipaka.
Superiority among Shada Padartha
Shada Padartha is a term given to collectively 6 factors or materials viz. Dravya, Guna, Karma, Rasa, Veerya and Vipaka. Rasa panchaka is a term which includes five factors of dravya i.e., rasa, guna,Veerya, vipaka. These five are always the factors of dravya and these are having inseparable relation with dravya. The actions of these five factors depends on dravya only because these five are the fractions of dravya and some of interrelated while performing the karma.
Among these rasa panchakas Charaka mentioned vipaka as the first because of its wide spread actions over the body. But the recent authers mentioned in the order of rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka, prabhava.
Some are mentioned that rasa is more dominant than guna, guna is dominant than veerya, is this sequence till prabhava, but all these factors reside in dravya only for the propagation of actions of components and dravya is the seat for all these five components. Every matters in the world are studied under the concept of dravya only.
For the fulfillment of treatment in Ayurvedic science the knowledge of dravya is must. So for the knowledge of dravya the knowledge of these five factors is important.
Lastly whatever the opinion about the superiority of these five factors, as per the concern to application. The knowledge of whole five factors carrying equal weight age.
“ Due to its presence and combination the substance acquires a distinct activity that is called Prabhava.”
Prabhava- one which is of beyond to the normal effect even though two dravyas having same rasa, guna, beerya and vipaka, are shown for an definite action but finally it gives different action, this action of difference is due prabhava. This prabhva is also called achintya.
Characteristics of Prabhava:
If both the plants are having same rasa, guna, etc. its karma is different. This is due to the prabhava. For eg: milk and ghee both are sweet and cold but ghee is agni deepana but milk is not. This is due to prabhava.
When dravya, rasa, guna, vipaka cannot explain any effect, then it should be assumed to be attributed by prabhava.
Prabhava is the unique property of dravya which is unconvinced by other properties, its effect is seen but one cannot establish a casual relationship.
By ancient scriptures prabhava is considered as superior one.