Introduction of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- Botanical Name of Eranda is Ricinus communis.
- Family name of Eranda is Euphorbiaceae.
Eranda is commonly found medicinal with wide use as purgative/ laxative and for Vata disorders (neuro-muscular). The root, leaves, flowers, root bark and seeds, almost whole plant is useful for curing many ailments. Eranda is a ever green glabrous shrub, leaves are palmatly 7-many lobed, oblong to lenear, acute or acuminate. There are 2 type of Eranda plant, red type (Rakta Eranda) and white type (Shweta Eranda). The oil cake is good manure. Warmed castor oil on being applied relieves joint pains. The non medicinal purpose of oil is used in break fluids in automobile industry.
Literary Review of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- Oil obtained from seeds and roots of eranda have been used medicinally by Hindus from a very remote period and is mentioned by Sushruta Samhita. It is Dutt, 1877 who 1st time mentioned in his Materia Medica of the Hindus that the roots of Ricinus communis and the oil obtained from the seeds have been used in medicine by the Hindus from a very remote period. They are mentioned by Sushruta.
- The two varieties of the plant are referred on the Sushrutha samhitha, under their common names as Rakta eranda and shweta eranda. This plant is also mentioned in Charaka and in Nighantus like Dhanvanthari Nighantu, Madana pala Nighantu, Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Adarsha Nighantu, Bhavaprakasha Nighantu etc.
Types of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- Rakta Eranda (Red Variety)
- Shweta Eranda (White Variety)
Synonyms of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
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Ganas (Ayurvedic Categorisations) of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- According to Charaka – Bhedaniya, Swedopaga, Angamarda Prashamana, Madhura Skandha.
- According to Sushrua – Vidarigandhadi, Vata Samshamana, Adhobhaga hara.
Vernacular Name of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
Eranda is known differently in different language and locale. Followings are various names of Eranda-
- Sanskrit – Erandah, Rubukah, urubukah, Tribijah, Hastikarnakah, Gaja karnakah, Maha patrab, Gandharva hasta, Panchanguli, Shweteranda, Chitra bija, Vatari, Rubu, Chitraka, Uttana patraka.
- Assamese – Eri
- Bengali – Bherenda, Rehri, Bhaerand, Bherenj
- Bombay – Erendi, Gab
- Gujarati – Diveligo, Diveli Erandi, Erandah, Divelo.Erandioh, Erandoh, Rendi
- Hindi – Arand, Arend, Erend, Rendi, Erandah, Andih, Renda Erandih, Jaada
- Kannada – Haralu, Harlu, Manda, Oudla.
- Malayalam – Avanakku, Chittamanakku.
- Marathi – Erandi, Yarandicha, Erandah, Rendi.
- Nepali – Areta , Alha, Orer.
- Odia – Gab.
- Punjabi – Aneru, Arand, Arind.
- Rajasthani – Edia, Arend.
- Tamil – Amanakkam, Sittamunuk, Kattai muthu, Chittamant.
- Telugu – Amadom, Amdi, Eranudapu, Erandama, Amudamu, Erandamu, Amudamuchettu.
- Arabic – Khriva, khriba.
- Egyptian – Kiki.
- English – Castor oil plant, castor.
- Persian – Ved Anjir.
Systemic Classification of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- Kingdom – Plantae
- Subkingdom – Phenerogamae
- Division – Angiospermae
- Class – Dicotyledonae
- Sub class – Archichlamydae
- Family – Euphorbiaceae
- Genus – Ricinus
- Species – Communis
Useful Parts of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- Root, leaves, fruit, seed, flower and oil.
Ayurvedic Properties of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- Rasa – Madhura, Katu, Tikta
- Guna – Snigdha, Tikshna, Sukshma, Guru
- Virya – Ushna
- Vipaka – Madhura
- Doshagnatha – Kapha Vata Shamaka, Pitta Vardhaka
Chemical Constituents of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
Eranda contains fixed oil, Recin, ricinine, glyseroids, ricinolic acids, having purgative actions, stearic acid, hydroxy stearic acid, lipids, phosphatides, arachidic, chlorogenic, oleic, palmitic, hexa decanoic hydrocyanic and uric acids.
