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Lodhra – Symplocos racemosa

Lodhra Symplocos racemosa

Introduction of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Botanical Name of Lodhra is- Symplocos racemosa.
  • The family of Lodhra is- Symplocaceae.

Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa) is a medium tree which grows up to 6 meters. It’s bark is dark grey in colour and rough. It evolved with Kasaya and Tikta Rasa, Laghu and Ruksha Guna, Shita Virya, Katu Vipaka, and Kapha Pittaghana in action. Here we will discuss valuable information regarding the drug, its identification, distribution, morphology, various synonyms, characters and properties.

 

Literary View of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Vedic period- In Rigveda, Lodhra is described as Lodra.

Samhita-

  • Charaka described this tree with name Rodhra only twice (C.S.Su ¾ and 9).  But he extensively quoted Lodhra for chhardi effect and sandhana effects.
  • Sushrutha and Vagbhatta have quoted the two varieties of Rodra (Rodra Yuggma and Rodradveya). Red variety termed as Rodhraka and white variety as Suta Rodhra. (S.S.Ci 17 and 22, A.H.Su. 15/41 and A.H.Ci 8/109).
  • Vagbhatta specifically indicated the white variety of Rodhra for the treatment of eye diseases (A.H.Ut 34/4).

Nighantu-

  • In Dhanwantari Nighantu, Lodhra is mentioned for treatment of shotha, rakta shrava, atisar,  raktapitta.
  • In Raja Nighantu, Lodhra is mentioned under pippalayadi varga, synonyms mentioned are rodhra, thirada, savara.
  • Acc. to Priya Nighantu, Lodhra is useful in rakta shrava and atisar.
  • Bhava Prakash Nighantu mentioned Lodhra under haritakyadi varga and used in rakta shrava and atisar.

Modern Books- 

  • Handbook of Medicinal plants (S. K. Bhattacharjee)- mentioned that Lodhra is used to treat excessive bleeding during menstruation, and also used to cure digestive disorders.
  • Indian Medicinal plants (Kiritikar K.R.)- Lodhra is used in the treatment of snake bite and scorpion sting.
  • Indian plants and drugs (Nadkarni)- The bark of the tree is used in dyeing red. It is found to contain alkaloids viz. Loturine, collaturne and kinovine.

Synonyms of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Kramuka- It is very astringent in taste.
  • Galvaha- Its taste produces tears.
  • Tireda- It cures diseases like jwara, sotha
  • Tilvaka-It produces smoothness to different organs of the body.
  • Rodhra- It stops bleeding.
  • Marjana- It cleans the body.
  • Lakshapradhan- Its yields Lakh (a gum resin).

Gana (Classical Categorisation) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Charaka- Shonitasthapana, Sandhaniya, Purisha Sangrahaniya, Kashaya Skandha.
  • Sushruta- Lodhradi, Nyagrodhadi.
  • Vagbhatta- Rodhradi, Nyagrodhadi.
  • Priya Nighantu- Haritakyadi Varga.
  • Raja Nighantu- Pippalayadi Varga.

Varieties of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

There are two varieties of Lodhra- Savara Lodhra and Pattika Lodhra. The second variety is described with synonyms like Krimka, Jirna, Brihat parna, Laksha, Prasadana, Tivita, Marjana, and Pattika. Thakurji reported Savara Lodhra as Symplocos racemose roxb and Pattika Lodhra as Symplocos crataegoids. Prof. P.V Sharma described about another species of Symplocos viz. Symplocos laurina,  Symplocos paniculata and Symplocos summuntia are also used under the name Lodhra.

Vernacular Names of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Hindi- Lodhra
  • Bengali- Lodhra
  • Marathi- Lodhra
  • English- Symplocos Tree (Lodh Tree)
  • Telugu- Lodduga
  • Tamil- Bellilotti
  • Gujarathi- Lodhara
  • Kannada- Pachettu
  • Malayalam- Pachotti
  • Oriya- Lodho

Prayojya Anga (Parts used) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Tvak- Stem bark (bark is used mostly)
  • Flower

Chemical Constituents of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Bark contains Loutrine-0.06%, Colloturine-0.02%, Loturidine.
  • Bark ash contain-18%(soda bicarb), Quinovine.

Ayrvedic Properties of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • RASA- Kashaya, Tikta
  • GUNA- Laghu, Ruksha
  • VIRYA- Sheeta
  • VIPAKA- Katu
  • DOSHAGHNATA- Kapha Pittaghna

Karma (Actions) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Grahee, Chakshushya, Kapha- Pittaghna, Garbhashaya shotha, Shravahara, Stambhana, Rakta stambhana, Sothahara, Kushthaghna, Sankochaka, Kaphaghna, Vishaghna, Kandughna.

Indications of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

Pradara, Rakta pitta, Pravahika, Atisara, Netra roga, Jwara, Shotha, Kustha, Shwet pradara, Haemorrhage, Acne, Pimples, Leucorrhea, Vrana, Udara roga, Mukha Paka, Swarabheda, Yakrit Vikhara.

Therapeutic Uses of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • PRADARA- Bark of Lodhra is given orally with the decoction of Nyagradha (banyan tree) bark.
  • PRAVAHIKA- Bark paste is administered.
  • KUSHTHA- Bark paste is used externally.
  • LEUCORRHOEA- Paste of Lodhra with a decoction of Nyagradha bark (banyan tree) is recommended. (C.H-25\67-68)
  • NETRA ROGA- Useful for eye diseases.
  • VRANA- The paste is prepared with Lodhra and Nyagradha.
  • TARUNYA PIDIKA- The paste of Lodhra and sphatika should be applied in acne.
  • HAEMORRHAGE- Lodhra powder is recommended for external application which acts as a haemostatic remedy.

The dosage of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa – 

  • Bark Powder-  1- 5 gm
  • Lodhrasava- 10- 15 ml
  • Kwatha- 20- 60 ml

Vishishtha Yoga (Pharmaceutical Preparations) of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa 

  • Lodhrasava
  • Lodhradi Kwatha
  • Lodhradi Choorna

Photographs of Lodhra Symplocos racemosa 

The high-quality images may found at these links: 1 2 3 )

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