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Koshamra – Schleichera oleosa

Introduction of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

 

Koshamra Schleichera oleosaKoshamra Schleichera oleosa is a large deciduous tree commonly found in India. Seed oil of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa also known as Kusum Oil is used in Ayurveda for various skin ailments. Koshamra is also spelled as Kosamra.

  • Botanical Name of Koshamra is Schleichera oleosa.
  • Family Name of Koshamra is Sapindaceae.

Literary Review of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa –

  • Sushruta quoted Koshamra Schleichera oleosa among Nyagrodhadi gana and Amla Varga.
  • Charaka mentioned it under Amla skanda.
  • Vagbhatta mentioned it under Nyagrodhadi gana.

Synonyms Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is also known by following names botanically and in Ayurveda –

  • Cussambium oleosum O.Kuntze
  • Melicocca trijuga Juss.
  • Pistacia oleosa Lour.
  • Schleichera trijuga Willd.
  • Laksha vriksha
  • Sukoshaka
  • Koshamra – This fruit is sour like mango but contain more fiber.
  • Surataka
  • Jatudruma
  • Koshamraka
  • Jantu Vriksha
  • Kshudra Maukuli

Ayurvedic Categorization of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is categorized as follows in according to Ayurvedic classics –

  • Charaka Samhita – Amla Skantha
  • Sushruta Samhita – Nyagrodadi gana, Amla varga
  • Ashtanga Hridayam (vagbhatta) – Nyagrodadi gana

Vernacular Names (Names in different languages) of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • English – Ceylon oak, gum lac tree, Honey tree
  • Hindi – Koshamba, Kusum, Kusuma, Kosam
  • Kannada – Jendal chakot
  • Malayalam – Puvam
  • Marathi – Kochan, Kosemb, Kusumb, peduman
  • Tamil – Pumarat
  • Telugu – Adavi Mamidi
  • Gujarati – Kosumb, Kossame
  • Punjabi – Gausam, Jamoa, Kussumb

Systemic Classification of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Spermatophyta
  • Division – Angiospermae
  • Class – Dicotyledone
  • Subclass – Polypetalae
  • Order – Disciflorae
  • Family – Sapindaceae
  • Genus – Schleichera
  • Species – Trijuga or oleosa

Useful Parts of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Stem bark
  • Seed
  • Fruit
  • Oil

Chemical Constituents of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Seed : Synogenatica glucosida, phenoles.

Bark : Betulin, Lupeol, β-sitosterol, Scapoletin, 9.4% tannin in its watery extract.

Indications of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Vrana (external ulcers or wounds)
  • Kushtha (skin diseases)
  • Shotha (inflammatory conditions)
  • Raktta pitta (bleeding disorders)
  • Krimi (worm infestation)
  • Pama roga (a skin disease)
  • Kati shoola (lower backache)

Ayurvedic Properties of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Rasa – Amla
  • Guna- Guru
  • Virya – Ushna
  • Vipaka -Katu
  • Doshagnata – Vatashamaka
  • Karma – Increase Kapha and Pitta, Ruchya

Properties of fruit – Ushna veerya, Grahi, Vatanashaka, Kushthaghna.

Properties of ripen fruit – Agnideepak (appetiser), ruchikaraka, Ushna and kapha vata hara.

Properties of fruit pulp – Kesha vardhaka (good for hairs), Vata nashaka, Snigdha, Kapha vardhaka

Therapeutic Uses of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

  • Seed oil (kusum oil) of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is efficacious in alopecia, acne, itching and used for massage in rheumatism.
  • In Vrana – Kalaya leaves and Koshamra seed coat are made in to paste and applied locally in wounds.
  • In vata vriddhi roga : Oil obtained from the seed of Kosamra, tilvaka and eranda shall be used for one month for massage.
  • Stem bark powder of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is applied in kushta and tvak roga (skin diseases).
  • In  Pamaroga (a skin disease) – Churna along with oil is applied.
  • In Kati shoola (lower back pain) – Lepa is done with tvaka churna (bark powder).
  • Seed powder of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is applied over the wounds in animals to remove germs.
  • Vishama jvara – Stem bark of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa is given in the form of powder or decoction.
  • Application of seed oil of kusum (Koshamra Schleichera oleosa) once a day in scalp is good for hair growth.

Dosage of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Decoction – 50 to 100 ml

Powder – 1 to 3 gm

Pharmaceutical Preparations of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Kshara agada

Nyagrodhadi Kashayam

Photographs of Koshamra Schleichera oleosa – 

Click on image to zoom.

Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa Koshamra Schleichera oleosa

(Image source – collectingtokens, theferns.info)

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