Actions of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
Vedana sthapana, shoola hara, Angamarda prashamana, deepana, Bhedana, Rechana, Krimighna, hridya, shotha hara, vrishya, stanya janana, shukra shodhana, garbhashaya shodhana, vishaghna, kustaghna, sweda janana, jwaraghna, vataghna, udara rogaghna, Ama vataghna, Vataraktaghna, Udavartaghna, gulmaghna, Arshagna, Arshaghna, Vata Abhishyanda nashana, naktandhya nashana, sleepadaghna, karna shoolaghna, yanishoolagna, hamalaghna, parshwa shoolaghna, kasta baddata nashana, pleehagna, basti shoolaghna, katishoolaghna, kasaghna, swasaghna, Ashmarighna, Pramehaghna, Anahaghna, sthoulyaghna, vranaghna, mutra krichha har etc.
Indications of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
Root bark has emetic and purgative action and cures lumbago skin diseases, dyspnoea, hydrocele, flatulence, piles, cough, head ache, leprosy, arthritis, renal calculus, dysuria, fever, swelling, mental diseases.
Eranda Seeds cure hepatitis. Tender leaves allay pain in the urinary bladder.
The roots of Eranda are sweet, acrid, astrigent, thermogenic, carmative, purgative, anti-helmintic, emollient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, galactagogue, sudorific and expectorant. It also cures gulma, constipation, inflammations, fever, ascitis, strangury, bronchities, cough, leprosy, skin diseases, vitiated conditions of vata, colic, tail bone pain and lumbago.
Leaves are diuretic, anti-helmintic, galactagogue and cures burns, vitiated conditions of Vata like rheumatoid arthritis, urodynia and musculo skeletal pain. Leaves externally applied to boils and sores in the farm of poultis.
Flowers cures urodynia and glandular tumors.
Oil obtained from seeds is slightly bitter, acrid, sweet, antipyretic, thermogenic and purgative.
Dosage of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
Root powder – 10 – 20 gm
Purified Seed – 2-5 seeds.
Oil – 5 – 20 ml.
Purification of Eranda seeds –
For purification of Eranda Seeds fomentation (in Dola Yantra) is done in coconut water for 3 hours and washed with water and dried under sunshine.
Therapeutic Uses of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- A poultice of the crushed seeds is used to reduce gouty and rheumatic swelling, inflammation of the breasts of women during lactation. Leaves have similar property but in lesser degree.
- The root bark is used as a purgative.
- Roots are administered in the form of a decoction (kwatha) for lumbago and allied complaints. It is also applied in the form of a paste for tooth ache. Root bark is reported to be a strong purgative.
- Leaves are also used in the form of a poultice for fomentation on sores, boils and swellings.
- Leaves coated with oil and warmed are commonly applied over the abdomen to give relief in flatulence in children.
- Leaves are considered as galactogogue and are applied as poultice over the breasts or taken internally in the form of juice. An infusion of the leaves is used for stomach ache.
- Crushed leaves are said to give relief in caries & are applied over guinea warm to extract the warm.
- Castor oil is often given orally. It is also used as an abortifaciant & ricinolic acid present is used in contraceptive jellies & creams.
- It is also applied externally as emollient in seborrhic dermatitis and other cutaneous infections.
- Warmed castor oil is applied and gently massaged over joints to relieve pain.
- Seeds are antidote for scorpion and fish poisoning.
- Leaves are applied to the head to get relief from headache.
- Decoction of the roots with other drugs is given in various conditions of nervine disorders, joints and muscular disorders.
- Paste of the seeds first boiled in milk and water and then given orally in case of Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis), Gridhrasi (sciatica) and Vatarakta (gout).
- In fever along with pravahika (diarrhea), Eranda moola (roots) is boiled in milk and reduced to one fourth to make its decoction is used internally.
- In Shoola (abdominal colic), decoction made up of Eranda mula and shunti is prepared and hingu, souvarchala lavana is added. This decoction is given orally.
- In Arsha (piles), eranda tail along with triphala kwathais used orally.
Pharmaceutical Preparations of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
- Eranda paka
- Eranda Muladi kwatha
- Eranda Saptaka kwatha
- Rasna Erandadi kwatha
- Erandadi kwatha
- Gandharva hastadi erandam tail
- Eranda tail
Adulterants of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
Castor oil is some times adulterated with rosin oil, blown oils and other oils like ground nut, coconut oil, sesame oil, Cotton seed oil and poppy seed oils. Commercial oils such as ground nut, sesame and linseed seeds are some times adulterated with the comparatively cheaper castor oil, has been occasionally found as an adulterant in essential oils such as those of vetiver, clove, eucalyptus and lemon.
Photographs of Eranda – Ricinus communis –
(Image Source – Theferns.info)