Introduction to Research
- Definition of the term research
- Definition of the term anusandhan
- Need of research in the field of Ayurveda
General guidelines and steps in the research process
- Selection of the research problem
- Literature review: different methods (including computer database) with their advantages and limitations
- Defining research problem and formulation of hypothesis
- Defining general and specific objectives
- Research design: observational and interventional, descriptive and analytical, preclinical and clinical, qualitative and quantitative
- Sample design
- Collection of the data
- Analysis of data.
- Generalization and interpretation, evaluation and assessment of hypothesis.
- Ethical aspects related to human and animal experimentation.
- Information about Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) and Animal Ethics Committee (AEC) and their functions. Procedure to obtain clearance from respective committees, including filling up of the consent forms and information sheets and publication ethics.
Preparation of research proposals in different disciplines for submission to funding agencies taking EMR-AYUSH scheme as a model.
Scientific writing and publication skills.
- Familiarization with publication guidelines- Journal specific and CONSORT guidelines.
- Different types of referencing and bibliography.
- Thesis/Dissertation: contents and structure
- Research articles structuring: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussions (IMRAD)
Classical Methods of Research.
- Classical Methods of Research.
- Concept of Pratyakshadi Pramana Pariksha, their types and application for Research in Ayurveda.
- Dravya-, Guna-, Karma-Parikshana Paddhati
- Aushadhi-yog Parikshana Paddhati
- Swastha, Atura Pariksha Paddhati
- Dashvidha Parikshya Bhava
- Tadvidya sambhasha, vadmarga and tantrayukti
Comparison between methods of research in Ayurveda (Pratigya, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya, Nigaman) and contemporary methods in health sciences.
Different fields of Research in Ayurveda
- Fundamental research on concepts of Ayurveda
- Panchamahabhuta and tridosha.
- Concepts of rasa, guna, virya, vipak, prabhav and karma
- Concept of prakriti-saradi bhava, ojas, srotas, agni, aam and koshtha.
Introduction to manuscriptology: Definition and scope. Collection, conservation, cataloguing.
Data mining techniques, searching methods for new literature; search of new concepts in the available literature. Methods for searching internal and external evidences about authors, concepts and development of particular body of knowledge.
Drug Research (Laboratory-based)- Basic knowledge of the following:
Drug sources: plant, animal and mineral. Methods of drug identification.
Quality control and standardization aspects: Basic knowledge of Pharmacopoeial standards and parameters as set by Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.
Information on WHO guidelines for standardization of herbal preparations. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP).
- Safety aspects: Protocols for assessing acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity studies. Familiarization with AYUSH guidelines (Rule 170), CDCSO and OECD guidelines.
- Introduction to latest Trends in Drug Discovery and Drug Development
-Brief information on the traditional drug discovery process
-Brief information on the latest trends in the Drug Discovery process through employment of rational approach techniques; anti-sense approach, use of micro and macro-arrays, cell culture based assays, use of concepts of systems biology and network physiology
-Brief introduction to the process of Drug development
- Clinical research:
Introduction to Clinical Research Methodology identifying the priority areas of Ayurveda
Basic knowledge of the following:-
Observational and Interventional studies
Descriptive & Analytical studies
Longitudinal & Cross sectional studies
Prospective & Retrospectives studies
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) & their types
Single-case design, case control studies, ethnographic studies, black box design, cross-over design, factorial design.
Errors and bias in research.
New concepts in clinical trial- Adaptive clinical trials/ Good clinical practices (GCP)
Phases of Clinical studies: 0,1,2,3, and 4.
Survey studies –
Methodology, types, utility and analysis of Qualitative Research methods. Concepts of in-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion.
- Pharmacovigilance for ASU drugs. Need, scope and aims & objectives. National Pharmacovigilance Programme for ASU drugs.
- Introduction to bioinformatics, scope of bioinformatics, role of computers in biology. Introduction to Database- Pub med, Medlar and Scopus. Accession of databases.